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Open Innovation in der öffentlichen Verwaltung

Open Innovation funktioniert auch in der öffentlichen Verwaltung. Folien zu meinem Vortrag auf dem Kongress Innovativer Staat am 15 Mai 2013 in Berlin. http://www.effizienterstaat.eu/Kongress/

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Open Innovation in der öffentlichen Verwaltung

  1. 1. Open Innovation in der öffentlichen Verwaltung: Chance oder Utopie? Frank T. Piller Institut für Technologie- und Innovationsmanagement, RWTH Aachen tim.rwth-aachen.de | open-innovation.com
  2. 2. 2 Was ist Open Innovation?
  3. 3. 3 Innovation = Zielgerichtetes Problemlösen
  4. 4. 4 Experimentieren ("trial and error") SUCHE (auf Basis vergangener Erfahrung) KREATIVITÄT WISSEN
  5. 5. 5 Open = weit, frei, undefiniert, distribuiert, verteilt …
  6. 6. 6 Open = unvoreingenommen
  7. 7. © tim.rwth-aachen.de 8 8
  8. 8. © tim.rwth-aachen.de 9 9
  9. 9. 10 10 vs. $200000 Community 300000 $0 Risiko 30% Beteiligung "Millions" ausgezahlt
  10. 10. 11 11
  11. 11. 12 “Democratized innovation”
  12. 12. 13 Dies ist kein Nischenphänomen
  13. 13. 14 14
  14. 14. "… the amount of money individual consumers spent making and improving products is about 1.5 times larger as the amount spent by all British firms combined on product research and development." Flowers, Ogawa, von Hippel 2011
  15. 15. von Hippel et al. 2011
  16. 16. 18 “User entrepreneurs" have founded more than 46 percent of innovative startups that have lasted five years or more, even though this group creates only 10.7 percent of U.S. startups overall.
  17. 17. 19 Dies hat große Implikationen für die Innovationspolitik Weniger Fokus auf (Infrastrukturen für) Kreation, Erfindung, Patente, und mehr Fokus auf Diffusion und “Absorptionskapazität”
  18. 18. 20 Open Innovation Methoden und Praktiken, die Entdeckungen und das Wissen nicht- offensichtlicher Anderer als Input für den eigenen Innovationsprozess durch formale und informale Beziehungen zu nutzen.
  19. 19. 21 Wie knüpft man diese Verbindungen? Wie findet man “nicht offensichtliche” Andere?
  20. 20. 22 "Ruft, und sie werden kommen!" (anstatt nach Wissen zu suchen)
  21. 21. 24 24 Ausschreibung von Problemstellungen Broadcast Search • Externe screenen Probleme • Reaktion nur, wenn Lösung bekannt oder Lösungsweg “einfach“ • Übermittlung konkreter Lösungen • Unternehmen übermitteln Fragestellung an Plattform • Screening und Bewertung der Lösungen • Belohnung des besten Beitragenden Übermittlung von Lösungsvorschlägen Ein zentrales Prinzip von Open Innovation ist die breite Einbindung externer Akteure durch einen offenen Aufruf zur Mitwirkung an ein großes Netzwerk Open Innovation durch Broadcast Search (Lakhami 2009) bezeichnet einen offenen Aufruf zur Mitwirkung im Innovationsprozess, um bestehendes Lösungswissen (aus anderen Bereichen) in den internen Innovationsprozess zu integrieren. Ziel ist die Überwindung des Problems der lokalen Suche. Plattform für Open Innovation
  22. 22. 25 "Das funktioniert bei uns nie"
  23. 23. 26
  24. 24. © tim.rwth-aachen.de 27Source: David Feitler 2010 Der Prozess von "broadcast search" bei NineSigma
  25. 25. © tim.rwth-aachen.de 29
  26. 26. © tim.rwth-aachen.de 30
  27. 27. © tim.rwth-aachen.de Ergebnisse der Pilotierung Evaluierung der Ergebnisse durch Projektgruppe 31 RFP Institution Solution Technology neu bekannt neu bekannt ? 66198 23 3 16 6 4 66204 10 0 3 7 0 66207 7 0 6 0 1 66201 33 2 22 8 5
  28. 28. 32 "Making unobvious connections"
  29. 29. © tim.rwth-aachen.de 33 Return on open innovation aus unseren FVA Projekten Direkte Kosten eines OI Projekts € 18 000 ,- + ca. 2 Personenmonate Wert der gefundenen Lösung € 375 000,- ROI : ca. 2000% Qualität der Lösung: "Fit to requirement": 89% im Durchscnitt aller "grünen" Lösungen
  30. 30. © tim.rwth-aachen.de „Die Zusammenarbeit mit dem Intermediär war recht fruchtbar und offen.“ 34 Stimmen aus der Arbeitsgruppe „In den Konferenzen mit NineSigma lernt man sehr viel über die Positionierung von Unternehmen und Hochschulen, und das in einer sehr kurzen Zeit. Das eigentliche Aha- Erlebnis aber besteht darin, dass man während des gesamten Prozesses sehr viel über sich selber lernt. Man bekommt dadurch eine bessere Vorstellung davon, wo man steht und was man kann.“ „Die Nutzung von Intermediären zahlt sich aus. So lange der Marktplatz funktioniert, und ein ehrliches Spiel zwischen suchenden und Unternehmen und Problemlösern zustande kommt, wird die broadcast search Methode erfolgreich sein. In diesem Fall bietet die Methode eindeutige Vorteile hinsichtlich Effizienz und Qualität.“ „Die Kultur hat bei uns einen Sprung gemacht. Die Leute rennen mir mittlerweile die Türe ein. Diese Einstellung, total verschlossen zu sein, und nichts nach außen dringen zu lassen, die ändert sich gerade bei uns. Und das Projekt mit den Intermediären war der Auslöser für diese veränderte Haltung.“ „Insgesamt bin ich schon zufrieden. Das war eigentlich eine sehr gute Zusammenarbeit.“
