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Millimeter wave mobile communication for 5G cellular.
Introducing the Fifth generation(5G) cellular technology that is use "millimeter wave" technology,as research is going on this approach and by 2020 5G mobile cellular will work on to the millimeter wave with great spectrum bandwidth and very less cost with serving of 100 billion wireless connection across the world
Millimeter wave mobile communication for 5G cellular.
Millimeter Wave Mobile communication For 5G
• Literature Survey
• Fifth Generation Wireless Communication
• History of mm-wave Technology
• Brief Introduction To mm-wave
• Parameter Affected By mm-wave
• Advantages And Limitation Of mm-wave
• The rapid increase of mobile data growth and the use of smart
phones are creating unprecedented challenges for wireless service
providers to overcome a global bandwidth shortage.
• As today's cellular providers attempt to deliver high quality, low
latency video and multimedia applications for wireless devices, they
are limited to a carrier frequency spectrum ranging between 700
MHz and 2.6 GHz.
• In This Article how millimeter wave can be used for 5G cellular is
presented. Discuss propagation and device technology challenges
associated with this band as well as its unique advantages for mobile
communication. And introduce a millimeter-wave mobile broadband
(MMB) system as a candidate for next generation mobile
communication system. And show the feasibility for MMB to achieve
gigabit-per-second data rates at a distance up to 1 km in an urban
• To date, four generations of cellular communication systems have been
adopted worldwide with each new mobile generation emerging every 10
years or so since around 1980: first generation analog FM cellular systems
in 1981; second generation digital technology in 1992, 3G in 2001, and 4G
LTE-A in 2011.
• Review of Previous Fourth Generations Systems:-
The generation Access protocols Key features Level of evolution
1G FDMA Analog, primarily voice, less
secure, support for low bit
Access to and roaming across
single type of analog wireless
2G&2.5G TDMA,CDMA Digital, more secure, voice
Access to and roaming across
single type of digital wireless
networks and access to 1G
3G&3.5G CDMA 2000,W-CDMA,
Digital, multimedia, global
roaming across a single type
of wireless network(for
example, cellular), limited IP
2Mbps to several Mbps
Access to and roaming across
digital multimedia wireless
networks and access to 2G
4G OFDM Global roaming across
multiple wireless networks,
interoperability for seamless
Access to and roaming across
diverse and heterogeneous
mobile and wireless
Broadband networks and
access to 3G,2G and 1G
Fifth Generation Wireless Communication
• As fifth generation (5G) is developed and implemented, we believe the main
differences compared to 4G will be the use of much greater spectrum
allocations at untapped mm-wave frequency bands, highly directional beam
forming antennas at both the mobile device and base station, longer battery
life, lower outage probability, much higher bit rates in larger portions of the
coverage area, lower infrastructure costs, and higher aggregate capacity for
many simultaneous users in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum (e.g. the
convergence of Wi-Fi and cellular).
• The backbone networks of 5G will move from copper and optic fiber to mm-wave
wireless connections, allowing rapid deployment and mesh-like
connectivity with cooperation between base stations
• 5G technology has changed to use cell phones within very high bandwidth.
5G is a packet switched wireless system with wide area coverage and high
throughput. 5G technologies use CDMA and millimeter wireless that enables
speed greater than 100Mbps at full mobility and higher than1Gbps at low
• The 5G technologies include all types of advanced features which make
5G technology most powerful and in huge demand in the near future. It is
not amazing, such a huge collection of technology being integrated into a
• The 5G technology provides the mobile phone users more features and
efficiency. A user of mobile phone can easily hook their 5G technology
gadget with laptops or tablets to acquire broadband internet connectivity.
• Up till now following features of the 5G technology have come to surface-
High resolution is offered by 5G for extreme mobile users, it also offers
bidirectional huge bandwidth , higher data rates and the finest Quality of
Service (QOS) .
