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Baker JardineBaker Jardine
PetroleumEngineering&Software
PIPESIMPIPESIM 20002000
User Guide
bja9MarketingMANUALSPIPESIM 2000User Guide1.0PIPESIM 2000 User Guide.doc
PIPESIM 2000
© Copyright 2000-01 Baker Jardine. A...
Contents iii
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
DOCUMENT CONVENTIONS ...........................................XV
PIPESIM 2000 HOT KEYS ...
iv Contents
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
1.3.2.1 Compositional option.....................................................1-9
1.3.2...
Contents v
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
2.9.1.1 Black Oil.......................................................................2-1...
vi Contents
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
3.1.3.1 Bubble point pressure ...................................................3-3
3.1.3...
Contents vii
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
3.2.2.6 Emulsion ......................................................................3-...
viii Contents
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
3.3.4.3 Beggs & Brill Original, Taitel Dukler map ...................3-25
3.3.4.4 Beggs ...
Contents ix
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
4.2 Horizontal Completions ........................................................4-4
4.2...
x Contents
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
5.3 Single Phase Pump................................................................5-3
5....
Contents xi
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
6.10.1 Check for Gas Lift instability ................................................6-7
...
xii Contents
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
7.2.4 Data Available .......................................................................
Conventions xiii
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
Document conventions
<edit/copy> - used to denote commands enter into the computer fr...
xivConventions
PIPEPIPE SIMSIM 2000
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PIPESIM 2000 Hot Keys xv
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
PIPESIM 2000 Hot Keys
File
Create New Well Model CTRL+W
Create New Pipeline M...
xvi PIPESIM 2000 Hot Keys
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
Zoom in SHIFT+Z
Zoom out SHIFT+X
Zoom Full View SHIFT+F
Restore View SHIFT+R
Introduction
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
1 INTRODUCTION........................................................ 1-1
1.1 Setting up...
Introduction
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Introduction 1-1
PIPESIM 2000
1 Introduction
Welcome to Baker Jardine's PIPESIM 2000 - the integrated
Petroleum Engineer a...
1-2 Introduction
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• A VGA display
• A mouse
• 16Mb of RAM
• Microsoft Windows 95 or higher
• ...
Introduction 1-3
PIPESIM 2000
1.1.2 Running setup
When you run the setup program
To start Setup
Once you have installed PI...
1-4 Introduction
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1.2.1.2 User Defined Multiphase flow correlation
The user can create their ...
Introduction 1-5
PIPESIM 2000
1.2.3.2 Help Search
The fastest way to find a particular topic in the Help system is to use
...
1-6 Introduction
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The initial release of PIPESIM 2000 does not have all modules fully
integra...
Introduction 1-7
PIPESIM 2000
• unique network solution algorithm to model wells in large
networks
• rigorous thermal mode...
1-8 Introduction
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2 0 0 02 0 0 0
examining a number of scenarios, to be generated in a very short
time.
Inpu...
Introduction 1-9
PIPESIM 2000
define various IPR relationships, and specify a detailed well
description. Certain equipment...
1-10 Introduction
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• Petroleum Fraction
• Phase envelop generation
• Dew point line
• Bubble ...
Introduction 1-11
PIPESIM 2000
has been designed so that ECLIPSE (and its model) resides on the
UNIX machine.
1.3.2.4 ECLI...
1-12 Introduction
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• Black Oil fluid data,
• ESP performance curves
• User defined pump and c...
Introduction 1-13
PIPESIM 2000
using PIPESIM 2000 after you have set your clock back. If you do
accidentally do this, cont...
1-14 Introduction
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Our web site also provides detailed information on the latest version.
In ...
Introduction 1-15
PIPESIM 2000
1.8 What to do next
Depending upon your needs the following is recommended;
New users
• Fam...
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Model Overview
PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000
2 MODEL OVERVIEW 2-1
2.1 Steps in building a model 2-1
2.2 Starting PIPESIM 2000 2-1
2....
Model Overview
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Model Overview 2-1
PIPESIM 2000
2 Model Overview
2.1 Steps in building a model
The steps involved in building a PIPESIM 20...
2-2 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
Any number of customized unit sets can be created and saved (each
one to a dif...
Model Overview 2-3
PIPESIM 2000
component (if present) and a gas component related to stock tank
conditions. All that is n...
2-4 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
• Oil formation volume factor of saturated systems:-Standing,
Vasquez and Begg...
Model Overview 2-5
PIPESIM 2000
Petroleum fractions are normally defined by splitting off sections of a
laboratory distill...
2-6 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
Node type components are connected by linking components and
thus must be adde...
Model Overview 2-7
PIPESIM 2000
Heat exchanger Internal
Node
Allows a change in temperature and
pressure to be modelled
Ch...
2-8 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
down hole equipment installed.
Nodal analysis
point
Node The point in the syst...
Model Overview 2-9
PIPESIM 2000
downstream of the separator.
2.5.1 Model & Component limitations
The following limitations...
2-10 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
• Maximum number of schedule 'bean' lists: 99
• Maximum number of look-up tab...
Model Overview 2-11
PIPESIM 2000
2.8 Saving & Closing PIPESIM 2000
When PIPESIM 2000 is closed all files (models) that hav...
2-12 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
In a network model the calibration data is "mixed" at junctions to
provide av...
Model Overview 2-13
PIPESIM 2000
• Select suitable Horizontal correlations
• Enter any known measured pressure and tempera...
2-14 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
• Enter the data for the sensitivity parameters
• Decide if the sensitivity p...
Model Overview 2-15
PIPESIM 2000
2.9.3 Well Performance
The following basic steps are required to build a well model (sing...
2-16 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
• Determine the inflow and outflow parameters.
• Run the operation.
• Save th...
Model Overview 2-17
PIPESIM 2000
• Save the model!
2.9.3.6 Artificial Lift analysis
The following basic steps are required...
2-18 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
2.9.3.9 Horizontal completion length
The following basic steps are required t...
Model Overview 2-19
PIPESIM 2000
For example a 3 production well system producing fluid to a single
delivery point has 4 d...
2-20 Model Overview
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
• Set the fluid properties
• Set the boundary conditions
• Save the model!
2....
Model Overview 2-21
PIPESIM 2000
• Save the model!
See the FPT Used Guide for an example of building a Field Planning
mode...
2-22 Model Overview
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Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
3 FLUID & MULTIPHASE FLOW MODELLING 3-1
3.1 Black Oil 3-1
3.1.1 Lasat...
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
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Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-1
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
3 Fluid & Multiphase Flow Modelling
This section defines the flui...
3-2 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
For yg <= 0.6: pbg g/TR = 0.679 exp(2.786yg) - 0.323
For yg > 0.6...
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-3
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
Approximately 6,000 measured data points were collected across th...
3-4 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
3.1.4.1 Bubble point pressure and solution gas
pb = f 1 [(Rs /g g...
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-5
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
3.1.6 Liquid Viscosity
There are four steps to calculating the li...
3-6 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
3.1.7.1 Beggs and Robinson method
Beggs and Robinson used results...
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-7
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
3.1.8.1 Chew and Connally
Chew and Connally used results from 457...
3-8 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
where
m = 2.6p
1.187
exp(-8.98x10
-5
p - 11.513)
For dead oils at...
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-9
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
3.1.10.3 Woelflin method
The Woelflin option assumes that the con...
3-10 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
The values of "a" and "b" in the above equations are derived fro...
Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-11
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The choice of the equation of state has a large effect on the
vi...
3-12 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling
PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000
3.2.2.5 Methanol
Neither the LBC nor the Pederson method can dea...
