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Marketing Toolbox
Subtitle, Autor or Date
Basics
Definitions / Explanations
Marketing Orientation
Orientation in companies which strongly influenced the development of
marketing



Technological Ori...
Marketing Triangle
Company, employees and customer

                                  Company




                        ...
Marketing - Simple Model
Model of a simplified marketing system and connection between provider
and market

              ...
Marketing - Perspectives
Differentiation of 3 perspectives: The entrepreneurial approach (philosophy),
instrumentation (te...
Development Phases of Marketing
Development phases in the last 100 years

                                        Sales an...
Development of Marketing
Steps of development of Marketing




 Product orientation                 Market orientation    ...
Marketing Pyramid
Pyramid with (higher-ranked) marketing objectives on the top



                                        ...
Marketing - Classical vs. Alternative Marketing
 Overview of some marketing tools

 Classical Marketing                   ...
Marketing Objects
Differentiation according to different marketing objects and approaches


                              ...
Marketing - Sales Markets
Differentiation according to 3 sales markets and the participating partners


                  ...
Characterization of Markets - Types of Goods
Types of assets and their usage situations




     Consumer Goods           ...
Market Segmentation
Scientific level of consideration




                                                     Market
    ...
Market Segmentation
Objectives, methods, strategies of market segmentation




Lead Structure                        Appro...
Market Definition
Hierarchy representation for the preparation of a market analysis of companies
with a broad range of pro...
Market Analysis/
Competition
Situation analysis
Situation Analysis - Search Fields
Search fields for the identification of potential chances and risks


   Environment an...
Market Analysis - Strategic Situation Analysis
Analysis of market participants, political and legal situation and social,
...
Marketing - Situation Analysis
Check list with basic questions to clarify the initial situation


       What is the marke...
Market Analysis - Company Analysis
Corporate philosophy (1/6)

 Corporate policy                  Corporate vision        ...
Market Analysis - Company Analysis
Corporate philosophy (2/6)

 Corporate identity                Corporate culture       ...
Market Analysis - Company Analysis
Corporate potentials (3/6)

 Development                       Marketing               ...
Market Analysis - Company Analysis
Corporate potentials (4/6)

 Procurement                       Financing               ...
Market Analysis - Company Analysis
Corporate resources (5/6)

 Material resources         Financial resources             ...
Market Analysis - Company Analysis
Company position on the market (6/6)

Markets                     Advantages           ...
Potential Analysis
    Inspection of the position of own company on the market according to the
                          ...
Market Analysis - Strengths and Weakness
Strengths and weaknesses profile

    Own company            Other Company

     ...
Competition Analysis
Example

                                                          Characteristic
                   ...
Marketing - Representation of Market Volume
Representation of market volume and its development as a diagram

            ...
Characterization of Markets - Sizes
Relationship between market potential, market volume and market share
to assess the ma...
Market - Description/ Term Definition
Terms to describe markets

                               Market potential:         ...
Market Analysis - Environment Analysis
Placeholder for your own Subheadline


                                            ...
Opportunities - Threats-Analysis
Analysis about the company’s opinion on environmental changes and where
adjustments need ...
Chance-Risk-Analysis
Chances and Risks with possible development outside the company and their
influence on marketing stra...
Strength and Weaknesses Analysis
Analysis of internal Company Resources

                                                 ...
SWOT-Analysis
Enter your subheadline here


                Strength      Weaknesses




                                 ...
Gap Analysis
Revenue targets and their development in the course of time
 Target value i.e. revenue




                  ...
ABC-Analysis
ABC Analysis is methodology that gives a quickly and simple review of
assortments of products in retail, whol...
ABC-Analysis
Placeholder für Ihre eigene Subheadline

         Percent                          Sales 2010    Commulated
 ...
Quality and Price Positioning
Relative positioning of different product categories
      high




                        ...
Seller / Buyer's Market - Features
Comparison and limits of the characteristics of the seller and buyer's market

        ...
Market Attractiveness - Competition Advantage
Portfolio 1/3
Analysis of portfolio categories according to the criteria lis...
Market Attractiveness - Competition Advantage
Portfolio 2/3
Analysis of portfolio categories according to the criteria lis...
Market Attractiveness - Competition Advantage
Portfolio 3/3
Display of portfolio graphic according to results of prior cri...
Market Segmentation
Different types and levels of market segmentation
                                                    ...
Segmenting-Targeting-Positioning (STP-Model)
Three steps to target group oriented marketing

    Market segmentation      ...
Segmenting-Targeting-Positioning (STP-Model)
Three steps in the process of market segmentation



 Segmentation           ...
Customer Segmentation
Differentiation and description of target groups

Customer segment X
Characteristics:               ...
Market Entry Barriers
Institutional and behavior dependent market entry barriers

                                        ...
Values and Lifestyles (VALS)
System of lifestyle-typology of consumer

                                 VALS Typology
    ...
Competitive Advantage
Representation of the thre influencial factors customers, organization
and competition


           ...
Market Research - Process Scheme
Separation of market research process in five phases


Definition Phase                  ...
Sales Orientation vs. Marketing Orientation
Comparison

The sales orientation
     Initial point      Main focus on       ...
Competition Strategies
Differentiation between cost leadership, time leadership and quality leadership




       Cost lea...
Competitive Advantage - 5 Principles
A competitive advantage over the competition is a superior performance
or property


...
Competitive Advantage - Advantage Matrix
Representation of the relationship of competitive advantages and quantities

    ...
Competition Strategies
Representation of coherences between competitive advantages and amounts


                     +
  ...
Marketing Models
Established models
Competition - Driving Forces
The five driving forces of sector competition (according to Porter)


                       ...
Marketing - 4P-Model
Product, Price, Place, Promotion



                                    PRODUCT




           PRICE ...
Marketing - 4P-Model
Product, Price, Place, Promotion
5P-Model
Expansion of the 4P model with the aspect of “Personnel”



                                   PRODUCT




      ...
5P- Model
Expansion of the 4P model with the aspect of “Personnel”
Marketing 4P‘s
Enter your subheadline here


                                       4Ps


      Product                 Pr...
Marketing Mix - 7P                                              Classical instruments
Classical and new instruments       ...
Marketing Mix
Example with individual factors