Advantages of 5G
• 5G technology will include spectral bandwidth more than 40 MHz on
frequency channel which is a larger range than all other wireless
• The artificial intelligence will be included in 5G technology through
advance wearable computer technology.
• Massive Distributed with Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) will
be provided by 5G which will help cut costs and make it energy-effective.
• 5G technologies may consume low battery power, provide a wide range of
coverage, cheap rate of network services and many other advantages.
• 4G technology provides speed up to 1 GBPS internet speed and so it is
possible that 5G technology will provide more than 1 GBPS speed.
• They are more efficient, highly reliable, highly secured network.
History of mm-wave
Though relatively new in the world of wireless communication, the
history of millimeter wave technology goes back to the 1890’s when J.C.
Bose was experimenting with millimeter wave signals at just about the
time when his contemporaries like Marconi were Inventing radio
Following Bose’s research, millimeter wave technology remained within
the confines of university and government laboratories for almost half
a century. The technology started so see its early applications in Radio
Astronomy in the 1960’s, followed by applications in the military in the
70’s. In the 80’s, the development of millimeter-wave integrated
circuits created opportunities for mass manufacturing of millimeter
wave products for commercial applications.
• In 1990’s, the advent of automotive collision avoidance radar at 77 GHz
marked the first consumer oriented use of millimeter wave frequencies
above 40 GHz. In 1995, the FCC (US Federal Communications Commission)
opened the spectrum between 59 and 64 GHz for unlicensed wireless
communication, resulting in the development of a plethora of broadband
communication and radar equipment for commercial application.
• In 2003, the FCC authorized the use of 71-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz for
licensed point-to-point communication, creating a fertile ground for new of
industries developing products and services in this band.
Brief Introduction To mm-wave
• Mm-Wave is a promising technology for future cellular systems. Since
limited spectrum is available for commercial cellular systems, most
research has focused on increasing spectral efficiency by using OFDM,
MIMO, efficient channel coding, and interference coordination.
• Network densification has also been studied to increase area spectral
efficiency, including the use of heterogeneous infrastructure (macro-, Pico-
, femto cells, relays, distributed antennas) but increased spectral efficiency
is not enough to guarantee high user data rates. The alternative is more
• Millimeter wave (mm-Wave) cellular systems, operating in the 30-300GHz
band, above which electromagnetic radiation is considered to be low (or
far) infrared light, also referred to as terahertz radiation.
• Mm-wave spectrum would allow service providers to significantly expand
the channel bandwidths far beyond the present 20 MHz channels used by
4G customers. By increasing the RF channel bandwidth for mobile radio
channels, the data capacity is greatly increased, while the latency for
digital traffic is greatly decreased, thus supporting much better internet
based access and applications that require minimal latency. Mm-wave
frequencies, due to the much smaller wavelength, may exploit polarization
and new spatial processing techniques, such as massive MIMO and
adaptive beam forming.
• the mm-wave spectrum will have spectral allocations that are relatively
much closer together, making the propagation characteristics of different
mm-wave bands much more comparable and ``homogenous''.
• The 28 GHz and 38 GHz bands are currently available with spectrum
allocations of over 1 GHz of band-width. Originally intended for Local
Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) use in the late 1990's, these
licensees could be used for mobile cellular as well as backhaul.
• A common myth in the wireless engineering community is that rain and
atmosphere make mm-wave spectrum useless for mobile
communications. However, when one considers the fact that today's cell
sizes in urban environments are on the order of 200 m, it becomes clear
that mm-wave cellular can overcome these issues.
• Figure shows the rain attenuation and atmospheric absorption
characteristics of mm-wave propagation.