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Pipesim 2000 user guide

  1. 1. Baker JardineBaker Jardine PetroleumEngineering&Software PIPESIMPIPESIM 20002000 User Guide
  2. 2. bja9MarketingMANUALSPIPESIM 2000User Guide1.0PIPESIM 2000 User Guide.doc PIPESIM 2000 © Copyright 2000-01 Baker Jardine. All right reserved Although PIPESIM 2000 has been extensively tested, Baker Jardine accept no responsibility or liability arising from the use of this manual or the PIPESIM 2000 computer program. All material is supplied without warranty of any kind. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Companies, names and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or otherwise, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Baker Jardine. www.BakerJardine.com
  3. 3. Contents iii PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 DOCUMENT CONVENTIONS ...........................................XV PIPESIM 2000 HOT KEYS .............................................. XVII 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................ 1-1 1.1 Setting up ................................................................................1-1 1.1.1 Before you run setup............................................................1-1 1.1.1.1 Hardware and system requirements.............................1-1 1.1.1.2 Check the PIPESIM 2000 package ..............................1-2 1.1.1.3 Make backup copies ......................................................1-2 1.1.1.4 Read the additional notes document............................1-2 1.1.2 Running setup ......................................................................1-3 1.1.3 Changing Options after quitting setup.................................1-3 1.2 Documentation .......................................................................1-3 1.2.1 PIPESIM 2000 additional documentation ...........................1-3 1.2.1.1 Artificial lift Performance curve .....................................1-3 1.2.1.2 User Defined Multiphase flow correlation.....................1-4 1.2.1.3 OpenLink........................................................................1-4 1.2.1.4 PVT file format ...............................................................1-4 1.2.1.5 Sentinel LM Security......................................................1-4 1.2.2 Case Studies ........................................................................1-4 1.2.3 Online Help...........................................................................1-4 1.2.3.1 Help contents.................................................................1-4 1.2.3.2 Help Search...................................................................1-5 1.2.3.3 Context-sensitive Help ..................................................1-5 1.3 PIPESIM 2000 overview.........................................................1-5 1.3.1 Modules................................................................................1-6 1.3.1.1 Pipeline & Facilities .......................................................1-6 1.3.1.2 Well Performance analysis............................................1-6 1.3.1.3 Network analysis module..............................................1-6 1.3.1.4 Production Optimization (GOAL) ..................................1-7 1.3.1.5 Multi-lateral wells (HoSim) ............................................1-8 1.3.1.6 Field Planning (FPT)......................................................1-9 1.3.2 Options..................................................................................1-9
  4. 4. iv Contents PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 1.3.2.1 Compositional option.....................................................1-9 1.3.2.2 OLGAS 2000................................................................1-10 1.3.2.3 ECLIPSE 100...............................................................1-10 1.3.2.4 ECLIPSE 300...............................................................1-11 1.3.2.5 Mbal..............................................................................1-11 1.4 File Management..................................................................1-11 1.5 Security .................................................................................1-12 1.5.1 Stand-alone security ..........................................................1-12 1.5.2 LAN Security.......................................................................1-13 1.6 New features.........................................................................1-13 1.7 Baker Jardine Support Services........................................1-14 1.8 What to do next....................................................................1-15 2 MODEL OVERVIEW .................................................. 2-1 2.1 Steps in building a model.....................................................2-1 2.2 Starting PIPESIM 2000...........................................................2-1 2.3 Units System...........................................................................2-1 2.4 Fluid data.................................................................................2-2 2.4.1 Black Oil................................................................................2-2 2.4.2 Compositional .......................................................................2-4 2.4.3 Steam....................................................................................2-5 2.5 Model components overview ...............................................2-5 2.5.1 Model & Component limitations ...........................................2-9 2.6 Flow correlation ...................................................................2-10 2.7 Run an operation .................................................................2-10 2.8 Saving & Closing PIPESIM 2000........................................2-11 2.9 How to build models............................................................2-11 2.9.1 Fluid calibration ..................................................................2-11
  5. 5. Contents v PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 2.9.1.1 Black Oil.......................................................................2-11 2.9.1.2 Compositional ..............................................................2-12 2.9.2 Pipeline & facilities .............................................................2-12 2.9.2.1 Correlation matching ...................................................2-12 2.9.2.2 Pressure/Temperature profile.....................................2-13 2.9.2.3 Equipment/Flowline sizing (1 parameter)...................2-13 2.9.2.4 Equipment/Flowline sizing (Multiple parameter) ........2-13 2.9.2.5 Multiphase booster design ..........................................2-14 2.9.3 Well Performance...............................................................2-15 2.9.3.1 Correlation matching ...................................................2-15 2.9.3.2 Nodal analysis..............................................................2-15 2.9.3.3 Pressure/Temperature profile.....................................2-16 2.9.3.4 Equipment/Tubing sizing (1 parameter) .....................2-16 2.9.3.5 Equipment/Tubing sizing (Multiple parameter) ..........2-16 2.9.3.6 Artificial Lift analysis ....................................................2-17 2.9.3.7 Well performance curves for GOAL............................2-17 2.9.3.8 Reservoir Tables..........................................................2-17 2.9.3.9 Horizontal completion length.......................................2-18 2.9.3.10 Gas Lift Rate v's Casing head pressure .....................2-18 2.9.4 Network Analysis................................................................2-18 2.9.4.1 Fluid properties ............................................................2-18 2.9.4.2 Boundary Conditions ...................................................2-18 2.9.4.3 Network model.............................................................2-19 2.9.5 Production Optimization.....................................................2-20 2.9.6 Field Planning.....................................................................2-20 2.9.7 Multi-lateral.........................................................................2-21 3 FLUID & MULTIPHASE FLOW MODELLING ........... 3-1 3.1 Black Oil ..................................................................................3-1 3.1.1 Lasater ..................................................................................3-1 3.1.1.1 Bubble point pressure ...................................................3-1 3.1.1.2 Solution gas...................................................................3-2 3.1.2 Standing................................................................................3-2 3.1.2.1 Bubble point pressure ...................................................3-2 3.1.2.2 Solution gas...................................................................3-2 3.1.2.3 Oil formation volume factor - saturated systems..........3-2 3.1.3 Vazques and Beggs.............................................................3-2
  6. 6. vi Contents PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 3.1.3.1 Bubble point pressure ...................................................3-3 3.1.3.2 Solution gas...................................................................3-3 3.1.3.3 Oil formation volume factor - saturated systems..........3-3 3.1.3.4 Oil formation volume factor - undersaturated systems 3-3 3.1.4 Glasø ....................................................................................3-3 3.1.4.1 Bubble point pressure and solution gas .......................3-4 3.1.4.2 Oil formation volume factor - saturated systems..........3-4 3.1.4.3 Oil formation volume factor - undersaturated systems 3-4 3.1.5 Coning...................................................................................3-4 3.1.6 Liquid Viscosity.....................................................................3-5 3.1.7 Dead Oil Viscosity................................................................3-5 3.1.7.1 Beggs and Robinson method........................................3-6 3.1.7.2 Glasø method ................................................................3-6 3.1.7.3 User's data method........................................................3-6 3.1.8 Live Oil Viscosity ..................................................................3-6 3.1.8.1 Chew and Connally .......................................................3-7 3.1.8.2 Beggs and Robinson .....................................................3-7 3.1.9 Undersaturated Oil Viscosity...............................................3-7 3.1.9.1 Vasquez and Beggs ......................................................3-7 3.1.9.2 Kousel method...............................................................3-8 3.1.9.3 No calculation ................................................................3-8 3.1.10 Oil/Water Mixture Viscosity ..................................................3-8 3.1.10.1 Inversion method ...........................................................3-8 3.1.10.2 Volume ratio method .....................................................3-8 3.1.10.3 Woelflin method.............................................................3-9 3.1.11 Gas Viscosity........................................................................3-9 3.1.11.1 Lee et al. Method ...........................................................3-9 3.2 Compositional ........................................................................3-9 3.2.1 EOS (Equations of State) ....................................................3-9 3.2.1.1 Soave-Redlich-Kwong...................................................3-9 3.2.1.2 Peng-Robinson............................................................3-10 3.2.1.3 SMIRK..........................................................................3-10 3.2.2 Viscosity model ..................................................................3-10 3.2.2.1 Lower Alkanes .............................................................3-11 3.2.2.2 Higher Alkanes ............................................................3-11 3.2.2.3 Petroleum Fractions ....................................................3-11 3.2.2.4 Water............................................................................3-11 3.2.2.5 Methanol ......................................................................3-12