                                        Brand name
                     ...
Marketing Mix (4P‘s)
Components of the marketing mix

     Product policy                Price policy             Communic...
Service marketing (from 4P’s to 7P’s)
Comparison of 4P´s and 7P´s

        4 P‘s of the classical                    7 P‘s...
AIDA- Model
Step model in 4 phases (Phases could variy)




          A                    I                  D           ...
AIDA - Action Principle
The stage model includes four phases the Customer goes through in order to
make the purchase decis...
Marketing 3C’s Triangle
Enter your subheadline here


                                Customer




                       ...
Diamond-Model - National Competitive Advantages
Thesis to assess the competitive abilities of states in terms of individua...
Porter‘s Five Forces Analysis
Enter your subheadline here


                             New Competitors
                 ...
Five Forces
Five (+1) competitive forces according to Porter (supplement through stakeholder)

     Potentially new compet...
S-Curve Concept - Life Cycle
Representation of the life cycle of technology in the course of time

                       ...
Marketing Strategy /
Concept
Strategic marketing / concepts
Differentiation - Strategic Marketing
Position of the strategic marketing between strategic management and marketing
manag...
Conception Phases of Marketing
Enter your subheadline here

                                        Situation Analysis
   ...
Marketing - Communication Policy
Ten-step model of marketing communication

                                              ...
Four Codes of Brand Communication
Communication model that implies that there are three more codes next to
language respon...
Core Competences / Product Pyramid
Core competences as a base of the product pyramid, which are not easily adapted
by othe...
Marketing Strategy - Influencial Factors
Influencial factors



Organizational                                   Attitude ...
Marketing Strategy
Marketing as market-oriented business management / business strategy


                             Pro...
Elements of Marketing Concept
Connection between the separate elements and their logical process structure



       Wishe...
Market Areal Strategy
Determination of geographic coverage


                           Market areal strategies



       ...
Market Simulation Strategies - Stuck in the Middle
  Placeholder for own Subheadline

                                    ...
Marketing Strategy - Strategic Triangle
Integrated marketing strategies include the strategic triangle of company,
custome...
Marketing Strategy - Strategic Pentagon
According to Ohmae 1992


                            Customer




          Gover...
Innovation - Demand Pull and Technology Push
Interplay between both strategies



     Company                         Mar...
Media Strategy - Dimensions
Analysis and visualization of the six most important parameter of media strategy

            ...
Marketing Strategies
Strategies according to individualization degree and customer relation

          Level of individual...
Strategic Marketing
Questions and Marketing


             Where?                                   How?                  ...
Marketing Orientations
Orientation of the company on the turnover market

 Starting Point                      Medium     ...
Cost Leadership
The strategy of a company to reach sustainable competitive advantage be low
costs is differentiated in 8 m...
Differentiation Strategy
The strategy of a company to differentiate themselves positively from the
competition from the cu...
Market Field Strategies according to Ansoff
Ansoff-matrix with the representation of product-market-strategies

          ...
Market Area Strategies
Basic principles for market areas / market development

                                           ...
Marketing - STP-Strategies
Strategies of market davelopment




         S                         T                      ...
Competition Strategies
 Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies
                        Overal...
Competition Strategies
 Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies
                        Overal...
Competition Strategies
Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies

                       Strateg...
Market Field Strategies according to Ansoff
Ansoff-matrix with the representation of product-market-strategies


         ...
Norm Strategies - McKinsey/GE
Enter your subheadline here

       Market-
 attractiveness          Specializing in few
  ...
Norm Strategies - McKinsey/GE
Matrix of norm strategies (threefold division of axis )



                                 ...
Market Growth
Representation of market sizes, like market potential, market volume and market
growth in the course of time...
Outpacing-Strategie
Increase in profitability by maximizing quality (high customer benefit) and cost
reduction


         ...
Innovation Strategies - Innovation Pentagram
A tool of innovation management


                                  Motive: W...
Marketing Concepts - Dimensions
Platzhalter für Ihre eigene Subheadline
Internationalization Strategies
Placeholder for own Subheadline

 This is a placeholder text. This text can be
  replaced...
Marketing Planning /
Objectives
Marketing Management - Process
Representation of the ideal type process of marketing management

                         ...
Marketing-Planning Process
Marketing as a process devided in the five steps of market analysis, marketing
objective, strat...
Marketing Targets
Economic and non-economic objectives of a business

         Economic marketing targets                N...
Goal criteria − SMART
The 5 criteria that define a goal so that it can be used in project management




    Specific     ...
Marketing Objectives - Target Pyramid
Placeholder for own Subheadline




                           Corporate            ...
Marketing objctives / Hierarchical levels of objectives
Objective system in form of a hierarchy


                        ...
CR-Marketing - Target Hierarchy
Operative and strategic main and sub objectives



                                       ...
Conventional Marketing Targets
Targets for successful business




         Increasing               Increasing           ...
Marketing Plan
Process to create a marketing plan