• . It can be seen that for cell sizes on the order of 200 m, atmospheric
absorption does not create significant additional path loss for mm-waves,
particularly at 28 GHz and 38 GHz. Only 7 dB/km of attenuation is
expected due to heavy rainfall rates of 1 inch/hr for cellular propagation at
28 GHz, which translates to only 1.4 dB of attenuation over 200 m
Rain attenuation in db/km across frequency at various rain fall rates
Atmospheric absorption across mm-wave frequencies in dB/km
Parameter Affected By mm-wave
• BANDWIDTH:-The main benefit that millimeter Wave technology has over
RF frequencies is the spectral bandwidth of 5GHz being available in these
ranges, resulting in current speeds of 1.25Gbps Full Duplex with potential
throughput speeds of up to 10Gbps Full Duplex being made possible.
Service providers can significantly expand channel band width way beyond
• SECURITY:-Since millimeter waves have a narrow beam width and are
blocked by many solid structures they also create an inherent level of
security. In order to sniff millimeter wave radiation a receiver would have
to be setup very near, or in the path of, the radio connection. The loss of
data integrity caused by a sniffing antenna provides a detection
mechanism for networks under attack. Additional measures, such as
cryptographic algorithms can be used that allow a network to be fully
protected against attack.
• BEAM WIDTH INTERFERENCE RESISTANCE:-Millimeter wave signals
transmit in very narrow focused beams which allows for multiple
deployments in close range using the same frequency ranges. This allows
Millimeter wave ideal for Point-to-Point Mesh, Ring and dense Hub &
Spoke network topologies where lower frequency signals would not be
able to cope before cross signal interference would become a significant
Advantages And Limitation Of mm-wave
• Millimeter wave’s larger bandwidth is able to provide higher
transmission rate, capability of spread spectrum and is more
immune to interference.
• Extremely high frequencies allow multiple short-distance (I.e.
multiple TX can be placed in nearby location to each other) usages
at the same frequency without interfering each other.
• It requires the narrow beam width. For the same size of antenna,
when the frequency is increased, the beam width is decreased.
• It reduces hardware size, i.e. higher the frequency is, the smaller
the antenna size can be used.
• Higher costs in manufacturing of greater precision hardware due to
components with smaller size.
• At extremely high frequencies, there is significant attenuation. Hence
millimeter waves can hardly be used for long distance applications.
• The penetration power of mm-wave through objects such concrete walls is
• There are interferences with oxygen & rain at higher frequencies therefore
further research is going on to reduce this.
• An overview of using Millimeter wave Mobile Communication for 5G
Cellular is presented in this paper, and how 5G Cellular systems can
overcome the issues related to the previous generations of
Communication systems and evolved to be the most promising System.
• Given the worldwide need for cellular spectrum, and the relatively limited
amount of research done on mm-wave mobile communications, fact that
the large bandwidth available at millimeter wave frequencies results in
very high data transmission rate; also helps to minimize the amount of
time that a node needs to stay in transmission mode; and therefore,
minimizes the possibility of its transmission being detected.
• 28 GHz and 38 GHz are the current frequencies that have low rainfall
attenuation & atmospheric attenuations. Further research must take place
in this band and the characteristics of other frequencies needs to be
studied, the penetration power and the range for communication needs to
be further improved.
• T. S. Rappaport, Shu Sun, Rimma Mayzus et al ``Millimeter wave mobile
communications for 5G cellular: it will work!,'' Proc. IEEE, vol. 1, 2013, no.
10, pp. 335_349, may. 2013
• T. S. Rappaport. (2013). NYU WIRELESS [Online]. Available:
• T. S. Rappaport, J. N. Murdock, and F. Gutierrez, ``State of the art in
60 GHz integrated circuits & systems for wireless communications,'' Proc.
IEEE, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 13901436, Aug. 2011.
• Z. Pi and F. Khan, ``An introduction to millimeter-wave mobile broadband
systems,'' IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 101107, Jun. 2011.
• MILLIMETER WAVES WILL EXPAND THE WIRELESS FUTURE LOUIS E.
FRENZEL | COMMUNICATIONS EDITOR firstname.lastname@example.org