  7. 7. Contents vii PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 3.2.2.6 Emulsion ......................................................................3-12 3.2.3 BIP (Binary Interaction Parameter) Set.............................3-12 3.2.4 Hydrates .............................................................................3-12 3.3 Pressure Drop Calculation .................................................3-14 3.3.1 Flow regimes ......................................................................3-15 3.3.2 Single Phase Flow Correlations ........................................3-18 3.3.2.1 Moody...........................................................................3-18 3.3.2.2 AGA..............................................................................3-18 3.3.2.3 Panhandle 'A'...............................................................3-19 3.3.2.4 Panhandle 'B'...............................................................3-19 3.3.2.5 Hazen-Williams ............................................................3-19 3.3.2.6 Weymouth....................................................................3-19 3.3.3 Vertical Multiphase Flow Correlations...............................3-19 3.3.3.1 Ansari ...........................................................................3-19 3.3.3.2 Baker Jardine Revised ................................................3-19 3.3.3.3 Beggs & Brill Original...................................................3-20 3.3.3.4 Beggs & Brill Original, Taitel Dukler map ...................3-20 3.3.3.5 Beggs & Brill Revised..................................................3-20 3.3.3.6 Beggs & Brill Revised, Taitel Dukler map...................3-20 3.3.3.7 Brill & Minami...............................................................3-21 3.3.3.8 Duns & Ros..................................................................3-21 3.3.3.9 Duns & Ros, Taitel Dukler map...................................3-21 3.3.3.10 Govier & Aziz...............................................................3-21 3.3.3.11 Gray..............................................................................3-22 3.3.3.12 Hagedorn & Brown ......................................................3-22 3.3.3.13 Hagedorn & Brown, Duns & Ros map........................3-22 3.3.3.14 Lockhart & Martinelli....................................................3-22 3.3.3.15 Lockhart & Martinelli, Taitel Dukler map.....................3-22 3.3.3.16 Mukherjee & Brill:.........................................................3-22 3.3.3.17 NOSLIP Correlation.....................................................3-23 3.3.3.18 OLGA-S 2000 Steady State........................................3-23 3.3.3.19 Orkiszewski..................................................................3-24 3.3.3.20 Shell SIEP Correlations ...............................................3-24 3.3.3.21 Shell SRTCA Correlations...........................................3-24 3.3.3.22 GRE Mechanistic Model BP ........................................3-24 3.3.4 Horizontal Multiphase Flow Correlations ..........................3-24 3.3.4.1 Baker Jardine Revised ................................................3-25 3.3.4.2 Beggs & Brill Original...................................................3-25
  8. 8. viii Contents PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 3.3.4.3 Beggs & Brill Original, Taitel Dukler map ...................3-25 3.3.4.4 Beggs & Brill Revised..................................................3-25 3.3.4.5 Beggs & Brill Revised, Taitel Dukler map...................3-26 3.3.4.6 Brill & Minami: ..............................................................3-26 3.3.4.7 Dukler, AGA + Flanagan .............................................3-26 3.3.4.8 Dukler , AGA + Flanagan (Eaton holdup)...................3-26 3.3.4.9 Duns & Ros, Taitle Dukler map...................................3-26 3.3.4.10 Lockhart & Martinelli....................................................3-27 3.3.4.11 Lockhart & Martinelli, Taitel Dukler map.....................3-27 3.3.4.12 Mukherjee & Brill..........................................................3-27 3.3.4.13 NOSLIP Correlation.....................................................3-27 3.3.4.14 OLGA-S 2000 Steady-State:.......................................3-27 3.3.4.15 Oliemans......................................................................3-28 3.3.4.16 Xiao ..............................................................................3-28 3.3.4.17 Shell SIEP Correlations ...............................................3-28 3.3.4.18 Shell SRTCA Correlations...........................................3-29 3.3.4.19 GRE Mechanistic Model BP........................................3-29 3.4 References............................................................................3-29 4 RESERVOIR, WELL & COMPLETION MODELLING 4-1 4.1 Vertical Completions.............................................................4-1 4.1.1 Liquid Reservoirs..................................................................4-1 4.1.1.1 Fetkovich / Normalized back pressure .........................4-1 4.1.1.2 Jones..............................................................................4-1 4.1.1.3 Pseudo-Steady state / Darcy ........................................4-2 4.1.1.4 (Straight line) Well productivity Index...........................4-2 4.1.1.5 (Straight line) Well productivity Index (bubble point correction) ....................................................................................4-2 4.1.1.6 Vogel ..............................................................................4-2 4.1.1.7 Multi-rate tests ...............................................................4-3 4.1.2 Gas and Gas Condensate Reservoirs ................................4-3 4.1.2.1 Back pressure / C and n................................................4-3 4.1.2.2 Forchheimer...................................................................4-3 4.1.2.3 Jones..............................................................................4-3 4.1.2.4 Pseudo-Steady state / Darcy ........................................4-4 4.1.2.5 (Straight line) Well productivity Index...........................4-4 4.1.2.6 Multi-rate tests ...............................................................4-4
  9. 9. Contents ix PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 4.2 Horizontal Completions ........................................................4-4 4.2.1 Effect of Pressure Drop on Productivity..............................4-5 4.2.2 Single Phase Pressure Drop...............................................4-8 4.2.3 Multiphase Pressure Drop ...................................................4-9 4.2.4 Inflow Production Profiles....................................................4-9 4.2.5 Steady-State Productivity ..................................................4-10 4.2.6 Pseudo-Steady State Productivity.....................................4-13 4.2.7 Solution Gas-Drive IPR......................................................4-15 4.2.8 Horizontal Gas Wells..........................................................4-15 4.3 Multiple Layers / Completions ...........................................4-17 4.4 Artificial Lift ..........................................................................4-18 4.4.1 Gas Lift................................................................................4-18 4.4.2 ESP Lift ...............................................................................4-19 4.5 Tubing....................................................................................4-19 4.6 Chokes...................................................................................4-20 4.6.1 Ashford-Pierce....................................................................4-20 4.6.2 Omana ................................................................................4-21 4.6.3 Gilbert, Ros, Baxendall, Achong and Pilehvari .................4-22 4.6.3.1 PDVSA modification ....................................................4-23 4.6.4 Poettmann-Beck.................................................................4-23 4.6.5 Mechanistic Correlation, ....................................................4-24 4.6.6 API 14-B Formulation.........................................................4-26 4.7 Heat transfer.........................................................................4-27 4.8 Reservoir Depletion .............................................................4-27 4.8.1 Volume Depletion Reservoirs............................................4-27 4.8.2 Gas Condensate Reservoirs .............................................4-29 4.9 References............................................................................4-29 5 FIELD EQUIPMENT ................................................... 5-1 5.1 Compressor ............................................................................5-1 5.2 Expander .................................................................................5-2
  10. 10. x Contents PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 5.3 Single Phase Pump................................................................5-3 5.4 Multiphase Boosting .............................................................5-3 5.4.1 Multiphase Boosters – Positive Displacement Type ..........5-8 5.4.2 Twin Screw Type Multiphase Boosters...............................5-9 5.4.3 Progressing Cavity Type Multiphase Boosters.................5-11 5.4.4 Multiphase Boosters – Dynamic Type...............................5-12 5.4.5 Helico-Axial Type Multiphase Boosters ............................5-13 5.4.6 Contra-Rotating Axial Type Multiphase Booster...............5-15 5.4.7 Alternative approach ..........................................................5-16 5.5 Separator...............................................................................5-17 5.6 Re-injection point.................................................................5-17 5.7 Heat Transfer ........................................................................5-17 5.8 References............................................................................5-17 6 OPERATIONS ............................................................ 6-1 6.1 Check model...........................................................................6-1 6.2 No operation ...........................................................................6-1 6.3 Run model...............................................................................6-1 6.4 System Analysis.....................................................................6-2 6.5 Pressure Temperature profile ..............................................6-2 6.6 Flow correlation matching....................................................6-2 6.7 Wax Prediction .......................................................................6-3 6.8 Nodal Analysis .......................................................................6-3 6.9 Artificial Lift Performance.....................................................6-4 6.9.1 Optimization module performance curves ..........................6-5 6.9.1.1 Well head chokes ..........................................................6-5 6.10 Gas Lift Design & Diagnostics.............................................6-7