                            Objectives and Indicators                  ...
Marketing
Management
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  1. 1. Marketing Toolbox Subtitle, Autor or Date
  2. 2. Basics Definitions / Explanations
  3. 3. Marketing Orientation Orientation in companies which strongly influenced the development of marketing Technological Orientation Marketing Orientation (innovation, perfectionism) (market share, competitive advantage) Employee Orientation Customer Orientation (satisfaction, qualification) (customer satisfaction, customer loyalty) Efficiency Orientation Financial Orientation (optimization, cost reduction) (result, revenue, profitability, liquidity) Social Orientation Quality Orientation (environment, public, image) (improvement, ISO-certification, quality price)
  4. 4. Marketing Triangle Company, employees and customer Company Marketing Triangle Employee Customer interactive marketing
  5. 5. Marketing - Simple Model Model of a simplified marketing system and connection between provider and market Communication to Market / Information Provider Market Delivery of Product / service Overall market Provider of the product or service Transaction of customers and interested parties Payments Feedback to provider / information
  6. 6. Marketing - Perspectives Differentiation of 3 perspectives: The entrepreneurial approach (philosophy), instrumentation (technology) and management concept Marketing Philosophy Technology Management Orientation of Orientation of Orientation of the marketing to the marketing to the marketing to the most optimal the most optimal the most optimal satisfaction of effect of marketing process development, all customer instruments analysis, planning, requirements steering and controlling of all marketing activities
  7. 7. Development Phases of Marketing Development phases in the last 100 years Sales and Market and Customer / Production distribution competition individual orientation orientation orientation orientation market oriented company management (marketing management) customer relationship management (CRM) marketing implementation marketing implementation marketing mix marketing mix marketing mix product policy product policy product policy price policy price policy price policy communication policy advertisement communication policy communication policy distribution policy sales sales distribution policy distribution policy mix extension 1900 - 1920 approx. 1920 - 1950 approx. 1950 - 1980 approx. 1980 - 1990 since 1990
  8. 8. Development of Marketing Steps of development of Marketing Product orientation Market orientation Environment orientation Network orientation Pure production due to Specialization on individual Response to environmental, Web 2.0, social networks, popular demand needs and market political, technological or Word of Mouth (eg postwar period) segmentation societal changes 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 Sales orientation Competition Dialog orientation Change from the Production orientation Interactive design of to distribution communication through the Emphasis on unique internet, e-mails selling points (USP)
  9. 9. Marketing Pyramid Pyramid with (higher-ranked) marketing objectives on the top Marketing objectives Marketing strategies Marketing instruments Product- and Price and Communication Distribution program policy condition policy policy policy
  10. 10. Marketing - Classical vs. Alternative Marketing Overview of some marketing tools Classical Marketing Alternative Marketing Guerilla marketing Viral marketing Public relations Search engines Outside advertisement / Billboard advertisement Mobile marketing Direct marketing Radio / TV / Movies Sales promotion Print media Product placement Fairs / Exhibitions Classical advertisement Event marketing Sponsoring
  11. 11. Marketing Objects Differentiation according to different marketing objects and approaches Marketing object Consumer goods - Investment goods - Service 1 marketing 2 marketing 3 marketing marketing of marketing of marketing for products for products for immaterial goods and private usage occupational use service performance Non-Profit- Social Destination Trade 4 marketing 5 marketing 6 marketing 7 marketing marketing for marketing of a marketing of an marketing of a organizations without social idea explicit region trade and sales company gainful intent (no organization) (tourism) (retail)
  12. 12. Marketing - Sales Markets Differentiation according to 3 sales markets and the participating partners Marketing B - to - B B - to - C C - to - C Business-to-Business- Business-to-Customer- Customer-to- Marketing Marketing Customer-Marketing (company customer) (private customer business) Marketing of one Marketing of a Marketing of a private company to another company household to another company to a private house old private household (i.e. production machines) (consumption goods) (i.e. private sales on ebay)
  13. 13. Characterization of Markets - Types of Goods Types of assets and their usage situations Consumer Goods Capital Goods Services Consumer goods (e.g. food) Are used by production companies Immaterial benefits, and durables (e.g. cars) satisfy to produce further goods. Buyers often incurred only at the time immediate needs, and are directly are usually establishments or of consumption. The customer is put into use by the buyers public companies. part of the performance / service. (consumers). Single, clear identifiable Services for customer with Mass-Market (B2C) customer (B2B) a high use of resources
  14. 14. Market Segmentation Scientific level of consideration Market Market Capture Segmentation Market Processing Explanatory Segments- models Acquisition of Information Selection of Specific use of of purchase information processing segments instruments pattern Consumer-oriented approach Method-oriented approach Management-oriented approach
  15. 15. Market Segmentation Objectives, methods, strategies of market segmentation Lead Structure Approaches of Market Segmentation behavior-oriented Reasons/ Meaning OBJECTIVES method-oriented STRATEGIES management-oriented Quantitative Qualitative
  16. 16. Market Definition Hierarchy representation for the preparation of a market analysis of companies with a broad range of products or services Overall Market Strategic management Definition Market 1 Market 2 Market 3 of markets (Description) (Description) (Description) Strategic business units SBU 1 SBU 2 SBU 3 Marketing Segment A Segment B Segment C Sub Market A Sub Market B Sub Market C
  17. 17. Market Analysis/ Competition Situation analysis
  18. 18. Situation Analysis - Search Fields Search fields for the identification of potential chances and risks Environment analysis Market analysis Frame conditions:  political  social Competitor  technological  economical  ecological Company Stakeholder: Supplier Customer analysis  employees  investors  unions  etc. Substitute products
  19. 19. Market Analysis - Strategic Situation Analysis Analysis of market participants, political and legal situation and social, technological, geographical and economical aspects Own Relevant Supplier, Sales mediator Legal, social and natural organization competitor and potential customers environment Potential analysis Competition analysis Market analysis Environment analysis Strengths and weaknesses analysis Opportunities and threats analysis SWOT Analysis Interpretation of data of strategic situation analysis are the foundation of the following marketing decisions
  20. 20. Marketing - Situation Analysis Check list with basic questions to clarify the initial situation What is the market where the company operates and 1 how can it be defined and narrowed? Who is involved in the sales process? 2 What determines the behavior of these groups? 3 Which competitors are currently operating on the market? Do public interest groups or any external stakeholders have an 4 impact on your company policy? What is the actual-situation of the company? 5 What are your strengths and weaknesses?
