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Millimeter wave mobile communication for 5G cellular.

Introducing the Fifth generation(5G) cellular technology that is use "millimeter wave" technology,as research is going on this approach and by 2020 5G mobile cellular will work on to the millimeter wave with great spectrum bandwidth and very less cost with serving of 100 billion wireless connection across the world

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Millimeter wave mobile communication for 5G cellular.

  1. 1. Millimeter Wave Mobile communication For 5G cellular Formulated by, Apurv Modi
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction • Literature Survey • Fifth Generation Wireless Communication • History of mm-wave Technology • Brief Introduction To mm-wave • Parameter Affected By mm-wave • Advantages And Limitation Of mm-wave • Conclusion • References
  3. 3. Introduction • The rapid increase of mobile data growth and the use of smart phones are creating unprecedented challenges for wireless service providers to overcome a global bandwidth shortage. • As today's cellular providers attempt to deliver high quality, low latency video and multimedia applications for wireless devices, they are limited to a carrier frequency spectrum ranging between 700 MHz and 2.6 GHz. • In This Article how millimeter wave can be used for 5G cellular is presented. Discuss propagation and device technology challenges associated with this band as well as its unique advantages for mobile communication. And introduce a millimeter-wave mobile broadband (MMB) system as a candidate for next generation mobile communication system. And show the feasibility for MMB to achieve gigabit-per-second data rates at a distance up to 1 km in an urban mobile environment.
  4. 4. Literature Survey • To date, four generations of cellular communication systems have been adopted worldwide with each new mobile generation emerging every 10 years or so since around 1980: first generation analog FM cellular systems in 1981; second generation digital technology in 1992, 3G in 2001, and 4G LTE-A in 2011. • Review of Previous Fourth Generations Systems:-
  5. 5. The generation Access protocols Key features Level of evolution 1G FDMA Analog, primarily voice, less secure, support for low bit rate data Access to and roaming across single type of analog wireless networks 2G&2.5G TDMA,CDMA Digital, more secure, voice and data Access to and roaming across single type of digital wireless networks and access to 1G 3G&3.5G CDMA 2000,W-CDMA, HSDPA,TD-SCDMA Digital, multimedia, global roaming across a single type of wireless network(for example, cellular), limited IP interoperability, 2Mbps to several Mbps Access to and roaming across digital multimedia wireless networks and access to 2G and 1G 4G OFDM Global roaming across multiple wireless networks, 10Mbps-100Mbps, IP interoperability for seamless mobile internet Access to and roaming across diverse and heterogeneous mobile and wireless Broadband networks and access to 3G,2G and 1G
  6. 6. Evolution of wireless communication
  7. 7. Fifth Generation Wireless Communication (5G) • As fifth generation (5G) is developed and implemented, we believe the main differences compared to 4G will be the use of much greater spectrum allocations at untapped mm-wave frequency bands, highly directional beam forming antennas at both the mobile device and base station, longer battery life, lower outage probability, much higher bit rates in larger portions of the coverage area, lower infrastructure costs, and higher aggregate capacity for many simultaneous users in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum (e.g. the convergence of Wi-Fi and cellular). • The backbone networks of 5G will move from copper and optic fiber to mm-wave wireless connections, allowing rapid deployment and mesh-like connectivity with cooperation between base stations • 5G technology has changed to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. 5G is a packet switched wireless system with wide area coverage and high throughput. 5G technologies use CDMA and millimeter wireless that enables speed greater than 100Mbps at full mobility and higher than1Gbps at low mobility.
  8. 8. • The 5G technologies include all types of advanced features which make 5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in the near future. It is not amazing, such a huge collection of technology being integrated into a small device. • The 5G technology provides the mobile phone users more features and efficiency. A user of mobile phone can easily hook their 5G technology gadget with laptops or tablets to acquire broadband internet connectivity. • Up till now following features of the 5G technology have come to surface- High resolution is offered by 5G for extreme mobile users, it also offers bidirectional huge bandwidth , higher data rates and the finest Quality of Service (QOS) .
