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Automotive Sensor Simulation

Sensors are electromechanical devices that use magnetic
field for sensing
Velocity sensors for antilock brakes and stability control
Position sensors for static seat location
Eddy current sensors for flaw detection

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Automotive Sensor Simulation

  1. 1. 1 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Sensors for Automotive Applications Mark Christini Zed (Zhangjun) Tang
  2. 2. 2 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Introduction Hall Sensor Variable Reluctance Sensor Magneto-resistive Sensor Flux Gate Sensor Eddy Current Sensor Summary Contents
  3. 3. 3 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Sensors are electromechanical devices that use magnetic field for sensing Velocity sensors for antilock brakes and stability control Position sensors for static seat location Eddy current sensors for flaw detection Introduction
  4. 4. 4 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Use specific magnetic solvers to understand the basic physics of the sensor • Vary Geometry, Material Properties, Environmental Conditions • Understand Key Factors that most Significantly affect Performance – Statistical, Monte Carlo, Sensitivity, Design of Experiments • Use Optimization Tools to Refine Design – Quasi-Newton, Genetic, Pattern Search • Create a Model of the Sensor for use in System Simulation Component Analysis
  5. 5. 5 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Use System Simulation to understand the Sensor’s impact on the whole system • Design a robust sensor using appropriate technology • Don’t Over-Design unnecessarily • Consider Variations System Analysis
  6. 6. 6 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential For speed control Determine flux passing through 3D Hall effect sensor Rotate sensor and vary gap Hall Effect Sensor Gap between pole piece and target wheel Rotate about the Z axis through one half of a tooth, or 30 degrees. Permanent magnet Pole piece Hall sensors IC chip
  7. 7. 7 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Flux in Hall effect sensor can be determined by integrating B(normal) on a surface Hall Effect Sensor Field in permanent magnet & pole piece Field in IC and Hall sensor
  8. 8. 8 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Hall Effect Sensor – Meshing Tips Sensor Air Box Required for Proper Meshing Target Air Box Required for Proper Meshing
  9. 9. 9 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Differential Hall Sensor Gap between pole piece and target wheel Target Wheel Permanent Magnet PolePiece Cell Top Cell Bot Hall IC 21 cell_face aveavediff xave dAB jjj j -= = ò
  10. 10. 10 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Average top and bottom flux vs. angle Spacing = 1, 2, and 3mm Hall Sensor - Parametric Results
  11. 11. 11 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Hall Sensor - Simplorer Simulation ICA: EMSSLink1.GAP := 3 EQU Difference := FLUXM2.FLUX - FLUXM1.FLUX FLX FLUXM1 FLX FLUXM2CONST CONST2 Difference COMP1 ECE EMSSLink1 ROT ROT_V ω + Maxwell 3D LinkMaxwell 3D Link
  12. 12. 12 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Spacing = 3mm Differential signal is too small Hall Sensor - System Simulation 0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00 Time [ms] 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 Flux[vs] 0.0000 0.0010 0.0020 0.0030 0.0040 0.0050 Y2 Curve Info Y Axis FLUXM1.FLUX TR Y1 FLUXM2.FLUX TR Y1 Difference TR Y2 COMP1.VAL TR Y2
  13. 13. 13 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Spacing = 1mm Differential signal is detected Hall Sensor - System Simulation 0.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00 600.00 Time [ms] 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.10 0.13 0.14 Flux[vs] 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.20 0.21 Y2 Curve Info Y Axis FLUXM1.FLUX TR Y1 FLUXM2.FLUX TR Y1 Difference TR Y2 COMP1.VAL TR Y2
  14. 14. 14 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential • For speed control by determining output voltage • Consider varying flux linkage vs. time due to fringing, nonlinear materials, and speed of rotation Variable Reluctance Sensor Permanent magnet Coil Pole piece
  15. 15. 15 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Variable Reluctance Sensor
  16. 16. 16 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Variable Reluctance Sensor Finite element model (equivalent circuit) Output voltage vs. time Angle vs. Time
  17. 17. 17 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential • For speed control of gear wheel • Resistance changes with the angles • which the magnetic field which crosses • the direction of current accomplishes • Use Maxwell to determine average magnetic field angle: α • In Simplorer, look-up table of α vs. rotation gives resistance Magneto-resistive Sensor
  18. 18. 18 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Input Parameters • Rotation angle of Wheel • Permeability of missing tooth Magneto-resistive Sensor RotAngle $TeethMur Magnetize M
  19. 19. 19 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Output Parameters • The Angle of magnetic field on sensor part Magneto-resistive Sensor Sens_Fwd Sens_Back ÷ ÷ ø ö ç ç è æ = ò ò- VdvH VdvH x y / / tan 1 a Qty H Scalar Y Geom Sens_Fwd Integ Qty H Scalar X Geom Sens_Fwd Integ / Trig Atan Constant PI / Number 180.0 * [Add] → Ang_Fwd Operation of Calculator.
  20. 20. 20 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Exporting Lookup Table • Export as format of Table . • Data is manually processed by other tools. (e.g. Excel) • Reload as Table è Export SML. Magneto-resistive Sensor Export from Parametric Solutions Export from Imported Table ECE- LINKECE- LINK Part for One round is copied Result table file : 30[deg] and 15[deg] Result table file : Merged as Complete one round.
  21. 21. 21 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential -15[deg] Magnetic Flux Density B -13[deg] H vector near sensor. Magneto-resistive Sensor