  21. 21. Market Analysis - Company Analysis Corporate philosophy (1/6) Corporate policy Corporate vision Corporate idea Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in key words. key words. key words.
  22. 22. Market Analysis - Company Analysis Corporate philosophy (2/6) Corporate identity Corporate culture Corporate objectives Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in key words. key words. key words.
  23. 23. Market Analysis - Company Analysis Corporate potentials (3/6) Development Marketing Production -research/ development -marketing concept -technology -know how -standards -capacity -patent -brands -productivity -development status Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in key words. key words. key words.
  24. 24. Market Analysis - Company Analysis Corporate potentials (4/6) Procurement Financing Company - procurement systems -capital requirements -organization - supplier relationship - investment intensity -value chain - purchasing power Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in Insert description and notes in key words. key words. key words.
  25. 25. Market Analysis - Company Analysis Corporate resources (5/6) Material resources Financial resources Employees - installations - liquidity -staff situation - interior -reserves - education -equipment -possibilities to raise capital - staff development Managers IT-equipment Other - quality of leadership - sort Insert description and notes in - business experience - actuality key words. - age structure - complexity
  26. 26. Market Analysis - Company Analysis Company position on the market (6/6) Markets Advantages Product mix Cost- Price -overall and partial - product and - revenue - price per piece- market - market share performance advantages - profitability price relations -market and sales profile - innovations - age profile - value chain - protection against replicates Insert description and Insert description and notes in key words. Insert description and Insert description and notes in key words. notes in key words. notes in key words.
  27. 27. Potential Analysis Inspection of the position of own company on the market according to the following factors TV campaign Documentary Capital Employees brand image of positioning of company, capital resources, number of employees, company, market share of provider of creditworthiness structure, separate product brands qualification product brands and motivation Location Sales Partner Customer location quality, distribution relation to number of customers, infrastructure, organization cooperation customer potential, business locations, and distribution customer retention distribution in target area partners (loyalty vs. fluctuation)
  28. 28. Market Analysis - Strengths and Weakness Strengths and weaknesses profile Own company Other Company Weakness Strength Criteria -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 Product range (quantity) Product range (quality) Price Service (general) Availability by phone Customer satisfaction Supplier satisfaction …
  29. 29. Competition Analysis Example Characteristic high low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Quality Price Performance Usage Image Environment-friendliness Design Additional functions Your product Competitor’s product
  30. 30. Marketing - Representation of Market Volume Representation of market volume and its development as a diagram Market potential Number of possible customer Sales volume or sales of a or amount if all customers provider / company are prepared to buy (at the given price) Market volume Market share Market capcity Total number of possible customer Actual sales or sales for or max. amount of products that can be used all vendors at the market consumed / (if price does not matter) Market volume Saturation = x 100% Market potential
  31. 31. Characterization of Markets - Sizes Relationship between market potential, market volume and market share to assess the market attractiveness Relative Market Share A Market Share = Market Volume Company A Market Share B Market Share Total sales or a turnover Market share of a company and the ratio of an industry including of sales / turnover of the company to the all competitors market volume Relative Market Share Ratio of Market share of a company to the market share of the strongest Market Potential competitor Capacity of the market up to market saturation
  32. 32. Market - Description/ Term Definition Terms to describe markets Market potential: Market volume: equates to the absorption capacity of the realized / scheduled sales or revenue for a market (market capacity) or the volume similar product for example for one year. of the possible deductable amounts of one Clearly more specific than the market product at a certain market. potential. Market potential Market- Sales / Revenue Absolute Relative exhaustion volume of the company market share market share Market volume Market exhaustion: Relative market share: percentage value that indicates to what Absolute market share: indicator of market position by degree the possible customer of a product market share, that the company has relating their own sales to the sales would consume it. (Market limit used as a realized on a certain market of its largest competitor in the gauge for future market growth) (sales or revenue) industry.
  33. 33. Market Analysis - Environment Analysis Placeholder for your own Subheadline Calculation Colleague gen. FTL +/2 Dep. 4 Lead Customer +/2 gen. Engineer Dep. 1 +/3 +/2 DB +/2 Construction o/0.5 +/2 Design Intranet engineer k/0.5 Design +/3 Dep. 4 engineer o/1 Dep. 4 o/1 o/1 Internet +/3 Customer Supplier +/1 gen. Design /0 Quality of connection engineer +/1 + perfect Dep. 4 Attempt o normal K critical Customer Feedback Reference The text demonstrates how Frequency of connection Calculation your own text will look when 3 intensive 2 medium you replace the placeholder 1 low with your own text. 0 nonexistent
  34. 34. Opportunities - Threats-Analysis Analysis about the company’s opinion on environmental changes and where adjustments need to be done Criteria Opportunities Threats Marktsituation Market structure x Market potential/ market volume x Customer structure x Competitor x Environment / Frame conditions Laws / Taxes x Society x Ecology x Technological Development x Strength Product range x Prices x Organization / Management x Cash Flow x Weaknesses Locations x Marketing performance x Innovation ability x Financial resources x
  35. 35. Chance-Risk-Analysis Chances and Risks with possible development outside the company and their influence on marketing strategy and business planning Opportunities Threats new product development in own company development of a new product by the competitor own innovations innovations of the competitor new target groups and buyer levels development of new competitors opening new markets in other countries development of new competitive suppliers in other countries increasing demand development of over-production recovery of the overall economy weakening of the overall economy loosening or changing of relevant laws limited measures and legislative processes currency exchange revenues on foreign markets through exchange rate losses on foreign markets through negative changes positive change of exchange rates of the exchange rate technological development / change of base technologies
  36. 36. Strength and Weaknesses Analysis Analysis of internal Company Resources Relevance Sector Success Factor Notes 1 2 3 4 5 Range of service Pricing Image Market share Market growth Sales development Distribution Sales network Advertising Marketing and Complaint management Sales Adherence to schedules Customer structure Order processing Sensitivity to economic situations Customer service Market cultivation Sales representatives Market research Sales planning Customer loyalty