  31. 31. 40 40 Von Marktplätzen für Technologien zu "Märkten für Probleme" (problemspaces)
  32. 32. 41 Und in der öffentlichen Verwaltung?
  33. 33. 42 Ideenwettbewerbe
  34. 34. 44 Innovation-community.de Mehr Beispiele hier, immer mehr aus dem öffentl. Bereich: www.nnovation-community.de
  35. 35. 45 Arbeits-Vermittlung
  36. 36. 46
  37. 37. NewUrbanMechanics.org @NewUrbanMechs Schlaglöcher
  38. 38. Citizens Connect’s Progression 2009 Citizens Connect 1.0 2010 Citizens Connect 2.0 2011 City Worker 1.0 Citizens Connect 4.0 2013 Street Bump 1.0 2012 Citizens Connect Text 2012 New Tag on the Block 2011 Commonwealth Connect 2013 Can we create the same personal approach to service and expand our audience via an app on a smart phone?
  39. 39. 49
  40. 40. Street Bump leverage the full power of the mobile phone 2012 - Citizens Connect 1.0
  41. 41. Commonwealth Connect an app as dynamic and as mobile as our residents 2013 - Citizens Connect 1.0
  42. 42. Montreal Living Lab / CIRANO Towards Open Economics Mehr ökonomisches Budget
  43. 43. Freeing New Market Liquidity With Alternate Transportation Liquidity per Household Average Canadian Household Size = 2.5 Car per Household = 1.55 A) Annual Car Ownership Cost: $17,050 (per Household) B) Alternate Transportation Fares: – $7,242 (Car-sharing + Transit + Bike-sharing) C) Available Liquidity (A-B): $9,808 (Based on an average car annual cost of ownership of $11,000 CDN. Alternate transportation fares available in Montreal from Communauto, STM and Bixi.) Liquidity per 1M People Cars per 1M people = 620,000 Households = 400,000 A) Annual Car Ownership Cost: $6,82B (per 1M People) Assuming a 40% conversion rate B) Saved Cost on Car Ownership: $2,73B C) Alternate Transportation Fares: – $1,16B D) Available Liquidity (B-C): $1,57B   
  44. 44. 24H of Innovation Challenge Design a collaborative game for the 21st century, incentivizing people to give up their car. • 200+ international students • 24-hour design contest • 100 ideas • Implementation started
  45. 45. 58 Qualitätsmanagement
  46. 46. 59 "Das funktioniert bei uns nie“ Die Sicherheit, unsere Beschaffungspolitik, der regulatorischer Rahmen …
  47. 47. 60 Nun ja, aber: Einer der größten Anwender von Open Innovation ist DARPA, die Forschungsabteilung der Streitkräfte der USA
  48. 48. 61 61 Open Innovation im US Militär
  49. 49. 62 62 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) First: They’re the ones who really invented the Internet. Established in 1958, DARPA’s original mission was “to prevent technological surprise . . . but also to create technological surprise for our enemies.” Objective: Technical demonstration of the possible so that military leaders can direct development initiatives to meet specific challenges with emerging technology. Annual budget of $3 billion (compared to $515 billion total DoD budget) -> amazing ROI by applying the principals and practices of open innovation Former DARPA director Tony Tether: "We are small and flexible: we are 100 geniuses connected by a travel agent.”
  50. 50. 63 63
  51. 51. 64 DARPA experiments (1): Algorithms
  52. 52. 65 65
  53. 53. 66
  54. 54. 67
  55. 55. 68 DARPA experiments (2): Vehicle Design Contests
  56. 56. 69 69
  57. 57. 70
  58. 58. 71 71
  59. 59. 72 “DARPA got an opening to test its crowdsourcing theories after the Defense Department in early 2011 canceled another project to create a replacement for 1970s-era Marine amphibious vehicles. The military concluded the project, led by defense contractor General Dynamics Corp., would be too expensive—after sinking in more than $3 billion toward development. Pursuing the program ‘would essentially swallow the entire Marine vehicle budget,’ then-Defense Secretary Robert Gates said at the time.”