  11. 11. Contents xi PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 6.10.1 Check for Gas Lift instability ................................................6-7 6.11 Horizontal well analysis......................................................6-10 6.12 Reservoir tables...................................................................6-10 6.13 Network analysis..................................................................6-11 6.14 Optimization..........................................................................6-11 6.15 Field Planning.......................................................................6-12 6.15.1 Dynamic Eclipse link ..........................................................6-12 6.15.2 Look-up tables....................................................................6-14 6.15.3 Compositional tank models................................................6-15 6.15.4 Event handling....................................................................6-16 6.16 Multi-lateral well analysis ...................................................6-17 6.17 Post processor .....................................................................6-17 6.17.1 Graphical plots ...................................................................6-17 6.17.2 Tabular data .......................................................................6-18 6.17.3 Onscreen data....................................................................6-18 6.18 References............................................................................6-18 7 CASE STUDIES......................................................... 7-1 7.1 Pipeline & facilities Case Study – Condensate Pipeline ..7-3 7.1.1 Task 1. Develop a Compositional Model of the Hydrocarbon Phases .............................................................................................7-3 7.1.2 Task 2. Identify the Hydrate Envelope ................................7-4 7.1.3 Task 3. Select a Pipeline Size .............................................7-5 7.1.4 Task 4. Determine the Pipeline Insulation Requirement....7-7 7.1.5 Task 5. Screen the Pipeline for Severe Riser Slugging .....7-9 7.1.6 Task 6. Size a Slug Catcher ..............................................7-12 7.1.7 Data Available ....................................................................7-14 7.2 Well Performance Case Study – Oil Well Design............7-16 7.2.1 Task 1. Develop a Calibrated Blackoil Model ...................7-17 7.2.2 Task 2. Develop a Well Inflow Performance Model..........7-22 7.2.3 Task 3. Select a Tubing Size for the Production String....7-22
  12. 12. xii Contents PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 7.2.4 Data Available ....................................................................7-24 7.3 Network Analysis Case Study – Looped Gathering Network.............................................................................................7-27 7.3.1 Task 1. Build a Model of the Network ...............................7-27 7.3.2 Task 2. Specify the Network Boundary Conditions ..........7-31 7.3.3 Task 3. Solve the Network and Establish the deliverability..7- 32 7.3.4 Data Available ....................................................................7-33 7.4 Production Optimization.....................................................7-37 7.5 Field Planning.......................................................................7-37 7.6 Multi-lateral ...........................................................................7-37 8 INDEX..............................................................................I
  13. 13. Conventions xiii PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 Document conventions <edit/copy> - used to denote commands enter into the computer from either Microsoft Windows operating systems or PIPESIM 2000
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  15. 15. PIPESIM 2000 Hot Keys xv PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 PIPESIM 2000 Hot Keys File Create New Well Model CTRL+W Create New Pipeline Model CTRL+ Create New Network model CTRL+N Open model CTRL+O Open engine file CTRL+T Save model CTRL+S Close PIPESIM 2000 ALT+F4 Text Edit CTRL+T Export to Engine file CTRL+E Purge Engine Files CTRL+Y Simulation Run model CTRL+G Restart Model CTRL+R Check model CTRL+E Windows New Model Window CTRL+W Close Active Window CTRL+F4 Go to Next Window CTRL+F6 or CTRL+TAB Go to Previous Window CTRL+SHIFT+F6 or CTRL+SHIFT+ TAB Tools Print CTRL+P Access Help F1 Editing/General Access Pull-down menus ALT or F10 Cut CTRL+X Copy CTRL+C Paste CTRL+V Delete Del Select All CTRL+A Find CTRL+F Sticky key mode SHIFT
  16. 16. xvi PIPESIM 2000 Hot Keys PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 Zoom in SHIFT+Z Zoom out SHIFT+X Zoom Full View SHIFT+F Restore View SHIFT+R
  17. 17. Introduction PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................ 1-1 1.1 Setting up................................................................................1-1 1.1.1 Before you run setup............................................................1-1 1.1.2 Running setup ......................................................................1-3 1.1.3 Changing Options after quitting setup.................................1-3 1.2 Documentation .......................................................................1-3 1.2.1 PIPESIM 2000 additional documentation ...........................1-3 1.2.2 Case Studies ........................................................................1-4 1.2.3 Online Help...........................................................................1-4 1.3 PIPESIM 2000 overview.........................................................1-5 1.3.1 Modules................................................................................1-6 1.3.2 Options..................................................................................1-9 1.4 File Management..................................................................1-11 1.5 Security .................................................................................1-12 1.5.1 Stand-alone security ..........................................................1-12 1.5.2 LAN Security.......................................................................1-13 1.6 New features.........................................................................1-13 1.7 Baker Jardine Support Services........................................1-14 1.8 What to do next....................................................................1-15
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  19. 19. Introduction 1-1 PIPESIM 2000 1 Introduction Welcome to Baker Jardine's PIPESIM 2000 - the integrated Petroleum Engineer and Facilities package for; Design, Operation and Optimization. 1.1 Setting up You install PIPESIM 2000 on your computer by using the program SETUP.EXE. The setup up program installs PIPESIM 2000 itself, the Help system, sample case studies, the necessary start icons and any other components required from the distribution disk to your local hard disk. Important You can not simply copy files from the distribution disk to your hard disk and run PIPESIM 2000. You must use the setup program. This will decompress and installs files in the correct directory and register the required COM objects. 1.1.1 Before you run setup Before you install PIPESIM 2000, please make sure that your computer meets the minimum requirements and that the PIPESIM 2000 package contains the required items. This manual assumes that you have a basic working knowledge of Microsoft Windows 95 or higher. If you are not familiar with Windows, then you should refer to the Microsoft Windows User's Guide before reading this manual or using the software. 1.1.1.1 Hardware and system requirements To run PIPESIM 2000 you must have certain hardware and software installed. The minimum system requirements are: • Any IBM Compatible PC with an Pentium processor or higher 200MHz • A hard disk • At least 100Mb of free space on the hard disk • A CD-ROM drive
  20. 20. 1-2 Introduction PIPESIMPIPESIM 2 0 0 02 0 0 0 • A VGA display • A mouse • 16Mb of RAM • Microsoft Windows 95 or higher • The PC system date is set to the current date. The security system uses the current PC date. The recommended system requirements are: • Pentium II processor 400MHz • 3Gb hard disk • A 4x CD-ROM drive • A SVGA display running in 1024x768 and 256 colors • A 2 button mouse • 64Mb of RAM • Microsoft Windows NT 1.1.1.2 Check the PIPESIM 2000 package The following items should be in the PIPESIM 2000 package: • PIPESIM 2000 User Guide • PIPESIM 2000 Additional Notes • PIPESIM 2000 Service Pack Notes • PIPESIM 2000 CD • Registration form (also available on our web site) • Software license reference number. This should be quoted on all correspondence. If any of the above are missing then please contact your nearest Baker Jardine office. 1.1.1.3 Make backup copies Before you run the install procedure please back up copies of any important data stored on your PC. You are also encouraged to make a back up copy of the install CD. 1.1.1.4 Read the additional notes document The additional notes' document (shipped with the package) lists any changes to the User Guide since its publication.
  21. 21. Introduction 1-3 PIPESIM 2000 1.1.2 Running setup When you run the setup program To start Setup Once you have installed PIPESIM 2000 the following links will be created on the Programs menu; • Baker Jardine • PIPESIM 2000 • GOAL • FPT • HoSim • Open Link documentation • Utilities • B26 to P2K Converter • Security utilities • User defined DLL registry editor 1.1.3 Changing Options after quitting setup You can run they setup program as many times as you like to install or remove components. 1.2 Documentation 1.2.1 PIPESIM 2000 additional documentation In addition to this User Guide the following documentation is available to assist users in using PIPESIM 2000 or some of its modules. The latest versions of these documents are available from any Baker Jardine support office or can be downloaded directly from the Baker Jardine web site in Adobe Acrobat PDF format. 1.2.1.1 Artificial lift Performance curve The optimizer module utilizes artificial lift performance curves to model the wells. These can be created by a suitable Nodal analysis software package.
  22. 22. 1-4 Introduction PIPESIMPIPESIM 2 0 0 02 0 0 0 1.2.1.2 User Defined Multiphase flow correlation The user can create their own multiphase flow correlations and link these into PIPESIM 2000. 1.2.1.3 OpenLink A collection of COM object that allows PIPESIM 2000 to be accessed from 3 rd party applications, e.g. Microsoft Excel, Visual basic, etc. A up to date list of features and functionality can be obtained from the Baker Jardine web site, along with the all necessary documentation. 1.2.1.4 PVT file format The composition can be transferred from third party applications directly into PIPESIM 2000, provide that it is supplied in the correct format. This document details that format. 1.2.1.5 Sentinel LM Security The LAN version of PIPESIM 2000 utilizes Sentinel LM License manger as its security system The Sentinel LM Administrators Guide can be of assistance to IT personnel. Note: This User Guide does not cover the menus or dialogs that are used within the software. These are covered, in detail, in the Help system, supplied with PIPESIM 2000. 1.2.2 Case Studies The PIPESIM 2000 installation installs sample models on to your hard disk. 1.2.3 Online Help You can access Help through • the Help Contents command, • by searching for specific topics with the Help Search tool • pressing F1 to get context-sensitive Help. 1.2.3.1 Help contents For information on Help topics, choose Contents from the Help menu or press F1 and click the Contents button. You can use the Contents screen to jump to topics that tell you how to use PIPESIM 2000, or to get quick access to key reference topics.
