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Industrial ecology

Ecology, Industrial Ecology

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Industrial ecology

  1. 1. THE WORLD OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY
  2. 2. INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY The study of the flows of materials and energy in industrial and consumer activities, the effects of these flows on the environment, and the influences of economic, political, regulatory, and social factors on the flow, use and transformation of resources (Braden Allenby & Deanna Richards, 1994) The primary goal of industrial ecology is to promote sustainable development at the local, regional, national, and global levels
  3. 3. IE is a dynamic system-based framework that enables management of human activity on a sustainable basis by:  Minimizing energy and materials usage  Ensuring acceptable quality of life for people  Minimizing the ecological impact of human activity to levels natural system can sustain  Maintaining the economic viability of systems for industry  Trade and commerce
  4. 4. The Dimensions of Industrial Ecology • Science – Values – Policy process Justice – Equity, Cleaner-production, consumers’ choice The role of Technology Democracy • Time Present – Future • Space Local – Regional – Global What should be sustainable? • Sector Economy – Social – Environment What is most important? Consumer – NGO – Company – Public sector
  5. 5.  However, most definitions comprise similar attributes with different emphases: These attributes include the following: • A multidisciplinary approach (ecology, economics, sociology, engineering, etc.) • A change from linear (open) processes to cyclical (closed) processes, so the waste from one industry is used as an input for another • Systems approach - An emphasis on harmoniously integrating industrial activity into ecological systems – holistic view • The idea of making industrial systems emulate more efficient and sustainable natural systems •Means of balancing environmental protection with economic and business viability
  6. 6. The Biological Analogy Industrial: It focuses on product design and manufacturing processes Ecological: Non-human natural ecosystems as models for industrial activity Example: Symbiotic relationship of organisms as to Industrial Symbiosis  The biological analogy has been applied at the level of facilities, districts, and regions, using notions borrowed from ecosystem ecology regarding the flow and the cycling of materials, nutrients and energy in ecosystems as a potential model for relationships between facilities.
  7. 7. Some applications of ecological principles to industrial systems: In natural systems, there is no such thing as waste due to nutrient cycling Concentrated toxins are not stored or transported in bulk at the system level, but are synthesized and used as needed only by individuals of a species Each member of an ecosystem performs multiple functions as it interrelates with other member Carrying capacity limits the extent of which populations grow
  8. 8. INDUSTRY AS A “LIVING SYSTEM WITHIN LIVING SYSTEMS.” View each level of industry as a living system participating in larger natural systems Use the principles and dynamics of ecosystems to guide industrial design Life cycle thinking - all environmental impacts caused by a product, system, or project during its life cycle are taken into account Systems thinking - solving problems must involve understanding the connections that exist between these systems
  9. 9. INDUSTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS  A community or network of companies and other organizations in a region who chose to interact by exchanging and making use of by- products or energy in a way that provides one or more of the following benefits: 1.Reduction in the use of virgin materials as resource inputs 2.Reduction in pollution i.e. emission of GHG 3.Increased energy efficiency leading to reduced energy use in the system as a whole 4.Reduction in the volume of waste products requiring disposal
  10. 10. Industrial Symbiosis  It was first coined in 1989 to describe the collaboration of businesses in Kalundborg  involves the physical exchange of materials, energy, water, and by- products among several organizations
  11. 11. Eco-industrial Park - A community of manufacturing and service businesses seeking enhanced environmental and resource issues including energy, water, materials, information, and natural habitat Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park (Denmark)
  12. 12. A timeline of the creation of the industrial park: 1959 The Asnaes Power Station was started up 1961 Tidewater Oil Company constructed a pipeline from Lake Tisso to provide water for its operation 1963 Tidewater Oil Company's oil refinery is taken over by Esso 1972 Gyproc establishes plaster-board manufacturing plant. A pipeline from the refinery to the Gyproc facility is constructed to supply excess refinery gas 1973 The Asnaes Power Station is expanded. A connection is built to the Lake Tisso-Statoil pipeline 1976 Novo Nordisk starts delivering biological sludge to neighboring farms
  13. 13. 1979 Asnaes Power Station starts supplying fly ash to cement manufacturers in northern Denmark 1981 The Kalundborg municipality completes a district heating distribution network within the city that utilizes waste heat from the power plant 1982 Novo Nordisk and the Statoil refinery complete construction of steam supply pipelines from the power plant. By purchasing process steam from the power plant, the companies are able to shut down inefficient steam boilers 1987 The Statoil refinery completes a pipeline to supply its effluent cooling water to the power plant for use as raw boiler feed water. 1989 The power plant starts using waste heat from its salt cooling water to produce trout and turbot at its local fish farm