  60. 60. 73 “ … Of course, one of the biggest and most obvious risks of crowdsourcing design for the U.S. military is that top-secret information related to American security could get into the wrong hands. A DARPA official, U.S. Army Lt. Col. Nathan Wiedenman, is quoted by Hagerty as saying that the technology details won’t be “fully open.” Yet, thankfully, the new initiative to develop amphibious vehicles via a design competition will be truly open– meaning it actually won’t just be a gimmicky free-for- all among amateur inventors. Unknown tank designers will also compete alongside companies (perhaps even including General Dynamics) and academic labs with deep military experience, too.”
  61. 61. 74 DARPA experiments (3): Open Hardware & Manufactuing
  62. 62. 75 75
  63. 63. 76 76
  64. 64. Es geht!
  65. 65. 88 88 DIE Frage innovativer Manager heute: Wie können wir die "kognitive Überkapazität" nutzen, die auf der Welt zur Verfügung steht?
  66. 66. 90 Welche Aufgaben und Problemstellung können Sie mit "externen" Akteuren teilen? Was ist der wirkliche Kern der öffentl. Verwaltung? Wie können Sie Kapazitäten und Fähigkeiten aufbauen, um mit externen Akteuren gemeinsam Wert zu schaffen?
  67. 67. 2 RWTH-TIM's new (shared) building in Kackertstraße 7, Aachen About RWTH TIM
  68. 68. 3 Facts & Figures  RWTH = Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule" (Institute of Technology of the North-Rhine Westphalia, i.e. a State of Germany)  RWTH Aachen is one of Europe’s leading institutions for science and research. Ranked frequently as Top German University by HR Managers (e.g. German BusinessWeek Ranking 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012).  Established in 1870 as a "Technische Hochschule". Quickly became leading place for mining technology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and later also medicine and medical technology. Today, RWTH is also leading in the sciences and has been awarded the title of a “Exzellenzuniversität” as one of the very few top German institutions.  One out of every five board members in a German corporation is a RWTH Aachen alumni, and about every second engineering manager in the German automotive industry has graduated at RWTH.  Out of annual budget of about US$1billion, 50 percent is funded by competitive research grants and direct support from industry.  31,000 students are enrolled in 100+ academic programs, more than 25% of them are international students coming from 120 different countries. RWTH TIM is a proud part of RWTH Aachen, Germany’s leading university of technology
  69. 69. 4 RWTH Aachen RWTH Aachen is frequently ranked as the #1 university in Germany Also our core program in industrial engineering & engineering management ("Wirtschaftsing.") is continuously ranked #1 in Germany Facts & Figures
  70. 70. tim.rwth-aachen.de
  71. 71. With about 20 full time research positions, RWTH-TIM is one of the largest groups of its kind in the German-speaking academic landscape. In addition, 10-15 graduate students support our team as tutors or junior researchers. A strong network of research partners inside RWTH and from leading global academic institutions and companies also contribute significantly to our projects and teaching. Our Team at RWTH-TIM: An interdisciplinary group of researchers and specialists in innovation management and value creation
  72. 72.  Established in 1990 as one of the first dedicated chairs in technology & innovation management in Europe  Part of RWTH's School of Business & Economics, with strong links to the RWTH Engineering Schools, but also Information Systems, Psychology, …  Dedicated to research, but excellent in participant-centered learning on graduate student and executive education level.  Ranked in top3 in school's ranking w/r to research output (publications), and #1 w/r to external funding. Awarded "RWTH Price for Teaching Excellence 2009/2010".  Interdisciplinary team of about 20 full time positions for researchers plus about many support positions and student researchers  70% of annual research budget funded by competitive, peer-reviewed research contracts and grants ("forschungsorient. Drittmittel") from DFG, EU, BMBF, BMWI, AIF  Strong industry partnerships, strong believe in “engaged scholarship” with both rigor and relevance for management practice (via direct, research-focused cooperation, contract research, and the RWTH-TIM Expert Circle of Innovation Professionals)  Several spin-off and affiliated companies in both high-tech and professional services At RWTH TIM, we are dedicated to innovative research and teaching, but grounded in the real world of management practice
