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Pharmaceutical Contaminants in water recovery facilities

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Led a team of four in the recently concluded Northeast section of the Ohio Water Environment Association. In the slides, It describes the alternatives and recommended solution to treat wastewater that has pharmaceuticals contaminants in it. My team cane second place in a total of seven teams

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Pharmaceutical Contaminants in water recovery facilities

  1. 1. Pharmaceutical contaminants in wastewater recovery
  2. 2. MEMBERS OF THE EXECUTIVE TEAM • Tobi Akinwande • Ashwini Tambe • Mihir Shah • Chaitanya Vgesena
  3. 3. PROJECT OUTLINE Personal Introduction The main project challenge Alternatives Possible Solution References Conclusion Acknowledgement
  5. 5. Sources of pharmaceutical contaminants in wastewater treatment plants
  6. 6. Regulations on Pharmaceutical Contaminants in water resource recovery 2008 In 2008, The E.P.A proposed to add pharmaceutical to the types of hazardous wastes that could have been managed as universal wastes 2015 In 2015, the E.P.A Administrator signed the proposed management standard for hazardous waste pharmaceutical rule on August 31st 2015 and it was published in the Federal Register (FR) on September 25, 2015 Currently There is no E.P.A standards for pharmaceutical waste contaminants in water resource recovery
  7. 7. How is the Challenge seen when compared to WWTP that are close to us ? • We visited two waste water treatment plants but there was no regulation by E.P.A so pharmaceutical contaminants in wastewater were not being tested for • After doing a lot of research, It is detected that there are plenty pharmaceuticals contaminants in the effluent ofwastewater treatment plants.
  8. 8. Problem Statement(Project Challenge): The removal of the resistant carbamazepine from water recovery facilities
  9. 9. Introduction to CBZ (Carbamazepine) • Trade name : Tegretol • Tegretol (carbamazepine) is an anticonvulsant. It works by decreasing nerve impulses that cause seizures and pain. Tegretol is used to treat certain types of seizures (partial, tonic-clonic, mixed). Tegretol is also used to treat nerve pain such as trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. • Chemical formula : C15H12N2O • Biological half-life : 36 hours (single dose), 16-24 hours (repeated dosing)
  10. 10. Effects of pharmaceutical contaminants(carbamazepine) in wastewater recovery It has been associated in the disturbances of vital biological functions of aquatic organisms Some of the pharmaceutical contaminants has led to decreased fecundity, brain and lungs as well as feminization of aquatic organisms These contaminants have also led to the resistance of micro-organisms to some of the micro-pollutants
  11. 11. DISTRIBUTION OF CBZ(Carbamzepine)
  12. 12. Potential solutions used to treat pharmaceutical contaminants in wastewater especially carbamazepine • Removal of Carbamazepine from Water by a Novel TiO2– Coconut Shell Powder/UV Process • The use of hybrid bioreactor (HBR) of hollow fiber microfilter membrane • The use of multiple processes Membrane bioreactor (MBR)- Ozonation-Adsorption
  13. 13. REMOVAL OF CARBAMAZEPINE FROM WATER BY A NOVEL TIO2– COCONUT SHELL POWDER/UV PROCESS:PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY Composite, sol-gel method with a subsequent heat treatment. Photocatalytic absorbent for the removal of carbamazepine (CBZ). Physical properties of composite - crystallinity, morphology, crush strength, and the Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) Calcination at 700°C produced anatase phase TiO2 in the TCNSP composites with a BET high surface area of 454 m2/g. Anatase crystallite size of composite increased from 2.37 to 15.11 nm with calcination temperature from 500°C to 800°C.
  14. 14. INFERENCE ON USING NANOMATERIALS TO TREAT CARBAMAZEPINE Calcinated TCNSP composites had higher removal efficiency (98%) than pure TiO2 (23%) and CNSP (34%) within a 40-min reaction time. The optimum values for the preparation of TCNSP composites, obtained by the RSM and CCD model, -726°C calcination temperature - 94.8 g CNSP loading amount for a of 1.79 mg/L of remaining concentration -30-min reaction time. RSM based on CCD could be effectively adopted to optimize the preparation of TCNSP composites. It is not cost effective yet.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES - DISADVANTAGES Advantages Non-toxic, insoluble in water and resistant to most chemicals, such as acids, bases or solvents The particles are so small, the surface area to volume ratio is large so more adsorption. Reaction time is less. New approach. Disadvantages Membranes require maintenance and need to be replaced after its maximum ability has been reached. Tio2 has wide band gap, results in about 5% spectral overlap amid its absorbance and sunlight emission (λ < ~390 nm). It exerts low acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, upon enduring exposure it induces a range of sub-lethal effects. It is not cost-effective yet.
  16. 16. HYBRID BIOREACTOR Cross-linked enzymes aggregates of laccase (CLEA-Lac). Polysulfone hollow fiber MF membrane. laccases catalyze the substrates by requiring readily available oxygen to produce water as a by-product and active radicals of the substrates. These radicals generally polymerize and precipitate to become easier to separate from the reaction solution.
