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Lesson 1 Planning in Sports

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This is the first lesson for CBSE Grade XII students of Physical Education. All new topics included

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Lesson 1 Planning in Sports

  1. 1. Planning in Sports
  2. 2. Lesson 1 Planning in Sports
  3. 3. Planning in Sports 1. Meaning & Objectives of Planning 2. Various Committees & Its Responsibilities 3. Tournament – Knock-Out, League or Round Robin & Combination 4. Procedure to Draw Fixtures – Knock-Out (Bye & Seeding) & League (Staircase & Cyclic) 5. Intramural & Extramural – Meaning, Objectives & Its Significance 6. Specific Sports Programme (Sports Day, Health Run, Run For Fun, Run For Specific Cause & Run For Unity)
  4. 4. 1.1 Meaning and Objectives of Planning Meaning of Planning Planning is a predetermined course of action to achieve a goal Planning is usually interpreted as a process to develop a strategy to achieve desired objectives, to solve problems and to facilitate actions
  5. 5. Objectives of Planning 1. To reduce unnecessary pressure of immediacy 2. To keep good control over all the activities 3. To facilitate proper coordination 4. To reduce the chances of mistakes 5. To increase the efficiency 6. To increase the creativity 7. To enhance the performance
  6. 6. 1.2 Various Committees & their Responsibilities 1. Committee for Publicity 2. Transport Committee 3. Boarding and Lodging Committee 4. Decoration and Ceremony Committee 5. Ground and Equipment Committee 6. Refreshment and Entertainment Committee
  7. 7. 1.2 Various Committees & their Responsibilities 7. Reception Committee 8. Committee on Entries and Programmes 9. Committee for Officials 10.Announcement Committee 11.First aid Committee
  8. 8. 2.3 Tournaments- Knockout , League & Combination Tournament Tournament is that series of sports in which a team finally wins and rest of the teams lose the matches. Importance of Tournaments 1. Development of Sports Skills 2. Propaganda of Sports 3. Helpful in Selection of Players 4. Development of National and International Integration 5. Development of Social Qualities 6. Source of Recreation
  9. 9. 2.3 Tournaments- Knockout, League & Combination • Four types of tournaments 1.Knock-out Tournament 2.League or Round Robin Tournament 3.Combination Tournament 4.Challenge Tournament
  10. 10. Knock-out Tournament • Team once defeated is eliminated • Winning teams continue • Advantage o Less expensive o Enhances the standard of sports o Requires less time to complete the tournament o Minimum number of Officials are required • Disadvantage o Chances of elimination are more o Long duration tournaments o Spectators loose interest in the final match
  11. 11. League or Round Robin Tournament Single league: • Each team plays with every other team once. • Number of matches = N(N-1)/2 where N is the number of teams
  12. 12. League or Round Robin Tournament Double league • Each team plays with every other team twice. • Number of matches = N(N-1) where N is the number of teams • Teams play irrespective of victory or defeat • Provides maximum opportunity to show the best performance
  13. 13. Advantage of League Tournament • Only strong team gets the victory in the tournament • Every team gets full opportunity to show their performance • Sport can be made more popular due to large number of matches • Sports official can easily judge the performance of individuals or teams • Appropriate opportunities are available to the players to improve their performance • Spectators also get enough opportunities to watch their favourite players/ teams playing
  14. 14. Disadvantage of League Tournament • It requires more time • It costs more • Difficult for organisers to make arrangements for teams and officials • Teams losing repeatedly gets psychologically stressed
  15. 15. Combination Tournaments 1. Knock-out cum Knock-out 2. League cum League 3. Knock-out cum league 4. League cum Knock-out Tournament
  16. 16. 1.4 Procedure to Draw Fixtures • Knock-out 1. Bye 2. Seeding 3. Special Seeding • League 1. Cyclic 2. Staircase 3. Tabular