  73. 73. Our research focuses on innovation interfaces, disruptive business model innovation, and internal structures, processes, and believes for successful innovation  Customer Co-Creation: Integration of customers and users in innovation process. Focus on ideation contests (Crowdsourcing), innovation communities, lead user method  Open Innovation: Approaches like tournament-based crowdsourcing or broadcast search to increase the productivity of R&D by external search  Mass Customization: Business models to profit from heterogeneities in the customer domain by offering personalized products and services  Economics of Additive Manufacturing & Open Hardware: Creating economic value through 3D-Printing, Distributed Digital Manufacturing, Open Hardware, and Open Design Infrastructures  Business Model Innovation and Disruptive Innovation: Structures, processes, and organizational implementation of a process for business model innovation  Technology transfer : Absorptive capacity, managing ambidexterity, and preventing “not invented here” (NIH)  Modeling the contingencies of the innovation process: Database of 300 methods for the innovation process and matching tool to corporate challenges of managing innovation  Managing the R&D-production interface (ramp-up): Connecting the new product development process with scaling up the manufacturing system
  74. 74. Recent Awards and Recognitions for RWTH TIM RWTH TIM has been nominated as a finalist for the „Innovating innovation“ challenge 2013 by Harvard Business Review and McKinsey for our work on open innovation readiness and internal structures supporting crowdsourcing. Alexandra Gatzweiler, Vera Blazevic and Frank Piller have been the joint winners of the 2012 PDMA research competition and the DL Wilemon Research Award for their work on deviant user behavior in ideation contests. PDMA is the largest global association for product/ service development and management professionals. The ideation contest “Stilsicher:unterwegs”, a co-creation initiative targeting senior citizens to develop better mobility solutions for seniors via a web-based ideation contest, was the only winner in the “non-profit innovation” category of the 2012 Co-Creation Awards. This ideation contest was part of our project OpenISA, funded by the ESF within the NRW Ziel.2 program.
  75. 75. 153 153 Let's stay in touch! Upcoming opportunities:
  76. 76. 154 My personal blog: open-innovation.com
  77. 77. 155 155 innovationsmethoden.info Eine Internet Plattform zu Methoden des Innovationsmanagements von RWTH-TIM und Competivation Explore tools and experts
  78. 78. 156 156 Ein internationaler berufsbegleitender Studiengang an der RWTH Aachen und Univ. St. Gallen mit Fokus auf Innovation, Technologie und Leadership Start des 10. Durchgangs im Sept. 2013 | Studienleitung: Prof. Dr. Frank T. Piller www.emba.rwth-aachen.de Study and grow
  79. 79. 157 157 157 Der TIM Expertenkreis an der RWTH Aachen Co-Creation von Wissen über erfolgreiche betriebliche Innovationsprozesse  Austausch zu Praktiken erfolgreichen Innovationsmanagements  Zwei bis drei Expertenkreistreffen p.a.  Konsortialmodell zwischen den Mitgliedern Plattform für weitere Kooperation mit RWTH-TIM  in Abschlussarbeiten / Studienprojekten  in Publikationen oder Vorlesungen  in (öffentlich geförderten) Forschungsprojekten Bei Interesse informiert Sie gerne Alexandra Gatzweiler Tel. 0241 809 3577 gatzweiler@tim.rwth-aachen.de Exchange best practices
  80. 80. 158 158 COMPETIVATION UG& Co KG Unser Angebot für Beratung und Executive Education im Bereich Strategie, Innovations- & Technologiemanagement. competivation.net Consulting & Coaching
  81. 81. 92 92 Kontakt Frank T. Piller, Prof. Dr. TIM-Group at RWTH Aachen University Kackertstrasse 7, 3rd floor 52072 Aachen, Germany Tel. +49 (0)241 809-3523 (office) | +49 (0)163 6050 276 (mobile) piller@tim.rwth-aachen.de | @masscustom (Skype, Twitter, Facebook) tim.rwth-aachen.de | open-innovation.com Expertly assisted by Monika Heer, +49 (0)241 809-3577, heer@tim.rwth-aachen.de
  • MartinJordan

    Jan. 30, 2016
  • keilw

    May. 22, 2013
  • hdz

    May. 19, 2013

Open Innovation funktioniert auch in der öffentlichen Verwaltung. Folien zu meinem Vortrag auf dem Kongress Innovativer Staat am 15 Mai 2013 in Berlin. http://www.effizienterstaat.eu/Kongress/

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