  9. 9. Advantages of 5G • 5G technology will include spectral bandwidth more than 40 MHz on frequency channel which is a larger range than all other wireless technology systems. • The artificial intelligence will be included in 5G technology through advance wearable computer technology. • Massive Distributed with Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) will be provided by 5G which will help cut costs and make it energy-effective. • 5G technologies may consume low battery power, provide a wide range of coverage, cheap rate of network services and many other advantages. • 4G technology provides speed up to 1 GBPS internet speed and so it is possible that 5G technology will provide more than 1 GBPS speed. • They are more efficient, highly reliable, highly secured network.
  10. 10. History of mm-wave Though relatively new in the world of wireless communication, the history of millimeter wave technology goes back to the 1890’s when J.C. Bose was experimenting with millimeter wave signals at just about the time when his contemporaries like Marconi were Inventing radio communications. Following Bose’s research, millimeter wave technology remained within the confines of university and government laboratories for almost half a century. The technology started so see its early applications in Radio Astronomy in the 1960’s, followed by applications in the military in the 70’s. In the 80’s, the development of millimeter-wave integrated circuits created opportunities for mass manufacturing of millimeter wave products for commercial applications.
  11. 11. • In 1990’s, the advent of automotive collision avoidance radar at 77 GHz marked the first consumer oriented use of millimeter wave frequencies above 40 GHz. In 1995, the FCC (US Federal Communications Commission) opened the spectrum between 59 and 64 GHz for unlicensed wireless communication, resulting in the development of a plethora of broadband communication and radar equipment for commercial application. • In 2003, the FCC authorized the use of 71-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz for licensed point-to-point communication, creating a fertile ground for new of industries developing products and services in this band.
  12. 12. Brief Introduction To mm-wave • Mm-Wave is a promising technology for future cellular systems. Since limited spectrum is available for commercial cellular systems, most research has focused on increasing spectral efficiency by using OFDM, MIMO, efficient channel coding, and interference coordination. • Network densification has also been studied to increase area spectral efficiency, including the use of heterogeneous infrastructure (macro-, Pico- , femto cells, relays, distributed antennas) but increased spectral efficiency is not enough to guarantee high user data rates. The alternative is more spectrum. • Millimeter wave (mm-Wave) cellular systems, operating in the 30-300GHz band, above which electromagnetic radiation is considered to be low (or far) infrared light, also referred to as terahertz radiation.
  13. 13. Millimeter wave frequency spectrum
  14. 14. • Mm-wave spectrum would allow service providers to significantly expand the channel bandwidths far beyond the present 20 MHz channels used by 4G customers. By increasing the RF channel bandwidth for mobile radio channels, the data capacity is greatly increased, while the latency for digital traffic is greatly decreased, thus supporting much better internet based access and applications that require minimal latency. Mm-wave frequencies, due to the much smaller wavelength, may exploit polarization and new spatial processing techniques, such as massive MIMO and adaptive beam forming. • the mm-wave spectrum will have spectral allocations that are relatively much closer together, making the propagation characteristics of different mm-wave bands much more comparable and ``homogenous''. • The 28 GHz and 38 GHz bands are currently available with spectrum allocations of over 1 GHz of band-width. Originally intended for Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) use in the late 1990's, these licensees could be used for mobile cellular as well as backhaul.
  15. 15. • A common myth in the wireless engineering community is that rain and atmosphere make mm-wave spectrum useless for mobile communications. However, when one considers the fact that today's cell sizes in urban environments are on the order of 200 m, it becomes clear that mm-wave cellular can overcome these issues. • Figure shows the rain attenuation and atmospheric absorption characteristics of mm-wave propagation. • . It can be seen that for cell sizes on the order of 200 m, atmospheric absorption does not create significant additional path loss for mm-waves, particularly at 28 GHz and 38 GHz. Only 7 dB/km of attenuation is expected due to heavy rainfall rates of 1 inch/hr for cellular propagation at 28 GHz, which translates to only 1.4 dB of attenuation over 200 m distance.
