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Motivation assignment 1
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Motivation Theory - Assignment

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Explained about motivation theory, process motivation theory, reinforcement theory and put motivation together in motivation theory. Relation between leadership and motivation theory

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Motivation Theory - Assignment

  1. 1. Group 3 : Fadhila Rachmawati Ganjar Prabowo Jhon Keliat Steela Maharani William Suhaidir
  2. 2. Motivation movere To move “Psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed.” -Robert Kreitner & Angelo Kinicki-
  3. 3. Leader
  4. 4. Job Design Autonomy
  5. 5. Tools...
  6. 6. Abraham Maslow An American Psychologist “when one’s physiological needs are relatively satisfied, then safety needs emerge, and so on up the need hierarchy, once a need is satisfied, it activates the next higher need in the hierarchy until the need for self- actualization is activated (one step at time)”
  7. 7. Clayton Alderfer An American Psychologist ” after satisfying one category of needs, a person progresses to the next level (satisfaction-progression) and frustration of higher-order needs can influence the desire for lower-order needs (frustration-regretion).” Example : employee may demand higher pay or better benefits when they are dissatisfied with the quality of their interpersonal relationships at work.
  8. 8. Manifest needs theory of motivation is primarily McClelland’s classification of needs as achievement, power, and affiliation. It is a personality-based approach to motivation. David McClelland A Psychologist How the Needs affected the actions of people from a management content ?? -- Relationship between needs and behavior – “because effective managers must positively influence others, then top managers should have a high need for power coupled with a low need for affiliation”
  9. 9. The two-factor theory is Herzberg’s classification of needs as hygienes and motivators. Herzberg combines lower-level needs (physiological, safety, social/existence, and relatedness) into one classification he calls hygienes; and higher-level needs (esteem, self-actualization, growth) into one classification he calls motivators. Frederick Herzberg A Psychologist “An organization member who has good supervision, pay and working condition but a tedious and unchallenging task with little chance of advancement would be at zero midpoint. That person would have no dissatisfaction (because of good hygiene factors) and no satisfaction (because of lack motivators).”
  10. 10. John Stephen Akhwari (1968) Tanzania’s Athlete Summer Olympics in Mexico City “ My country send me 5000 miles not to start the race My country send me 5000 miles to finish the race “
  11. 11. Process Perspectives On Motivation Process perspectives are concerned with the thought processes by which people decide to act Equity theory Expectancy theory Goal setting theory IS A REWARD ENOUGH?
  12. 12. focuses on individual perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated relative to others. 1. Equity Theory of Motivation • what you think you put into the job Inputs • the rewards you could receive Outputs • how inputs and outputs compare to those of others Comparisons
  13. 13. Equity Theory of Motivation
  14. 14. 2. Expectancy Theory of Motivation Work Required A level of performance Final Outcome Expectancy is the belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance Instrumentality is the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the desired outcome Valence is the value or importance a worker assigns to the possible outcome or reward To reach Which should lead to People are motivated by how much they want something, and how likely they think they are to get it Victor Vroom (1978)
  15. 15. T R A 3. Goal Setting Theory A person can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenging, but achievable. (Edwin A.Locke -1968) Create SMART Goals M S SPECIFIC MEASUREABLE ACHIEVABLE REALISTIC TIMELY
  16. 16. Reinforcement Theory • Is primarily Skinner’s motivation theory: Behavior can be controlled through the use of rewards. • Called behavior modification and operant conditioning
  17. 17. Reinforcement Perspectives On Motivation
  18. 18. Reinforcement Schedule • Continuous Reinforcement With a continuous method, each desired behavior is reinforced. • Intermitten Reinforcement the reward is given based on the passage of time or output. When the reward is based on the passage of time, it is called an interval schedule. When it is based on output, it is called a ratio schedule.
  19. 19. Putting Motivation Theory Together with Motivation Question : D o M o t i v a t i o n T h e o r y A p p l y G l o b a l l y ?
  20. 20. Hierarchy of Needs, ERG and Two-factor Theory Security Needs Social Needs What is in the TOP of Hierarchy????
  21. 21. Manifest Needs Theory An American expatriate is transferred to Japan, and attempts to use the same motivational techniques that worked for him in the U.S. One member of his staff has done particularly good work, so in the next staff meeting he decides to single him out for praise. “Tanaka-san has really made an excellent contribution to this project. Everyone, let’s give Tanaka-san a hand.” In the U.S., the employee put in this situation would be beaming, pleased that their efforts were being recognized in a public way. However, the hapless Tanaka-san would be absolutely cringing. Being singled out is extremely uncomfortable for Japanese. This kind of attention to one individual tends to cause rifts in Japanese teams, upsetting their delicate balance. The attempt to motivate becomes demotivating, because it does not fit in well with the culture.
  22. 22. We are all born with intrinsic motivation, self-esteem, dignity, an eagerness to learn. Our present system of management crushes that all out. Instead of working for the company, people compete with each other. The Japanese are more successful than the U.S. because they live by cooperation, not competition. American firms will have to learn to support each other, rather than continue with the everybody for himself approach. That’s how business should be. The Wall Street Journal - Dr. W. Edwards Deming
  23. 23. Equity Theory William Suhaidir Jhon Keliat
  25. 25. Goal Setting
  26. 26. Reinforcement Theory Salary Slip (IDR) BasicSalary 7,500,000,00 Position Allowance 700,000,00 Attendance Allowance 1,500,000,00 Bonus on Attendance (22 x 15,000) 330,000,00 Deduction on Attendance(0 x 68,000) 0,00
  27. 27. Do Motivation Theory Apply Globally? DIFFERENT
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Explained about motivation theory, process motivation theory, reinforcement theory and put motivation together in motivation theory. Relation between leadership and motivation theory


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