  17. 17. HYBRID BIOREACTOR (HBR) 1000 mL glass-beaker for reaction solution. peristaltic pump (P1), (P2) Two manometers (M1 and M2) Two needle valves (V1 and V2) 3500 mL of aqueous solution as feed to reaction solution.
  18. 18. HBR By means of P2, feed solution was pumped continuously at 0.9 mL/min to the reaction solution which operated as a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). CSTR contained 550 mL including CLEA-Lac at 50 U/L and operated for 0.95 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT). The HBR operated continuously over 120 h while the elimination of the pharmaceuticals from the filtrate, the filtrate outflow rate and the CLEA-Lac activity in the CSTR were being monitored.
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES - DISADVANTAGES Advantages Effective removal of CBZ (up to 90%). No need of secondary clarifier and aeration tank. Disadvantages The CLEA-Lac and the MF membrane are not economical. Fouling of the MF membrane. Effluent water is not suitable for drinking or watering plants. Still a lab scale treatment.
  20. 20. Membrane bioreactor • It is a process that combines a suspended growth process with a membrane separation process system • Membrane bioreactor has the capacity to produce a very high MLSS concentration of about 8 to 12 kg/l as compared to the CAS which is about 2kg/l • It has a lower capital cost and a clarifier is not needed • Footprint is up to 50% smaller than conventional activated sludge • In this stage, the initial total suspended solids (TSS) and Biochemical Oxygen demand(BOD) is removed
  21. 21. Issues arising from using Membrane bioreactor • Initial construction cost tend to be higher than the conventional activated sludge • Fouling is a problem • The main energy demand is during aeration
  22. 22. Conventional Activated Sludge(CAS) vs Membrane bioreactor
  23. 23. Modifications to membrane bioreactor Biogas should be used to clean the membranes and also be used for aeration in order to reduce cost Finer screens should be used and also the flux should be regulated in order to reduce the incidence of fouling Chemical cleaning should be done as regularly to reduce the incidence of fouling The use of antifouling membrane
  24. 24. Ozonation The process of ozonation involves using ozone to remove organics(Carbamazepine), bacteria, fungi and viruses from water Ozone can be generated from Cold plasma discharge process The ozone is formed by diatomic oxygen Ultraviolent light At this stage, 63% of the Carbamazepine is removed
  25. 25. Operating Cost of Ozonation • It cost a range of $0.001-$0.002/cubic meter seems to be typical of most plants in the United States • Ozone production is energy intensive and requires 16kwh/kg and 24kwh/kg of ozone for oxygen and air- fed systems respectively • Total treatment cost of ozonation are in the range of 0.04/cubic meter to 0.06/cubic meter of water for plants that process 10 million gallons /day and 100 million gal/day (0.44 cubic metre/s and 4.4cubic metre/s) respectively assuming ozone dose of 1ppm
  26. 26. Adsorption Adsorption is considered to be a mass transfer operation as a constituent in transferred from a liquid phase to a solid phase at the interface This process will help to remove the poisonous by-products formed during ozonation. The most popular type of adsorbent is activated carbon and it is very expensive
  27. 27. Modifications to Adsorption There are cheaper cost of low- cost adsorbent like agricultural and industrial low-cost adsorbent. The low-cost adsorbent is also a way to reduce waste and also treat wastewater The use of a combined wastewater two-stage treatment processes in which low-cost adsorbent are used and activated carbon is used as a polishing step
  28. 28. Possible Ways to treat Contaminated carbamazepine Use of Nanomaterials Use of MOA process Expensive Cant implement at large scale Cost effective over other treatment Tested at lab scale not in real world problems Use of Hybrid Reactor Sludge generated can be used as energy
  29. 29. CAS(Conventional Activated sludge System) Grit & solid removal Pre- Treatment Aeration Zone Settler Sand Filter Disinfection Sludge Air
  30. 30. Our Proposed Solution Grit & solid removal Pre- Treatment Aeration Zone Membrane bioreactor Ozonation Adsorption Sludge Air
  31. 31. What happens to the sludge ? It can be incinerated to produce energy. It can be disposed as a hazardous waste into the land fill
  32. 32. Conclusion The other two alternatives are excellent ways of treating wastewater but are very costly and not very applicable in large scale Our proposed solution helps not only to remove carbamazepine but also improves the environment by reducing the amount of waste by the use of low-cost adsorbent
  33. 33. Acknowledgement We would like to thank • Shakthi Jayavelu • Paul Solanics • Muralikrishna Chelupati
  34. 34. REFERENCES Wastewater Engineering :Treatment and Resource Recovery Metcalfe and eddy rofilter_membrane_and_cross- linked_laccase_aggregates_eliminate_aromatic_pharmaceuticals_in_wastewaters
  35. 35. THANK YOU!!
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Led a team of four in the recently concluded Northeast section of the Ohio Water Environment Association. In the slides, It describes the alternatives and recommended solution to treat wastewater that has pharmaceuticals contaminants in it. My team cane second place in a total of seven teams


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