  23. 23. Introduction 1-5 PIPESIM 2000 1.2.3.2 Help Search The fastest way to find a particular topic in the Help system is to use the Search dialog box. To display the Search dialog box, you can either choose Search from the help menu or click the Search button on the Help topic screen. The keyword or phase to search for can then be entered. 1.2.3.3 Context-sensitive Help Many parts of PIPESIM 2000 are context-sensitive. That means that you can get help on these parts directly without having to go through the Help menu. You can press F1 from any context-sensitive part of PIPESIM 2000 to display information about that part. The context-sensitive parts are: • Items on the toolbar • Objects on a dialog box 1.3 PIPESIM 2000 overview The table below shows the minimum modules that are required to conduct various studies. Pipeline&Facilities Module WellPerformance Module NetworkModule OptimizationModule FieldPlanning Module Horizontal& Multilateralmodule Pipeline sizing 3 Equipment sizing 3 Nodal Analysis 3 3 Multiple Completions 3 3 Reservoir tables 3 3 Surface networks 3 3 Subsurface & surface networks 3 3 3 Field wide Optimization 3 3 3 Field Planning 3 3 3 3 Multi-lateral well 3
  24. 24. 1-6 Introduction PIPESIMPIPESIM 2 0 0 02 0 0 0 The initial release of PIPESIM 2000 does not have all modules fully integrated, i.e. Production Optimization (GOAL), Field Planning (FPT), Multi-lateral well (HoSim). 1.3.1 Modules PIPESIM 2000 consists of the following modules: • Pipeline & Facilities • Well Performance Analysis • Network Analysis • Production Optimization (GOAL) • Field Planning (FPT) • Multi-lateral (HoSim) 1.3.1.1 Pipeline & Facilities A comprehensive multiphase flow model with "System Analysis" capabilities. Typical applications of the module include: • multiphase flow in flowlines and pipelines • point by point generation of pressure and temperature profiles • calculation of heat transfer coefficients • flowline & equipment performance modelling (system analysis) 1.3.1.2 Well Performance analysis A comprehensive multiphase flow model with "Nodal & System Analysis" capabilities. Typical applications of the model include: • Well design • Well optimization • well inflow performance modelling • gas lift performance modelling • ESP performance modelling • horizontal well modelling (including optimum horizontal completion length determination) • injection well design • annular and tubing flow 1.3.1.3 Network analysis module Features of the network model include:
  25. 25. Introduction 1-7 PIPESIM 2000 • unique network solution algorithm to model wells in large networks • rigorous thermal modelling of all network components • multiple looped pipeline/flowline capability • well inflow performance modelling capabilities • rigorous modelling of gas lifted wells in complex networks • comprehensive pipeline equipment models • gathering and distribution networks 1.3.1.4 Production Optimization (GOAL) This module allows production optimization of an artificial lifted (gas lift or ESP) oil field to be performed given a number of practical constraints on the system. The module will predict the optimum artificial lift quantity (lift gas or ESP speed) so as to optimize oil production from the entire field. As an alternative to calculations based on produced oil the optimization can be performed on gross liquids, gross gas or revenue. The program models the full network on a point-by-point basis, and offers a choice of flow correlation options for multiphase flow. In addition to being able to optimize field production it includes a unique production prediction mode, which allows current field production rates and pressures to be predicted and the results compared directly against actual field data. The module has been primarily developed for use by operations staff in the day-to-day optimization and allocation of lift gas for complex multi-well networked configurations. GOAL has been designed with to allow answers to specific problems to be easily obtained. This could be, for example, when a well is shut- in and the extra quantity of lift gas or horse power is made available. The module can then be used to determine the best re-allocation of the lift gas to the remaining wells, while taking into account any production constraints, to optimize the total production. To allow the day-to-day modelling of the system to be performed quickly, modelling of the wells and the optimization process have been separated. This allows answers to specific problems, by
  26. 26. 1-8 Introduction PIPESIMPIPESIM 2 0 0 02 0 0 0 examining a number of scenarios, to be generated in a very short time. Input is taken from individual well performance models created from a multiphase flow simulator, in the form of well performance curves. These performance curves should be generated and checked before being included in the model. To obtain the correct solution the pressure drop must be correctly accounted for along the surface network. This is simulated by the use of (tuned) industrial standard multiphase flow correlation's to predict the pressure loss and liquid hold-up in the pipeline. In its production prediction mode of operation it can be used to validate the individual well gas lift or ESP lift performance curves by using them to predict current production rates. Results are displayed in tabular form, graphical plots or by utilizing the sophisticated graphical user interface to display a variety of rates and pressures. The solution provides a comprehensive report that includes the required gas injection rate for each well or required operating speed for each well, the flowrate and pressure at each manifold in the system and economic data. Full features of the model include: • interfaces with the well Analysis module • solves multi-well commingled scenarios • allows well production performance modelling • offers operator decision support functions • Black Oil only 1.3.1.5 Multi-lateral wells (HoSim) HoSim is designed to model horizontal and multilateral hetrogeneous wells in detail. The software uses a rigorous network solution algorithm to solve horizontal and multilateral wells as gathering networks. The program enables detailed horizontal well models to be built quickly and easily through a graphical user interface. The user can
  27. 27. Introduction 1-9 PIPESIM 2000 define various IPR relationships, and specify a detailed well description. Certain equipment models, which are common to the pipeline and facilities module, are available such as chokes, gas lift, ESP’s and also separators, compressors, pumps etc. Fluid description can be either black oil or compositional and different fluids can be specified which are mixed together using appropriate mixing rules. Specifying either an outlet pressure or an outlet flowrate (or a range of values for a batch run) to run the model. Results can be displayed either as text (point values) or graphically for any part of the model. 1.3.1.6 Field Planning (FPT) Allows the network module to be coupled to a “reservoir model” to model reservoir behavior over time. In addition conditional logic decision can be taken into account, i.e. bring well 56 on steam in year 5, etc. The reservoir may be described as either; • Black oil tank model • Compositional tank model • look-up tables • Commercial reservoir simulator • Commercial material balance program 1.3.2 Options In addition to the above basic modules a number of options are available. 1.3.2.1 Compositional option Allows a PVT package to be used to determine the fluid properties. Options are • Multiflash • SPPTS (Shell only) The compositional options have the following features; • Standard library of 50+ components
  28. 28. 1-10 Introduction PIPESIMPIPESIM 2 0 0 02 0 0 0 • Petroleum Fraction • Phase envelop generation • Dew point line • Bubble point line • Critical point • Hydrate formation line (if present) • Ice formation line (if present) • Quality lines • EOS • Peng-Robinson (standard and advanced) • SRK (standard and advanced) • Corresponding EOS • SMIRK (limited access) • Stand alone flash (PT, PH, etc) details • Viscosity models • Pederson • LBC In addition the Multiflash option has the following features; • Multiple Bubble point matching • Multiple Dew point matching • Multiple Viscosity data matching • Setting of BIP's • Emulsion options • User defined BIP's 1.3.2.2 OLGAS 2000 Utilizes the steady-state version of the multiphase flow correlation from Scandpower as used in OLGA Transient. This option has 2 versions; (i) 2-phase and (ii) 3-phase. 1.3.2.3 ECLIPSE 100 Allows the Field Planning module to use the ECLIPSE 100 (Black Oil) reservoir simulator to model the reservoir performance. The system
  29. 29. Introduction 1-11 PIPESIM 2000 has been designed so that ECLIPSE (and its model) resides on the UNIX machine. 1.3.2.4 ECLIPSE 300 Allows the Field Planning module to use the ECLIPSE 300 reservoir simulator (Compositional) to model the reservoir performance. The system has been designed so that ECLIPSE (and its model) resides on the UNIX machine. 1.3.2.5 Mbal Allows the Field Planning module to use the material balance program Mbal (from Petroleum Experts) to model the reservoir performance. 1.4 File Management PIPESIM 2000 uses the following to store data; • ASCII files • Binary files • Microsoft Access Database. Input data (*.BPS, *.BPN, *.PGW, *.FPT,*.HSM) Contains all the data that is necessary to run a model. This includes data for; units, fluid composition, well IPR, system data, etc. The support team requires these files when support queries are made. Output data (*.OUT, *.SUM) Contains program output data in different formats. Transfer files (*.PLT, *.PLC, *.PWH, *.PBT, *.TNT, *.PST) Files that transfer data from one PIPESIM 2000 module to another. PVT table (*.PVT) A file that contains a single stream composition and a table of fluid properties for a given set of pressure and temperature values. This file can (if required) be created by a commercial PVT package e.g. Multiflash, Hysys, PVTSim, EQUI90, etc. or via the compositional module in PIPESIM 2000. Database files (*.MDB) Microsoft Access Database file that contains;