  17. 17. Essential points for knock-out Tournament Points to be considered for Preparation of Fixtures 1. Total Number of teams participating 2. Total number of Byes 3. Number of teams in each half or quarter 4. Number of Byes to be given in each half or quarter 5. Total Number of rounds 6. Total number of matches
  18. 18. Method of Preparing Fixtures in Knock-out Tournament • Total Number of matches= N-1 ( N is the No. of Teams) • Divide the Number of teams into two halves • If the number of teams is not exact power of 2 (4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and so on) and is an odd number o Upper half = (N+1)/2 o Lower half= (N-1)/2 o Byes are given in the first round o Number of byes = 𝟐 𝒙 - N (where 𝟐 𝒙 > N) o Number of rounds = 𝒙 • If N is an even number o Upper half= Lower half= N/2 o Number of byes = 𝟐 𝒙 - N (where 𝟐 𝒙 > N) o Number of rounds = 𝒙
  19. 19. Method of Fixing Byes 1. First bye is given to the last team of lower half 2. Second bye is given to the first team of upper half 3. Third bye is given to the first team of lower half 4. Fourth bye is given to the last team of upper half 5. And so on
  20. 20. Example 1 • No. of Teams= 12 • No. of Matches = 12-1 =11 • Upper half = Lower half = 6 • Number of Byes = 𝟐 𝟒 − 𝟏𝟐 = 𝟒 • Number of rounds = 4 • Teams I R II R III R IV R 1 2nd Bye 2 3 4 5 6 4th Bye 7 3rd Bye 8 9 10 11 12 Ist Bye Upper Half Lower Half 7 8 9 10 11
  21. 21. Example 2 • No. of Teams= 13 • No. of Matches = 13-1 =12 • Upper half = 13+1/2=7 • Lower Half= 13-1/2=6 • Number of Byes = 𝟐 𝟒 − 𝟏𝟑 =3 • Number of rounds = 4 Teams I R II R III R IV R 1 2nd Bye 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3rd Bye 9 10 11 12 13 Ist Bye Upper Half Lower Half 7 8 9 10 11 12
  22. 22. Number of Teams in Each Quarter • If the number of teams are more, teams are divided into quarters • Procedure is explained as under Number of Teams Ist Quarter IInd Quarter IIIrd Quarter IV Quarter 28 7 7 7 7 29 7+1 7 7 7 30 7+1 7 7+1 7 31 7+1 7+1 7+1 7 32 8 8 8 8 33 8+1 8 8 8 34 8+1 8 8+1 8
  23. 23. Consolation Tournament • One additional chance is given to defeated teams • Winner is declared from the defeated teams • Type I o The teams defeated in round I are allowed to participate o New fixture is prepared o The teams who did not get Bye earlier are given Bye now • Type II o The teams defeated in all the rounds are given additional chance
  24. 24. Consolation Tournament- Type I • No. of Teams= 9 • Upper half = 9+1/2=5 • Lower Half= 9-1/2=4 • Number of Byes = 𝟐 𝟒 − 𝟗 = 𝟕 Teams I R II R III R IV R 1 2nd Bye 2 6th Bye 3 4 5 4th Bye 6 3rd Bye 7 7th Bye 8 5th Bye 9 Ist Bye Upper Half Lower Half 8 8 8 9 Teams I R II R III R 3 Bye 2 7 9 Bye 4 Bye
  25. 25. Consolation Tournament- Type II • No. of Teams= 9 • Upper half = 9+1/2=5 • Lower Half= 9-1/2=4 • Number of Byes = 𝟐 𝟒 − 𝟗 = 𝟕 Teams I R II R III R IV R 1 2nd Bye 2 6th Bye 3 4 5 4th Bye 6 3rd Bye 7 7th Bye 8 5th Bye 9 Ist Bye Upper Half Lower Half 8 8 8 9 Teams I R II R III R IV R 3 and 1 2 7 Vs 9 4 3
  26. 26. Seeding Method • To avoid strong team competing with each other in the initial rounds • Strong teams based on their previous performance are selected to keep at appropriate places in the fixture. • Generally the seeded teams are in the power of 2 ie 4, 8, 16 etc • First seed is kept on the top of Upper half • Second seed is kept on the bottom of Lower half • Third seed is kept on the bottom of Upper half • Fourth seed is kept on top of Lower Half and so on • Remaining teams are kept in the fixture by lots
  27. 27. Example : Placing the Seeded Teams • No. of Teams= 13 • No. of Matches = 13-1 =12 • Upper half = 13+1/2=7 • Lower Half= 13-1/2=6 • Number of Byes = 𝟐 𝟒 − 𝟏𝟑 =3 • Number of rounds = 4 • Seeded Teams = 4 Teams I R II R III R IV R 1 1st Seed- Bye 2 3 4 5 6 7 4th Seed 8 3rd Seed- Bye 9 10 11 12 13 2nd Seed -Bye Upper Half Lower Half 7 8 9 10 11 12
  28. 28. Example : Special seeding No. of Teams= 20 Upper half = Lower half=10 Special Seeded Teams = 4 Teams I R II R III R IV R V R 1 Seeded Quarter Final 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Seeded Quarter Final 11 Seeded Quarter Final 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Seeded Quarter Final Upper Half Lower Half
  29. 29. Procedure of Fixture in League Tournament 1. Cyclic Method 2. Staircase Method 3. Tabular Method