  37. 37. SWOT-Analysis Enter your subheadline here Strength Weaknesses External Analysis Opportunities Threats
  38. 38. Gap Analysis Revenue targets and their development in the course of time Target value i.e. revenue Strategic gap Development limit New business Potential Operative gap core business Core business Present Planning horizon time
  39. 39. ABC-Analysis ABC Analysis is methodology that gives a quickly and simple review of assortments of products in retail, wholesale or manufacturing businesses Turnover / Value in % 100% 80% 60% A B C 40% 20% Range of Products / Quantity in % 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
  40. 40. ABC-Analysis Placeholder für Ihre eigene Subheadline Percent Sales 2010 Commulated No. Customer Customer (in Dollar) Sales 1 5% Placeholder 100,000 16,4% 2 10% Placeholder 95,000 31,9% 3 15% Placeholder 90,000 46,7% 4 20% Placeholder 85,000 60,6% 5 50% Placeholder 30,000 82,3% 6 100% Placeholder 300 100% 610,400
  41. 41. Quality and Price Positioning Relative positioning of different product categories high Brand article Relative quality No-names Trademarks low low Relative price high
  42. 42. Seller / Buyer's Market - Features Comparison and limits of the characteristics of the seller and buyer's market Activities of supplier Activities of demander Features Seller‘s Market Buyer‘s Market Economic Scaricity economy Affluent societies development stage Ratio of supply Demand> Supply Supply> Demand (Excess demand) (Surplus) and demand Demand more active than provider Providers more active than buyers Bottleneck area Procurement and / or production Turn over of company Primary efforts Rational extension of procurement Awakening of demand and creation of company and production capacity of preferences for their own
  43. 43. Market Attractiveness - Competition Advantage Portfolio 1/3 Analysis of portfolio categories according to the criteria lists Evaluation of market attractiveness Coefficients Coefficients Criteria Weigh. 0 0,1 0,2…0,8 0,9 Index Criteria Weigh. 0 0,1 0,2…0,8 0,9 Index 1 1 1. Market growth 3. Energy / Accommodation 2. Market quality - interference of accommodation - Profitability of the branch - influence of profitability through - Tolerance for price policy price incensement - Technological level - existence of alternatives - Protectability of know how 4. Environment situation - Intensity of investments - Economic dependency - Intensity / structure of competition - Inflation effects - Number / structure of potential consumer - Dependency on legislation - Entry barriers - Dependency on public - Distribution requirements - Risk of public interference - Variability of competition conditions - Pollution of nature - Substitution possibilities TOTAL 1,0
  44. 44. Market Attractiveness - Competition Advantage Portfolio 2/3 Analysis of portfolio categories according to the criteria lists Evaluation of market attractiveness Coefficients Coefficients Criteria Weigh. 0 0,1 0,2…0,8 0,9 Index Criteria Weigh. 0 0,1 0,2…0,8 0,9 Index 1 1 1. Rel. market position - Pot. increase of productivity - Market share - Environmental friendly production - Size and financial power -Delivery conditions - Growth rate - Sustain market share with given supply conditions - Profitability - Cost situation with energy and raw - Risk material supply - Market potential 3. Relative R&D potential 2. Rel. product potential - Status of research - Process efficiency - Development compared to market position - Cost advantage - Innovation potential - Innovation ability 4. Rel. employee qualification - License relations - Professionalism and culture - Adaptability - Innovation climate - Sustain market share with capacity - Quality of management systems - Location advantage TOTAL 1,0
  45. 45. Market Attractiveness - Competition Advantage Portfolio 3/3 Display of portfolio graphic according to results of prior criteria lists low medium high Investment and growths strategies A high Market attractiveness Selective strategies medium B Absorption and divestment strategies C low Relative competition advantage
  46. 46. Market Segmentation Different types and levels of market segmentation Segmentation Undifferentiated marketing Differentiated marketing Concentrates marketing Micro marketing Mass Product variety Segment Nische Individual marketing marketing marketing marketing marketing Products, distribution and Prices, distribution and High degree of market High specialization and It’s the highest degree of advertisements are advertisement measures coverage serves multiple or concentration on special segmentation and external designed the same for all are developed for different many different sub sub markets or clearly opposite to mass customers. target groups. markets. defined customer groups. marketing. Difference between Orientation according to Further sub divisions: Niche providers are highly Segmentation of market separate segments are target groups creates specialized and pursuit a down to the individual being ignored and the better approaches for the 1. Concentration to only secure market position in customer by increasing market is served with one determination of market one segment procurement. individualization tendency offer. chances. 2. Selective specialization and technical progress. 3. Product specification 4. Market specialization Customized mass 5. Complete segment production coverage (Mass customization / One-to-One-marketing) Broad target group Narrow target group approach approach
  47. 47. Segmenting-Targeting-Positioning (STP-Model) Three steps to target group oriented marketing Market segmentation Target market determination Positioning Determination of Development of assesment Development of a lasting 1 segmentation variables/ segmentation of Market guidelines for the determination of attractiveness. Finally the selection competition position and determination of tasks and and concentration on one or more performance program for selected Development of segments. target segments. 2 resulted segment profile Estimation of 3 attractiveness of each Segment 4 Selection of target segments Zoning of market in clear defined target groups / Customer groups with own products and marketing-mix. 5 Development of possible positioning concepts Selection and 6 Communication of positioning concept Time
  48. 48. Segmenting-Targeting-Positioning (STP-Model) Three steps in the process of market segmentation Segmentation Targeting Positionierung  Determination of segment variables  Analysis of estimation  Designing of a possible of attractiveness of positioning concept  Definition and segmentation of each segment the market  Selection and  Selection of target communication of  Development and description of segments positioning concept resulting segment profiles
  49. 49. Customer Segmentation Differentiation and description of target groups Customer segment X Characteristics: Feature A  …  …  … Core motive: Customer segment Y Characteristics :  …  … Feature B  … Core motive: Individual Customer segment Z Characteristics :  …  …  … Core motive:
  50. 50. Market Entry Barriers Institutional and behavior dependent market entry barriers Market entry barriers Behavior dependent market Institutional market entry barriers entry barriers Tariff barriers Non-tariff barriers Market side barriers Company side barriers Tolls Import quotes Demand behavior Information availability Psychological distance Capital flows limitations Language / culture of management Minimum /maximum prices Distribution systems Administrative Local content regulations constrains Norms / standards Self limitations
  51. 51. Values and Lifestyles (VALS) System of lifestyle-typology of consumer VALS Typology Values and Lifestyles (VALS) Extroverts Notleidende Introverts Achievers Sustainers Socially-Conscious Emulators Survivors Experimentals Belongers I-am-me s