  30. 30. 1-12 Introduction PIPESIMPIPESIM 2 0 0 02 0 0 0 • Black Oil fluid data, • ESP performance curves • User defined pump and compressor curves Units file (*.UMF) Units files. Used to store user defined unit sets. These files can be passed from user-to-user. 1.5 Security Stand-alone (single PC) versions of PIPESIM 2000 are protected from unauthorized use by means of a hardware security module (generally referred to as a 'dongle' or 'bit lock'). Local Area Network (LAN) versions are normally protected via License Manager software. 1.5.1 Stand-alone security When the program executes the dongle must be attached to the parallel port of the computer otherwise it will not run. The dongle remains the property of Baker Jardine while in use by customers, and are not replaceable if lost. You can connect another device (or more Baker Jardine dongles) to the parallel port while the dongle is still attached to it without affecting the operation of the device or the dongle. Do this simply by plugging the device into the back of the dongle. If you already have another program protected by a similar dongle, they can both be plugged into the port at the same time, and should not interfere with each other. The dongle is quite robust, so no particular care need be taken in handling it. Users are able to view the Baker Jardine software modules licensed on their dongles by using the Dongle Utility, BJA Dongle Utility. On start-up of the utility, the attached dongle’s license details for the various software modules are displayed. When renewing or purchasing additional software licenses you will need to update the licenses on your dongle(s) by receiving instructions from Baker Jardine. The dongles have an internal timing mechanism to enforce the license periods. It is important NOT to set your PC’s clock into the future and run PIPESIM 2000, as the dongle will prevent you from
  31. 31. Introduction 1-13 PIPESIM 2000 using PIPESIM 2000 after you have set your clock back. If you do accidentally do this, contact Baker Jardine for information on how to “reset” your dongle. 1.5.2 LAN Security For LAN versions of PIPESIM 2000 the Sentinel License Manger software from Rainbow Technology is used. This system allows the number of concurrent users of the PIPESIM 2000 software to be monitored and controlled to insure that you don't violate your license agreement. The SentinelLM license server, installed on the LAN, can authorize, meter and report PIPESIM 2000 usage. When PIPESIM 2000 is run, it first makes a check to SentinelLM to verify that use is permitted by the license agreement. If the user is authorized, then SentinelLM gives PIPESIM 2000 permission to run. If permission is granted, this process is invisible. If permission is denied, then you will be informed and PIPESIM 2000 exited. Permission may be denied because all the available PIPESIM 2000 licenses are in use, the license has expired, or no license has been installed. The LAN security system also has the following license management capabilities, • PIPESIM 2000 can be restricted to one or more computers • A summary of current and historical PIPESIM 2000 usage can be obtained • A network administrator can impose local restrictions on the usage of PIPESIM 2000. A certain number of licenses may be reserved for particular departments or work groups. • A network administrator can configure the license server to report certain conditions such as approaching license expiration. A document," Sentinel License Manger; System Administrator's Guide" can be down loaded from out web site. 1.6 New features You are advised to review the additional notes' document supplied with your version of the software for a complete list of new features.
  32. 32. 1-14 Introduction PIPESIMPIPESIM 2 0 0 02 0 0 0 Our web site also provides detailed information on the latest version. In addition, enhancements (service packs) can be download from the site to fix minor bugs and enhancements. 1.7 Baker Jardine Support Services Baker Jardine offer full technical support for PIPESIM 2000 from our offices. Center Tel Fax London Baker Jardine 9 Heathmans Road Parsons Green London SW6 4TJ UK +44 20 7371 5644 +44 20 7371 5182 Support@bjalondon.com America Baker Jardine Americas Suite 440, 7500 San Felipe Houston, TX 77063 USA +1 713 334 2243 +1 713 334 2195 Support@bjahouston.com Venezuela Baker Jardine de Venezuela +58 61 922 346 +58 61 921 812 Bjvsptec@iamnet.com Mexico Baker Jardine de Mexicana +52 93 16 18 61 +52 93 16 48 56 Adelfo@compuserve.com Canada Baker Jardine 740, 600 6th Avenue S.W. Calgary, T2P 0S5 Canada +1 403 265 2696 +1 403 265 2646 Austin_James@atech.ca To offer the best and fastest support our preferred method for support services is via email. In addition our web site offer a collect of frequently asked questions (FAQ').
  33. 33. Introduction 1-15 PIPESIM 2000 1.8 What to do next Depending upon your needs the following is recommended; New users • Familiarize yourself with the all PIPESIM 2000 modules, their function and application. • Work through the case studies for your particular area of interest Existing users • Read the new features section and the additional notes' document to obtain an overview of new features.
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  35. 35. Model Overview PIPESIMPIPESIM 2000 2 MODEL OVERVIEW 2-1 2.1 Steps in building a model 2-1 2.2 Starting PIPESIM 2000 2-1 2.3 Units System 2-1 2.4 Fluid data 2-2 2.4.1 Black Oil 2-2 2.4.2 Compositional 2-4 2.4.3 Steam 2-5 2.5 Model components overview 2-5 2.5.1 Model & Component limitations 2-9 2.6 Flow correlation 2-10 2.7 Run an operation 2-10 2.8 Saving & Closing PIPESIM 2000 2-11 2.9 How to build models 2-11 2.9.1 Fluid calibration 2-11 2.9.2 Pipeline & facilities 2-12 2.9.3 Well Performance 2-15 2.9.4 Network Analysis 2-18 2.9.5 Production Optimization 2-20 2.9.6 Field Planning 2-20 2.9.7 Multi-lateral 2-21
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  37. 37. Model Overview 2-1 PIPESIM 2000 2 Model Overview 2.1 Steps in building a model The steps involved in building a PIPESIM 2000 model are slightly different for each module but follow the same basic steps. • Select units • Set fluid data • Calibrate data (optional) • Define components in the model • Well components (completion, tubing) • Pipeline component • Field equipment • Set heat transfer options • Select multiphase flow correlation • Perform an operation • Analyze the results • Graphical • Tabular • Via schematic 2.2 Starting PIPESIM 2000 The PIPESIM 2000 GUI can be run from the start menu <start/program files/Baker Jardine/PIPESIM 2000>. 2.3 Units System The built in units system allows you the flexibility to select any variable and define the unit of measurement to be used. Thus you can use this feature to modify the units system to match reports or data supplied by a service company or to simply customize the units system to suit your own personal preferences. Two non-customizable unit sets are provided; • Engineering (oil field) and • SI. In addition the following customizable unit sets are supplied; • Mexican • Canadian S.I
  38. 38. 2-2 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 Any number of customized unit sets can be created and saved (each one to a different external data file) under a new name. These customized files can be provided to other PIPESIM 2000 users. The units system used for any particular model is saved with the model data, thus allowing models to be moved easily. Any unit set can be set as the default for new models or new sessions of PIPESIM 2000. 2.4 Fluid data One of the first things that you need to do before using PIPESIM 2000 is to decide what type of fluid system you are going to use. PIPESIM 2000 can model the following fluid types • Compositional • Black Oil • Gas • Gas condensate • Liquid • Liquid & Gas • Steam The fluid model that you use will depend upon: • Properties of the fluids in the system • Flow rates and conditions (pressure & temperature) at which the fluid(s) enter and leave the system. • Available data, etc. For a quick screening study where the accuracy of the physical properties is not essential, we advise the user to use a Black oil fluid model specification. 2.4.1 Black Oil Black oil fluid modelling utilizes correlation models to simulate the key PVT fluid properties of the oil/gas/water system. These empirical correlation's treat the oil/gas system as a simple two component system - unlike the more rigorous multi-component compositional model methods. The hydrocarbon is treated simply as a liquid
  39. 39. Model Overview 2-3 PIPESIM 2000 component (if present) and a gas component related to stock tank conditions. All that is needed for most applications is a minimum of production data, oil gravity, gas gravity, solution gas/oil ratio and, if water is also present in the system, the watercut. Black oil fluid modelling is appropriate for use with a wide range of applications and hydrocarbon fluid systems. In general, the basic black oil correlations will provide reasonable accuracy in most PVT fluid property evaluations over the range of pressures and temperatures likely to be found in production or pipeline systems. However, care should be taken when applying the black oil approach to a highly volatile crude or a condensate where accurate modelling of the gaseous light ends is required. In this case, the user should consider the use of compositional modelling technique that describes the fluid as a multi-component mixture. In order to increase the accuracy of the basic black oil correlations for modelling multiphase flow, PIPESIM 2000 provides the facility to adjust salient values of a number of the most important PVT fluid properties to match laboratory data. These PVT fluid properties are considered the single most important parameters affecting the accuracy of multi-phase flow calculations. Calibration of these properties can greatly increase the accuracy of the correlations over the range of pressures and temperatures for the system being modelled. This facility is optional, but the above calibrations will significantly improve the accuracy of the predicted gas/liquid ratio, the flowing oil density and the oil volume formation factor. If the calibration data is omitted, however, PIPESIM 2000 will calibrate on the basis of oil and gas gravity alone and thus, there will be a loss in accuracy. It should be noted that the black oil calibration feature is only applicable to oil fluid types, as it is not appropriate for a gas fluid type. The following blackoil correlations are available: • Solution gas and bubble point pressure: Lasater, Standing, Vasquez and Beggs, or Glasø.