  30. 30. Cyclic Method • Number of teams is even o Team 1 is fixed on the top of the right hand side o Teams are rotated in clockwise direction o Number of rounds= N-1 o Number of matches = N(N-1)/2 • Number of teams is odd o Bye is fixed on the top on the right hand side o Teams are rotated in clockwise direction o Number of round = N o Number of matches = N(N-1)/2
  31. 31. Cyclic method: Examples No. of teams = 6 No. of rounds =5 No. of matches= 15 I R II R III R IV R V R 𝟔 𝟏 𝟓 𝟐 𝟒 𝟑 𝟓 𝟏 𝟒 𝟔 𝟑 𝟐 𝟒 𝟏 𝟑 𝟓 𝟐 𝟔 𝟑 𝟏 𝟐 𝟒 𝟔 𝟓 𝟐 𝟏 𝟔 𝟑 𝟓 𝟒 No. of teams = 5 No. of rounds =5 No. of matches= 10 I R II R III R IV R V R 𝟓 𝑩𝒚𝒆 𝟒 𝟏 𝟑 𝟐 𝟒 𝑩𝒚𝒆 𝟑 𝟓 𝟐 𝟏 𝟑 𝑩𝒚𝒆 𝟐 𝟒 𝟏 𝟓 𝟐 𝑩𝒚𝒆 𝟏 𝟑 𝟓 𝟒 𝟏 𝑩𝒚𝒆 𝟓 𝟐 𝟒 𝟑
  32. 32. Staircase Method 1—2 1—3 2—3 1—4 2—4 3—4 1—5 2—5 3—5 4—5 1—6 2—6 3—6 4—6 5—6 1—7 2—7 3—7 4—7 5—7 6—7
  33. 33. Tabular Method: Even Teams A B C D E F A 1 2 3 4 5 B 3 4 5 2 C 5 1 4 D 2 1 E 3 F No. of teams = 6 No. of rounds =5 No. of matches= 15 I R II R III R IV R V R 𝑨 𝑩 𝑪 𝑬 𝑫 𝑭 𝑨 𝑪 𝑫 𝑬 𝑩 𝑭 𝑩 𝑪 𝑨 𝑫 𝑬 𝑭 𝑩 𝑫 𝑨 𝑬 𝑪 𝑭 𝑪 𝑫 𝑩 𝑬 𝑨 𝑭
  34. 34. Tabular Method: Odd Teams A B C D E Bye A 1 2 3 4 5 B 3 4 5 2 C 5 1 4 D 2 1 E 3 Bye No. of teams = 6 No. of rounds =5 No. of matches= 10 I R II R III R IV R V R 𝑨 𝑩 𝑪 𝑬 𝑫 𝑩𝒚𝒆 𝑨 𝑪 𝑫 𝑬 𝑩 𝑩𝒚𝒆 𝑩 𝑪 𝑨 𝑫 𝑬 𝑩𝒚𝒆 𝑩 𝑫 𝑨 𝑬 𝑪 𝑩𝒚𝒆 𝑪 𝑫 𝑩 𝑬 𝑨 𝑩𝒚𝒆
  35. 35. Method of Deciding the Winner in League Tournament • Point system o Winner of the match= 2 points o Loser of the match= 0 points o Draw = 1 point • Team having the maximum point is declared winner • If there is a tie between two teams, their match is held again
  36. 36. Method of Deciding the Winner in League Tournament a) British Method • Divide the total points obtained by the total possible points • % of points = b) American Method • Divide the number of games won by the total number of games played • Percentage =
  37. 37. 1.5 Intramurals and Extramurals Meaning of Intramurals • The activities which are performed within the campus of an Institution are called Intramurals • Students of other school can not participate in these activities • Motto: A game for all and each for a game
  38. 38. Significance of Intramurals Tournaments 1. Important for physical , mental emotional and social development of students 2. Stress is laid on moral and ethical values 3. Necessary for the development of health of children 4. Manages aggression 5. Provides recreation 6. Provides opportunities to students to participate in games and sports 7. Help to develop leadership qualities among the students
  39. 39. Objectives of Intramurals Tournaments 1. To provide opportunity to every student to participate in games and sports 2. To develop the leadership qualities 3. To develop the feeling of cooperation 4. To provide recreation 5. To develop the feeling of sportsmanship 6. To provide the opportunity to learn a variety of games and skills 7. To find out the talented sportspersons 8. To provide the experience of organisation of competitions
  40. 40. Activities for Intramurals Competitions 1. Major games: Volleyball, Hockey, Tennis, Badminton, Football etc. 2. Minor Games: Kho-Kho, Tag game, Roller skating, Sack race etc. 3. Creative Activities: Painting, Drawing, Sculpturing, Making Models etc. 4. Combating Activities: Boxing, Judo, Taekwondo, Karate etc.
  41. 41. Meaning of Extramurals • The activities which are performed outside the wall of an Institution or school are called Extramurals • Students of two or more schools participate in these activities • Also called Inter-School Competitions
  42. 42. Significance of Extramurals Tournaments 1. Provide opportunities to school to show their sports capabilities 2. For enhancing the standard of sports performance 3. Provide appropriate knowledge of sports techniques 4. Improve the opportunities to participate in sports 5. For making and implementing the programmes of physical education more effectively
  43. 43. Objectives of Extramurals competitions 1. To improve the standards of sports 2. To provide experience to students 3. To develop sportsmanship and fraternity 4. To broaden the base of sports 5. To provide the knowledge of new rules and advanced techniques
  44. 44. 1.6 Specific Sports Programme 1. Sports day 2. Health runs 3. Run for Fun 4. Run for specific cause 5. Run for Unity

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