  16. 16. Rain attenuation in db/km across frequency at various rain fall rates
  17. 17. Atmospheric absorption across mm-wave frequencies in dB/km
  18. 18. Parameter Affected By mm-wave • BANDWIDTH:-The main benefit that millimeter Wave technology has over RF frequencies is the spectral bandwidth of 5GHz being available in these ranges, resulting in current speeds of 1.25Gbps Full Duplex with potential throughput speeds of up to 10Gbps Full Duplex being made possible. Service providers can significantly expand channel band width way beyond 20 MHz • SECURITY:-Since millimeter waves have a narrow beam width and are blocked by many solid structures they also create an inherent level of security. In order to sniff millimeter wave radiation a receiver would have to be setup very near, or in the path of, the radio connection. The loss of data integrity caused by a sniffing antenna provides a detection mechanism for networks under attack. Additional measures, such as cryptographic algorithms can be used that allow a network to be fully protected against attack.
  19. 19. • BEAM WIDTH INTERFERENCE RESISTANCE:-Millimeter wave signals transmit in very narrow focused beams which allows for multiple deployments in close range using the same frequency ranges. This allows Millimeter wave ideal for Point-to-Point Mesh, Ring and dense Hub & Spoke network topologies where lower frequency signals would not be able to cope before cross signal interference would become a significant limiting factor.
  20. 20. Advantages And Limitation Of mm-wave • ADVANTAGES:- • Millimeter wave’s larger bandwidth is able to provide higher transmission rate, capability of spread spectrum and is more immune to interference. • Extremely high frequencies allow multiple short-distance (I.e. multiple TX can be placed in nearby location to each other) usages at the same frequency without interfering each other. • It requires the narrow beam width. For the same size of antenna, when the frequency is increased, the beam width is decreased. • It reduces hardware size, i.e. higher the frequency is, the smaller the antenna size can be used.
  21. 21. LIMITATIONS • Higher costs in manufacturing of greater precision hardware due to components with smaller size. • At extremely high frequencies, there is significant attenuation. Hence millimeter waves can hardly be used for long distance applications. • The penetration power of mm-wave through objects such concrete walls is known less. • There are interferences with oxygen & rain at higher frequencies therefore further research is going on to reduce this.
  22. 22. Conclusion • An overview of using Millimeter wave Mobile Communication for 5G Cellular is presented in this paper, and how 5G Cellular systems can overcome the issues related to the previous generations of Communication systems and evolved to be the most promising System. • Given the worldwide need for cellular spectrum, and the relatively limited amount of research done on mm-wave mobile communications, fact that the large bandwidth available at millimeter wave frequencies results in very high data transmission rate; also helps to minimize the amount of time that a node needs to stay in transmission mode; and therefore, minimizes the possibility of its transmission being detected. • 28 GHz and 38 GHz are the current frequencies that have low rainfall attenuation & atmospheric attenuations. Further research must take place in this band and the characteristics of other frequencies needs to be studied, the penetration power and the range for communication needs to be further improved.
  23. 23. References • T. S. Rappaport, Shu Sun, Rimma Mayzus et al ``Millimeter wave mobile communications for 5G cellular: it will work!,'' Proc. IEEE, vol. 1, 2013, no. 10, pp. 335_349, may. 2013 • T. S. Rappaport. (2013). NYU WIRELESS [Online]. Available: http://nyuwireless.com • T. S. Rappaport, J. N. Murdock, and F. Gutierrez, ``State of the art in 60 GHz integrated circuits & systems for wireless communications,'' Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 13901436, Aug. 2011. • Z. Pi and F. Khan, ``An introduction to millimeter-wave mobile broadband systems,'' IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 101107, Jun. 2011. • MILLIMETER WAVES WILL EXPAND THE WIRELESS FUTURE LOUIS E. FRENZEL | COMMUNICATIONS EDITOR lou.frenzel@penton.com