  40. 40. 2-4 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 • Oil formation volume factor of saturated systems:-Standing, Vasquez and Beggs, or Glasø. • Oil formation volume factor of undersaturated systems:- Vasquez and Beggs, or Glasø. • Dead oil viscosity: Beggs and Robinson, Glasø, or Users data. • Live oil viscosity of saturated systems: Chew and Connally or Beggs and Robinson. • Live oil viscosity of undersaturated systems: Vazquez and Beggs, Kousel, or None. • Viscosity of oil/water mixtures: Inversion, Volume Ratio, or Woelflin. • Gas viscosity:-Lee et al. • Gas compressibility: Standing, or Hall and Yarborough. 2.4.2 Compositional For compositional fluid modelling of hydrocarbon fluids and associated gas and water components, PIPESIM 2000 uses a seamless interface to a PVT modelling package. Compositional fluid modelling is generally regarded as more accurate, but also more expensive in terms of time and computer resources than black oil modelling. It is justified for problems involving volatile fluids needing rigorous heat transfer calculations. However the black oil modelling approach can often give satisfactory results with volatile fluids. Oil systems contain in reality many thousands of pure components, consisting of a spectrum of molecules with different carbon numbers and large numbers of different isomers. It would be impossible to model the behavior of such systems by explicitly defining the amount of each of these molecules, both because of the excessive computing power needed and the fact that laboratory reports could not possibly supply all this information. Since the alkane hydrocarbons are non-polar and therefore mutually relatively ideal, lumping them together in the form of a number of 'pseudo-components' results in fairly accurate phase behavior and physical property predictions.
  41. 41. Model Overview 2-5 PIPESIM 2000 Petroleum fractions are normally defined by splitting off sections of a laboratory distillation of the C7+ mixture. Curves of boiling point, density and molecular weight are produced from which the properties of the individual pseudo-components may be derived. Petroleum fractions are characterized by either; • Measured Properties; • boiling point (BP), • specific gravity (SG) and • molecular weight (MW). T • Critical Property • critical temperature (TC), • critical pressure (PC), • acentric factor (Omega) and • specific gravity (SG). Further details of the equations used, etc can be found in the PIPESIM 2000 help system. 2.4.3 Steam - NOT available in version 1.30 For steam systems (production and injection) PIPESIM 2000 uses the GPSA stream tables. When modelling stream systems the pressure and quality are required. If the quality is superheated (quality =100%) or sub-cooled (quality=0%) then the temperature is also required. 2.5 Model components overview A PIPESIM 2000 model is built (via the GUI) by adding components (from the toolbox) to the model window. Components are divided into 2 groups; • Node type components • Boundary nodes - Must be on the edge of the system and can only have one connection either leaving (source) or entering (sink). • Internal nodes - Can not be on the edge of the system and can have any number of connections. • Linking type components - Joins 2 node type components
  42. 42. 2-6 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 Node type components are connected by linking components and thus must be added to the model first. The components available depend upon the modules purchased. Details on the inputs for each component can be found in the help system. A full list of components and their type is listed below. Pipeline & facilities module Component Type Description Source Boundary Node The point where the fluid enters the system. Flowline Link A flowline to a point where it meets another flowline (with different characteristics) or another object. Maybe horizontal or inclined and surrounded by air, water or both; insulated or bare Riser Link A description of the riser (vertical or near-vertical - up or down) to a point where it meets another riser or another object. Pump Internal Node A single or multistage pump for the pumping of liquids. Multiphase Booster Node A multiphase booster. Separator Internal Node Allows fluid separation to take place in the model. It is a two-phase separator, (i.e. gross liquids, water or gas). The removed fluid can be re-injected back into the network model via the injection point component. Compressor Internal Node A single or multistage centrifugal gas compressor Expander Internal Node An expander.
  43. 43. Model Overview 2-7 PIPESIM 2000 Heat exchanger Internal Node Allows a change in temperature and pressure to be modelled Choke Internal Node A device to restrict the flow of fluids. Injection point Internal Node Allows a side stream (compositional only) to be injected into the main stream. The incoming pressure and flowrate (along with the composition) are required. Multiplier/Adder Internal Node Changes the flowrate by the amount specified. Spot report Internal Node Allow key pieces of information to be retrieved at any point (between links) in the system. This component has no effect on the temperature or pressure in the system. Keyword tool Internal Node Allows engine keywords to be inserted into a model. A full list of the keywords can be found in the Help system under keyword reference. Connector Link Joins to nodes without having any effect on the calculations, i.e. a zero length piece of pipe. Well Performance module Component Type Description Vertical completion Boundary Node Describes the well IPR and the reservoir static pressure for a vertical completion. These are then used to determine the bottom hole pressure. Horizontal completion Boundary Node Describes the horizontal completion, the IPR and the reservoir static pressure. These are then used to determine the bottom hole (heal) pressure Tubing Link Joins the reservoir top the surface. The fluid can flow either through the tubing or outside the tubing (inside the casing) or both. The tubing may also have down hole equipment installed.
  44. 44. 2-8 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 down hole equipment installed. Nodal analysis point Node The point in the system where the (nodal) analysis is to be conducted. The model is then broken into two parts; inflow to the NA point and outflow from the NA point. Network module Component Type Description Production well Boundary Node Models the source as a production well. The well is (normally) defined from the sand face to the point where it joins another object, i.e. well head, manifold, etc. Generic source Boundary Node The point where a fluid enters the system. Can be used when a well is modelled from the well head. Injection well Boundary Node Models the sink as an injection well, including tubing and completion. Generic sink Boundary Node The point where the fluid leaves the systems. A model may have any number of sinks. Node Node A point in the system where 1 or more branches meets Branch Link Connects 2 or more nodes, sources or sinks. Any combination of flowline, riser or pieces of equipment can be used to describe a branch. When connected between a well and a node the resulting branch has no physical meaning Re-injection node Node Connects 3 branches; 1 - the incoming fluid stream (this branch MUST contain a separator) 2 - the outlet stream 3 - the stream removed by the separator. All the fluid removed from the separator is re-injected. The re- injected stream can be upstream or downstream of the separator.