  52. 52. Competitive Advantage Representation of the thre influencial factors customers, organization and competition Expectation on the product and benefit Competitive advantage
  53. 53. Market Research - Process Scheme Separation of market research process in five phases Definition Phase Data Collection Phase Documentation Phase Dokumentations- Problem definition and Presentation of results phase development of survey Research report distributer Präsentation der Ergebnisse targets Topic of research Forschungsbericht Verteiler D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Designphase Data analysis phase Marketing Fixation of target groups Evaluation of data decision Selection of research methods Interpretation Recommendations and instruments Prognosis that influence Organization (time/cost) decisions Sources for data
  54. 54. Sales Orientation vs. Marketing Orientation Comparison The sales orientation Initial point Main focus on Measure Target existing existing advertisement, profit through production products sales promotions high revenue The marketing orientation Initial point Main focus on Measure Target long term profit actual customer integrated expectation through the markets requirements marketing approach sustainable satisfaction of customers
  55. 55. Competition Strategies Differentiation between cost leadership, time leadership and quality leadership Cost leadership Time leadership Quality leadership Causing lower costs than Choice of time of market Determination and competitor i.e. though entry. implementation of technical production of large amounts Previous development time, improvements and product and low priced procurements. handling time and production improvements with the target Mostly this doesn’t require a time are important here. to always provide the best large market share. quality on the market.
  56. 56. Competitive Advantage - 5 Principles A competitive advantage over the competition is a superior performance or property A distinction is made between five principles: Principle of Opportunity Perceptual Concentration Consistency survival principle principle principle principle At least one strategic Creating competitive Only competitive At least one strategic Focus on strategic competition advantage advantages through advantages that the competitive advantage competitive benefits must be present important competitive customer subjectively must be present which are most (long term). parameters. perceives count (not (long term). important for (the more the greater technical advantages). the customer. the chance)
  57. 57. Competitive Advantage - Advantage Matrix Representation of the relationship of competitive advantages and quantities Volume has no /or Volume has great advantages small advantages Many Niche business Special business competitive advantages (Restaurants, consultants) (Journals, instruments) Only a few Patt-business competitive Volume business advantages (Basic materials chemistry, standard (PC's, IC's) possible paper)
  58. 58. Competition Strategies Representation of coherences between competitive advantages and amounts + Cost leader Benefit leader Profitability - ? + - Cost leader and benefit leader require singularity characteristics otherwise they lose their leading positions.
  59. 59. Marketing Models Established models
  60. 60. Competition - Driving Forces The five driving forces of sector competition (according to Porter) Potentially new competitors Threat of new competitors Bargaining power of suppliers Competitors in the industry Suppliers Buyer Rivalry among existing companies Bargaining power of buyers Threat of substitution products or services Substitution products
  61. 61. Marketing - 4P-Model Product, Price, Place, Promotion PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION
  62. 62. Marketing - 4P-Model Product, Price, Place, Promotion
  63. 63. 5P-Model Expansion of the 4P model with the aspect of “Personnel” PRODUCT PRICE PLACE PROMOTION PERSONNEL
  64. 64. 5P- Model Expansion of the 4P model with the aspect of “Personnel”
  65. 65. Marketing 4P‘s Enter your subheadline here 4Ps Product Price Promotion Place Main usage Conditions Advertisement Strategic distribution/ sales Physical Side usage Rebate Sales distribution/logistics Additional usage Discount Sponsoring Location Brand Leasing Sales promotion Content Event Quality PPR Packaging
  66. 66. Marketing Mix - 7P Classical instruments Classical and new instruments New instruments Product policy „product“ Process policy Price policy „process“ „price“ Distribution policy Equipment policy „place“ „physical facilities“ Personnel policy Communication policy „personnel“ „promotion“
  67. 67. Marketing Mix Example with individual factors Brand name Slogan Logo Product design / ad campaign packaging Brochure / Corporate design Sales Training Brochures / Product Press conference presentation Reseller discount Businesspaper Give-Aways Website
  68. 68. Marketing Mix (4P‘s) Components of the marketing mix Product policy Price policy Communication policy Distribution policy  Product innovations  Price  Media advertisement  Distribution systems  Product improvements  Price deductions  Sales promotion  Sales organs  Product differentiation  Rebates and discounts  Direct marketing  Logistic systems  Marking  Delivery conditions  Public relations  Naming  Payment conditions  Sponsoring  Service performance  Personal communication  Assortment planning  Fairs and exhibitions  Packaging  Multi-media communication  Employee communication Marketing mix Sub-markets and customer groups
  69. 69. Service marketing (from 4P’s to 7P’s) Comparison of 4P´s and 7P´s 4 P‘s of the classical 7 P‘s of the consumption goods marketing service marketing advertisement product product positioning employees advertisement price positioning physical price facilities process management
  70. 70. AIDA- Model Step model in 4 phases (Phases could variy) A I D A Attention Interest Desire Action Attract the The customer is The desire for The cusomer customer‘s interested in the the product is probably attention product awakened purchases
  71. 71. AIDA - Action Principle The stage model includes four phases the Customer goes through in order to make the purchase decision Physical reaction Action (economical) The customer buys the product The desire for the product Desire is awakened (demand) Psychological reaction (pre- economical) The customer is interested in Interest the product Attention of the customer Attention for the product is excited
  72. 72. Marketing 3C’s Triangle Enter your subheadline here Customer Distributors Clients Competitors Suppliers
  73. 73. Diamond-Model - National Competitive Advantages Thesis to assess the competitive abilities of states in terms of individual industries (according to Porter) Coincidence Strategy, structure and competition Factual conditions Demand conditions Related and supporting industries Government
  74. 74. Porter‘s Five Forces Analysis Enter your subheadline here New Competitors Threat of new competition Competition on relevant Bargening power Bargening prower market = rivalry among of supplier competitors of customer Substitution products = threat of substitution
  75. 75. Five Forces Five (+1) competitive forces according to Porter (supplement through stakeholder) Potentially new competitors Potential further stakeholder threat through new competitors Potential bargaining power and the ability to intervene in the industry events Competitors/ rivalry between industry suppliers Suppliers Customer bargaining strength of bargaining power of customers suppliers Substitute products threat through substitute products or services
  76. 76. S-Curve Concept - Life Cycle Representation of the life cycle of technology in the course of time Basic technology Pace setting technology time development phase growth maturity age phases Life cycle of a technology
  77. 77. Marketing Strategy / Concept Strategic marketing / concepts