  22. 22. 22 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Parametric results – α vs. rotation Shows results for missing tooth Magneto-resistive Sensor -15[deg] ~ 15[deg] -30[deg] ~ 30[deg]
  23. 23. 23 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential -20.40m 20.40m 0 0 40.00m20.00m MRSensor.Sensitivity Sensor output Voltage. 28.00u 29.00u 28.50u 0 40.00m20.00m VM1.V [V] + -2.50 -9.92 10.00 0 0 40.00m20.00m VM6.V [V] Amplified Output. System Model with Sensor
  24. 24. 24 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential System Model for Speed Control Angle speed
  25. 25. 25 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential For static position indication A fluxgate sensor contains a small core designed to be easily saturated Inductance is affected by the magnitude of an external field created by drive coil The value of inductance can change by 10 times or more This circuit provides an output voltage that is proportional to the magnitude and the direction of an externally applied field. Fluxgate Sensor Drive Coil Core
  26. 26. 26 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Arrows Indicate Magnetizatio n Direction Typical Flux Gate Sensor Applications include: • Proximity Sensing • Magnetic Field Measurement (Navigation, Geomagnetics) • Speed & Position Sensing Sensor has Linear Response Characteristic Fluxgate Sensor
  27. 27. 27 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Arrows Indicate Magnetizatio n Direction Typical B-H Curve -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 -8.0E+05 -6.0E+05 -4.0E+05 -2.0E+05 0.0E+00 2.0E+05 4.0E+05 6.0E+05 8.0E+05 H (A/m) B(T) Sensor is Driven Between Linear and Saturated Regions of the B-H Curve Saturated Region - Low Inductance Saturated Region - Low Inductance Fluxgate Sensor Basics
  28. 28. 28 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Saturated Region Linear Region w Curve Shifts Due To Influence of External Field Parametric Analysis
  29. 29. 29 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential oi_p oi_m Bz Fluxgate_Sensor_1 E2 E1 R1 Sensor Current Response to a 2.5V, 100kHz Sinusoid 20.00m -20.00m 0 -10.00m 10.00m 80.00u 100.00u85.00u 90.00u 95.00u External Field Source EMF := 0 System Analysis Current(A) Time (s) w Positive and Negative Areas are Equal w Waveform Distortion caused by traversing the B-H Curve
  30. 30. 30 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Sinusoidal Response Force = 3.72N w External Field Shifts Curve Positively or Negatively w Positive and Negative Areas are No Longer Equal Current(A) Time (s) Forceee = 3.72NNN
  31. 31. 31 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Current(A) Time (s) Square Wave Response
  32. 32. 32 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Differential Configuration System Simulation
  33. 33. 33 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential w Differential Sensor Response w External Field For Sensor 2 Changes from 0G to –2G at 2ms w Output Voltage Shifts Downward to Reflect the Change Differential Flux Gate Sensor System Output Voltage 2.50 2.40 2.41 2.42 2.43 2.44 2.45 2.46 2.47 2.48 2.49 1.00e-003 4.00e-0032.00e-003 3.00e-003 Differential Results
  34. 34. 34 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Current density for unflawed and flawed cases very different Flaw changes stored energy, and thereby affects mutual inductances of coils Differential voltage calculated by: Eddy Current Flaw Sensor )( 2121 pudpuddriveroc LLNNIV -- -= w
  35. 35. 35 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential For flaw detection in structures without altering the physical makeup of that structure Eddy Current Probes are based on the principle of artificially creating induced current in the target material, from which we are able to detect if any defect is present Eddy Current Sensor
  36. 36. 36 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential This is a multi-parametric Eddy Current problem Goal: sweep the probe at every location on the pipe and reconstruct cartography of the flux patterns Comparing simulated and tested results allows testers to have a better understanding of the measurements taken in the field Description of the Task
  37. 37. 37 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential The tested device is a pipe made of Inconel Description of the Task 22 mm 1.3 mm thick µ = 1.001 σ = 970,000 Skin depth: 0.6mmδ 1.6mmδ 600kHz 100kHz = =
  38. 38. 38 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential The vertical slot crack blocks all the induced current. This crack should be easy to detect The horizontal surface crack only alters current paths. This crack is more difficult to detect Will the probe be able to detect the signal due to the surface crack ? Description of the Task 10 mm
  39. 39. 39 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential The Probe works at 2 frequencies: 100 kHz and 600 kHz We need to solve each problem twice Note: this is not the exact geometry used by customer Description of the Task Source Coil Pick up Coils
  40. 40. 40 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Maxwell set up: • Solve the design with the crack as vacuum • Duplicate the design • Change material property of crack to inconel (to remove the crack) in the second design • Solve the second design without adaptive meshing, importing final mesh from original design Solve twice with same mesh
  41. 41. 41 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Induced Currents Results
  42. 42. 42 © 2014 ANSYS, Inc. April 1, 2016 ANSYS Confidential Several examples of sensors were given including: • Hall, VR, Magneto-resistive, Flux Gate, and Eddy Current These were used for speed, position and flaw sensing Both component and system level simulations were necessary to understand the coupling interaction and complete performance of most sensors Summary
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Sensors are electromechanical devices that use magnetic field for sensing Velocity sensors for antilock brakes and stability control Position sensors for static seat location Eddy current sensors for flaw detection

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