  14. 14. 1989 Novo Nordisk enters into agreement with Kalundborg municipality, the power plant, and the refinery to connect to the water supply grid from Lake Tisso 1990 The Statoil refinery completes construction of a sulfur recovery plant. The recovered sulfur is sold as raw material to a sulfuric acid manufacturer in Federicia 1991 The Statoil refinery commissions the building of a pipeline to supply biologically treated refinery effluent water to the power plant for cleaning purposes, and for fly ash stabilization 1992 The Statoil refinery commissions the building of a pipeline to supply flare gas to the power plant as a supplementary fuel 1993 The power plant completes a stack fuel gas desulfurization project. The resulting calcium sulfate is sold to Gyproc, where it replaces imported natural gypsum
  15. 15. Annual wastes avoided in Kalundborg as of 1997 Annual resource savings in Kalundborg as of 1997
  16. 16. INDUSTRIAL METABOLISM  Proposed by Robert Ayres which states that the use of materials and energy by the industry and the way these materials flow through industrial systems and are transformed and then dissipated as wastes  The concept of what goes in must come out
  17. 17. LINEAR VERSUS CLOSED-LOOP: a. Type I Linear – materials and energy enter one part of the system then leave either as products or by-products/wastes b. Type II Semi-cyclic – some wastes are recycled or reused while others still leave it c. Type III Closed-loop – energy and wastes are constantly recycled and reused by other organisms and processes within the system
  18. 18. Type I Linear system
  19. 19. Type II Semi-cyclic
  20. 20. Type III Cyclic/closed loop
  21. 21. brewery Spent grain mushroom Residual to feed pigs dung 3 gallons of gasoline per day Waste residue to algal ponds in fish ponds Floating gardens From: Gunter Pauli – Director of the Zero Emissions Research Initiative, Japan 2 tons of rice per year barley
  22. 22. "from cradle to grave"
  23. 23. Material Flow Analysis (MFA) Is an analytical method of quantifying flows and stocks of materials or substances in a well-defined system. MFA can be used for environmental impact assessments, development of environmental policy for hazardous substances, nutrient management in watersheds, waste management and for sanitation planning
  24. 24. Sustainable Development  meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs (By: the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) • high-quality products and services to customers
  25. 25. • Pollution Prevention • Waste Minimization – A process of elimination that involves reducing the amount of waste produced in society and helps eliminate the generation of harmful and persistent wastes, supporting the efforts to promote a more sustainable society - e.g. 3R’s, 4R’s • Source Reduction – e.g. “Pay as You Throw” program • Total Quality Environmental Management (TQEM) -- business management practices that reduce or prevent environmental pollution
  26. 26. Pollution Prevention Design for the Environment  Solid Waste Management Act - RA 9003 e.g. waste segregation  Clean Air Act - RA 8479, June 23, 1999, "Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999" / An act providing for a Comprehensive Air Pollution Control Policy and for Other Purposes e.g. traffic coding scheme  Clean Water Act – RA 9275, “Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004” e.g. sanitation  US Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
  27. 27. CLEANER PRODUCTION  A preventive, company-specific environmental protection initiative  It is intended to minimize waste and emissions and maximize product output  By analyzing the flow of materials and energy in a company, one tries to identify options to minimize waste and emissions out of industrial processes through source reduction strategies.  Improvements of organization and technology help to reduce or suggest better choices in use of materials and energy, and to avoid waste, wastewater generation, and gaseous emissions, and also waste heat and noise
  28. 28. ECO-EFFICIENCY  Aims at minimizing ecological damage while maximizing efficiency of the firm’s production processes, such as through the lesser use of energy, material , and water, more recycling, and elimination of hazardous emissions by-products
  29. 29. Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Audit Environmental Impact Assessment is a tool designed to identify and predict the impact of a project on the bio- geophysical environment and on man's health and well-being, to interpret and communicate information about the impact, to analyze site and process alternatives and provide solutions to sift out, or abate/mitigate the negative consequences on man and the environment.
  30. 30. Environmental Auditing (or Audit)  Is the systematic documentation, periodic and objective evaluation of activities and processes of an ongoing project.  The goal of EA is to establish if proponents are complying with environmental requirements and enforcing legislation. The purpose of EA is to determine the extent to which the activities and programs conform to the approved environmental management plan A comprehensive EA ensures a safe and healthy environment at all stages of project operations and decommissioning

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