  78. 78. Differentiation - Strategic Marketing Position of the strategic marketing between strategic management and marketing management
  79. 79. Conception Phases of Marketing Enter your subheadline here Situation Analysis 1 Marketing Control 7 2 Marketing Objectives Implementation / 6 Customer 3 Marketing Strategy Realization Marketing Instruments/ 5 4 SBU-Planning Marketing-Mix (Strategic Business Units)
  80. 80. Marketing - Communication Policy Ten-step model of marketing communication Measure effect Step 10 Apply communication measures Step 9 Pre- test, Control of effect, return result to step 7, to apply Step 8 Return result at 5-9 improvements Plan separate communication measures Improvements Step 7 and corrections Budgeting and media selection (selecting advertising media) Step 6 Step 5 Develop communication strategy Step 4 Define communication targets and target groups Step 3 Derive marketing targets Step 2 Agree on company objectives Step 1 Situation analysis and prognosis for the company
  81. 81. Four Codes of Brand Communication Communication model that implies that there are three more codes next to language responsible for concrete meaning Meaning Language History Symbols Sensorics Style Tell stories Protagonists Sensorial experience Rhetoric Show episodes Figures Stimulation of senses Wording Places of action Noises / colors Shapes / haptics Only the interaction of these four Codes makes the brand communication sustainably successful
  82. 82. Core Competences / Product Pyramid Core competences as a base of the product pyramid, which are not easily adapted by other companies and therefor improve the benefit of the end product End product Core product Core competences BASE are valuable rare difficult to not sub- strength- immitate stitutable ened the more they are used
  83. 83. Marketing Strategy - Influencial Factors Influencial factors Organizational Attitude to objectives and change and risk resources Marketing Strategy Competitor Market structure strategies and opportunities
  84. 84. Marketing Strategy Marketing as market-oriented business management / business strategy Procurement Strategy Research and Business Strategy Production Strategy Development Strategy Quality Strategy Human Resources Strategy
  85. 85. Elements of Marketing Concept Connection between the separate elements and their logical process structure Wishes, requirements Offer of products and demands and services Elements Markets Customer benefit and customer satisfaction Exchange, transactions and relations
  86. 86. Market Areal Strategy Determination of geographic coverage Market areal strategies Inter- Multi- Local Regional National Global national national Process of geographic expansion
  87. 87. Market Simulation Strategies - Stuck in the Middle Placeholder for own Subheadline Performance II: Preference strategy IV: Advantage high strategy Outpacing strategy Outpacing strategy „Stuck-in-the-Middle“ low high Price Security distance I: Over reaching strategy III: Price / Amount strategy low
  88. 88. Marketing Strategy - Strategic Triangle Integrated marketing strategies include the strategic triangle of company, customer and competitor Customer Competitve advantage Own Competition Company
  89. 89. Marketing Strategy - Strategic Pentagon According to Ohmae 1992 Customer Government Currency Company Competitor
  90. 90. Innovation - Demand Pull and Technology Push Interplay between both strategies Company Market
  91. 91. Media Strategy - Dimensions Analysis and visualization of the six most important parameter of media strategy Percentage of the reached target group Range Design of advertising Frequency of addressing the (for instance: color) and their target persons placement Impact Contacts Dominance Intensity Size, formats, advertising and The number of applied media spot lengths (Media mix) Repetition Frequency and timely intervals of the contacts
  92. 92. Marketing Strategies Strategies according to individualization degree and customer relation Level of individualization of a product Customized Marketing Individual Marketing high individualization customer individual of product market development Mass-Marketing Relationship Marketing low standardized Individualization of market development customer relationship low high Individualization degree of customer relationship
  93. 93. Strategic Marketing Questions and Marketing Where? How? When? What is the central When will the company In which market is the orientation of the become active on company active? marketing strategy? the market? Concentration of company's Conscious selection of markets Determination of market entry activities on particularly attractive and definition of future strategies time in compliance of the previous and promising markets with long-term orientation development and production effort
  94. 94. Marketing Orientations Orientation of the company on the turnover market Starting Point Medium Objectives “ Produce as much Expansion / rationalization of Profit on increased Products/ Performance production and procurement volume as you can. ” Production orientation (seller‘s market) Products/ Performance Sales-political Profit on accordant “ Write off what instruments volume you‘ve produced. ” Sales orientation (saturation tendency) Market- research Bundle of Profit on long-term Customer wishes marketing satisfaction of “ Produce what you measures customers can write off. ” Market orientation (buyer‘s market)
  95. 95. Cost Leadership The strategy of a company to reach sustainable competitive advantage be low costs is differentiated in 8 methods Economies of scale Economies of scope Experience effects Economies of learning Product design Process design Residual effects Capacity utilization Input-Costs the operational effectiveness Cost leadership
  96. 96. Differentiation Strategy The strategy of a company to differentiate themselves positively from the competition from the customer’s point of view is separated in 6 different methods Price Image Support Design Quality Not differentiated Differentiation Strategy
  97. 97. Market Field Strategies according to Ansoff Ansoff-matrix with the representation of product-market-strategies Markets Products/ Existing New Performance Market penetration Market development  Market presence  Internationalisation Existing  Market suppression  Market segmentation Product development Diversification  Product innovation  Vertical diversification New  Product differentiation  Horizontal diversification  Lateral diversification
  98. 98. Market Area Strategies Basic principles for market areas / market development International Strategies  Multinational market  International market  World market National Strategies  Local market  Regional market  Cross regional market  National market
  99. 99. Marketing - STP-Strategies Strategies of market davelopment S T P Segmenting Targeting Positioning Market segmetation, Segment evaluation, Positioning versus Differentiation. segmentation criteria to target market determination Establishment of a competition divide the markets and target group position in each target segment. into clearly defined determination. Selection of Selection and communication of customer groups the most attractive market a concept segments
  100. 100. Competition Strategies Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies Overall market Differentiation strategy Cost leadership • performance/quality • price/costs Degree of competition • uniqueness • standard product Differentiation focus Cost focus • specific need • limited need • relatively price-inelastic • price elastic Sub-market Performance advantage Cost advantage Competitive advantage
  101. 101. Competition Strategies Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies Overall market Strategy of quality Strategy of aggressive leadership cost leadership Degree of competition Strategy of selective Strategy of selective Quality leadership Cost leadership Sub-market Performance advantage Cost advantage Competitive advantage
  102. 102. Competition Strategies Matrix for the devision and basic concept of competition strategies Strategic advantage Singularity from Cost advantage Strategic customers perspective target object Extensive Industry wide differentiation cost leadership Limitation to one segment Focusing
  103. 103. Market Field Strategies according to Ansoff Ansoff-matrix with the representation of product-market-strategies Product Existing New Market Existing Market penetration Market development New Product development Diversification
  104. 104. Norm Strategies - McKinsey/GE Enter your subheadline here Market- attractiveness  Specializing in few  Fight for the market strength  Maximum investments leadership high  Overcoming weaknesses  Concentration on Invest  Usage of strength  Retreat when missing preservation of existing Develop  Strengthening of poorly strength signs for continuous performing areas growth  Search for low risk  High investments in  Defending of position medium expansion possibilities attractive segment Devest  Minimizing of investments  Concentration of  Defense against Develop investments of attractive competitors  Rationalizing of internal and low risk areas processes  Increasing productivity  Defense of position in  Realization of profit Selective action  Sales with increasing most profitable area  Concentration of most Profit priority profits low  Improvement of product attractive segments  Reduction of fixed costs line  Defense of existing  No investments  Minimizing investments strength Competitive strength low medium high
  105. 105. Norm Strategies - McKinsey/GE Matrix of norm strategies (threefold division of axis ) Keep High Investment or retreat Investment market leadership Market attractiveness Absorption and Medium Transition Growth gradual divestment Absorption and gradual Low Divestment Absorption divestment Low Medium High Relative competitive advantages
  106. 106. Market Growth Representation of market sizes, like market potential, market volume and market growth in the course of time Amount / Value Market Potential 6 Sales Volume Provider A Sales Volume Provider B 5 Sales Volume Provider C 4 Sales Volume Provider D 3 2 Market Volume 1 0 Time Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4
  107. 107. Outpacing-Strategie Increase in profitability by maximizing quality (high customer benefit) and cost reduction high Cost reduction Target of Offer differentiation outpacing Quality/ Customer benefit Innovator Follower low expensive cheap Price / Costs
  108. 108. Innovation Strategies - Innovation Pentagram A tool of innovation management Motive: Which motive targets the innovation? Business system: With what kind of Advantage: What kind of business system advantages does the is the innovation innovation provide? implemented? Timing: When are we Revenue model: How is the applying these measures? revenue generated?
  109. 109. Marketing Concepts - Dimensions Platzhalter für Ihre eigene Subheadline
  110. 110. Internationalization Strategies Placeholder for own Subheadline  This is a placeholder text. This text can be replaced with your own text.  The text demonstrates how your own text 3 4 high will look when you replace the placeholder Integration advantage Global Transnational with your own text. marketing marketing  If you don’t want to use the style and size of the fonts as used in this placeholder it’s possible to replace it by selecting different options. 1 2 low International Multinational marketing marketing low high Differentiation advantage
  111. 111. Marketing Planning / Objectives
  112. 112. Marketing Management - Process Representation of the ideal type process of marketing management Analysis phase Marketing situation analysis Determination of market segments and marketing targets Four classic phases Definition of marketing strategy Planning phase Determination of marketing budget Determination of marketing measures Implementation phase Implementation of marketing measures Control phase Control of marketing results
  113. 113. Marketing-Planning Process Marketing as a process devided in the five steps of market analysis, marketing objective, strategy, marketing instruments and success control Market analysis Where are you? (actual-condition) What is the initial situation? Marketing targets Wher do you want to be? (establish objectives) Marketing strategy How will you reach your objectives? Marketing instruments Which instruments will be used? Success control Analysis of the difference between target and result
  114. 114. Marketing Targets Economic and non-economic objectives of a business Economic marketing targets Non-economic marketing targets Close connection to general Connecting to mental processes of economic company objectives buyer (purchase behavior) revenue / profitability customer retention profit contribution / Return-on-Investment customer satisfaction growth (revenue/sales/profit) name recognition rationalizing attitude (image / sympathie) capacities repurchase rate security (risk distribution) level of distribution market position /market share effects of knowledge strength of purchase intention
  115. 115. Goal criteria − SMART The 5 criteria that define a goal so that it can be used in project management Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time-bound Objectives have A goal It should be The objective The goal has to to be specific achievement attractive for the needs to be set within a and positively should be project team to achievable in a time frame. described. measurable. reach the goal. realistic way.
  116. 116. Marketing Objectives - Target Pyramid Placeholder for own Subheadline Corporate Retention of the economic and legal independency, increasing objectives development of flexibility Marketing Financial Increase in sales, improvement of objectives target company image Price Communication Distribution Preparation of contract conclusions policy target target target PR- objectives Exhibition objectives Advertisement Managing customer data, raise purchase objectives interest, increasing popularity of brand
  117. 117. Marketing objctives / Hierarchical levels of objectives Objective system in form of a hierarchy Object of the company Company objective Function targets Marketing targets are function targets Instrumental target Levels of objectives and marketing instruments
  118. 118. CR-Marketing - Target Hierarchy Operative and strategic main and sub objectives Company related sub-objectives - Positioning on the market Corporate - Employee loyalty objectives - Employee motivation - Innovation Profit / Yield Customer related sub-objectives -Customer contribution margin Marketing overall targets - Customer loyalty Costs / Productivity / Revenue / Sales - Customer satisfaction - Perceived performance quality
  119. 119. Conventional Marketing Targets Targets for successful business Increasing Increasing Improving market shares revenues contribution margin  Popularity  Price segment  Image  Revenue  Customer reach  Distribution  Customer satisfaction  Customer loyalty
  120. 120. Marketing Plan Process to create a marketing plan Objectives and Indicators Strategy Implementation (Marketing • Strategic and operational objectives Mix) Financial objectives • Product and pricing policy Market-and customer-related • Communication and distribution objectives policy 3. Strategy 1. Analysis 4. Mix 5. Control 2. Target Strategic Analysis Strategy Selection and Combination Success Control (progress and results) • Market and environment • Competitive strategies • Effectiveness of marketing tools analysis • Portfolio strategies • Performance of the people involved • Customer and competitor • Positioning strategies • Profitability of the chosen analysis • Innovation strategies products, markets and (customer success estimation)
  121. 121. Marketing Management
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