  45. 45. Model Overview 2-9 PIPESIM 2000 downstream of the separator. 2.5.1 Model & Component limitations The following limitations; General: • Maximum number of components in a stream: 50 Pipeline & facilities • Maximum number of sources: 1 • Maximum number of sinks: 1 • Maximum number pipe coatings: 4 • Maximum number of nodes for a pipeline or riser: 101 Well Performance • Maximum number of completions: 10 • Maximum number of sinks 1 • Maximum number tubing coatings: 10 • Maximum number of nodes for a tubing: 100 • Maximum number of geothermal survey points: 100 • Maximum number of tubing strings: • Detailed model: 20 • Simple model: 4 Network • Maximum number of wells / branches: 512 • Maximum number of nodes: 512 • Maximum number of PVT files: 500 • Maximum number of compositions: 1,000 • Maximum number of Black Oil compositions: 1,024 • Maximum number of PQ data points: 30 Field Planning • Maximum number of stored timesteps: 256 • Maximum number of auxiliary properties: 1,500 • Maximum number of Eclipse models: 1 • Maximum number of network models: 5 • Maximum number of events: 2,500
  46. 46. 2-10 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 • Maximum number of schedule 'bean' lists: 99 • Maximum number of look-up tables: 500 • Maximum number of data lines in all look-up tables: 1500 • Maximum number of tank reservoirs: 50 Production Optimization (GOAL) • Maximum number of wells/branches: 500 • Maximum number of nodes: 400 • Maximum number of sinks: 1 Multi-lateral (HoSim) • Maximum number of multi-laterals: 500 2.6 Flow correlation Flow correlations are used to determine the pressure drop and hold- up in the system Flow correlations are split in to the following section; • Single phase • Multiphase - vertical • Multiphase - horizontal A number of flow correlations have been proposed over the years. In addition to the standard supplied flow correlations user's can create and add their own multiphase flow correlation in to PIPESIM 2000 via the user DLL facility. The linkages are documented in the user defined flow correlations document which can be obtained from Baker Jardine or down loaded from our web site. 2.7 Run an operation Select the operation that is relevant to the model developed. The simulation will commence and the post-processor can then be used to analyze the results.
  47. 47. Model Overview 2-11 PIPESIM 2000 2.8 Saving & Closing PIPESIM 2000 When PIPESIM 2000 is closed all files (models) that have been modified during the session are checked and an option to save any that have changed is presented to the user. 2.9 How to build models This section provides a brief overview of the steps involved in building a model with each of the basic PIPESIM 2000 modules. See the PIPESIM 2000 Help system " How do I…" section for full details on setting up the basic models. PIPESIM 2000 can build the following basic models; • Pipeline and facilities • Production well • Single completion well • Multiple completion well • Horizontal completion well • Injection well • Sub-surface and surface Networks • Gathering systems • Looped systems • Distribution systems • Multi-lateral wells • Production • Injection 2.9.1 Fluid calibration 2.9.1.1 Black Oil The following basic steps are required to calibrate the black oil defined fluids; • Select the units set of your preference • Enter the basic fluid data • Enter the Bubble Point data • Enter the Advanced calibration data (optional) • Run the operation. • Save the model!
  48. 48. 2-12 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 In a network model the calibration data is "mixed" at junctions to provide average calibration data for the resulting stream. 2.9.1.2 Compositional The following basic steps are required to calibrate the compositionally defined fluids; • Select the units set of your preference • Enter the basic fluid data (library components, petroleum fractions) • Produce the phase envelop (for reference) • Select the quantity to match to; Bubble Point or Dew point • Enter the matching data • Select viscosity matching options if applicable • Enter the viscosity data • Run the matching operation • Update the composition • Produce the new phase envelop • Save the model! 2.9.2 Pipeline & facilities The following basic steps are required to build a pipeline & facilities model; • Select the units set of your preference • Add the necessary components to the model (source, flowline, equipment, etc) and defined the necessary data. • Define the fluid specification (black oil or compositional). • Define the flow correlation to use. • Save the model! One the basic model has been developed a number of operations can be performed or the model can be utilized in additional PIPESIM 2000 modules. 2.9.2.1 Correlation matching The following basic steps are required to determine the most suitable horizontal multiphase flow correlation; • Build the pipeline & facilities model. • Select the Correlation matching operation • Determine the boundary condition to compute
  49. 49. Model Overview 2-13 PIPESIM 2000 • Select suitable Horizontal correlations • Enter any known measured pressure and temperature values • Run the operation. • Save the model! Insure that the most suitable correlation is then selected from the horizontal flow correlation list for subsequent simulations. 2.9.2.2 Pressure/Temperature profile The following basic steps are required to determine the pressure or temperature profile along the system; • Build the well performance model. • Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation • Determine the boundary condition to compute • Select any sensitivity parameters • Enter the sensitivity parameters • Run the operation • Save the model! 2.9.2.3 Equipment/Flowline sizing (1 parameter) The following basic steps are required to size a flowline/riser or a piece of equipment; • Build the pipeline and facilities model. • Include the flowline/equipment/riser to be sized. • Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation • Select the sensitivity parameter • Enter the data for the sensitivity parameter • Run the operation. • Save the model! 2.9.2.4 Equipment/Flowline sizing (Multiple parameter) The following basic steps are required to size a flowline/riser or a piece of equipment; • Build the pipeline and facilities model. • Include the flowline/equipment/riser to be sized. • Select the System Analysis operation • Select the multiple sensitivity • Select the x-axis and sensitivity parameters
  50. 50. 2-14 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 • Enter the data for the sensitivity parameters • Decide if the sensitivity parameters are permuted or change in step. • Run the operation. • Save the model! 2.9.2.5 Multiphase booster design The following basic steps are required to complete a multiphase booster design; • Build the pipeline and facilities (including the well if required) model. • Include the multiphase booster. • Perform the analysis (nodal, PT profile, etc) with the booster inactive. • Invoke the generic Multiphase booster option and set the booster parameters. Details on efficiency factors are supplied in the help system. • Re-run the analysis. • Verify that multiphase booster van enhance production. • Decide upon the Multiphase booster type required (Helico Axial or Twin Screw). • For twin screw boosters • Select the generic twin screw module • Enter the required data and re-run the analysis • PIPESIM 2000 will automatically select the most suitable size of the twin screw booster. • Select the Twin screw booster module • Select the nominal booster as recommend by the previous operation • Enter the data required data and re-run the analysis • Select the vendor Twin screw module • Enter the data required data and re-run the analysis • For Helico Axial boosters • Enter the required a data and re-run the analysis • Save the model!
  51. 51. Model Overview 2-15 PIPESIM 2000 2.9.3 Well Performance The following basic steps are required to build a well model (single or multiple completion); • Select the units set of your preference • Determine the completion of the well • Single • Multiple • Horizontal • Add the necessary components to the model (completion, tubing, etc) and defined the necessary data. • Define the fluid specification • Define the flow correlation to use. • Save the model! Once the basic model has been developed a number of operations can be performed or the well model can be utilized in additional PIPESIM 2000 modules. 2.9.3.1 Correlation matching The following basic steps are required to determine the most suitable vertical multiphase flow correlation; • Build the well performance model. • Select the Correlation matching operation • Determine the boundary condition to compute • Select suitable vertical correlations • Enter any known measured down hole pressure and temperature values • Run the operation. • Save the model! Insure that the most suitable correlation is then selected from the vertical flow correlation list for subsequent simulations. 2.9.3.2 Nodal analysis The following basic steps are required to perform a nodal analysis; • Build the well performance model. • Determine the Nodal Analysis point and insert the NA point object into the model (this is a node type object) • Select the Nodal Analysis operation
  52. 52. 2-16 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 • Determine the inflow and outflow parameters. • Run the operation. • Save the model! 2.9.3.3 Pressure/Temperature profile The following basic steps are required to determine the pressure or temperature profile along the system; • Build the well performance model. • Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation • Determine the boundary condition to compute • Select any sensitivity parameters • Enter the sensitivity parameters • Run the operation • Save the model! 2.9.3.4 Equipment/Tubing sizing (1 parameter) The following basic steps are required to size tubing or a piece of equipment; • Build the well model. • Include the tubing/equipment to be sized. • Select the Pressure/Temperature profile operation • Select the sensitivity parameter • Enter the data for the sensitivity parameter • Run the operation. • Save the model! 2.9.3.5 Equipment/Tubing sizing (Multiple parameter) The following basic steps are required to size tubing or a piece of equipment; • Build the pipeline and facilities model. • Include the tubing/equipment to be sized. • Select the System Analysis operation • Select the multiple sensitivity • Select the x-axis and sensitivity parameters • Enter the data for the sensitivity parameters • Decide if the sensitivity parameters are permuted or change in step. • Run the operation.
  53. 53. Model Overview 2-17 PIPESIM 2000 • Save the model! 2.9.3.6 Artificial Lift analysis The following basic steps are required to analysis the effects of artificial lift on a well; • Build the well performance model. • Insure that the gas lift or ESP lift depth has been set. • Select the Artificial Lift operation • Select the sensitivity parameters • Run the operation • Save the model! 2.9.3.7 Well performance curves for GOAL The following basic steps are required to create well performance curves for the Optimization module (GOAL); • Build the well performance model. • Insure that the gas lift or ESP lift depth has been set. • Select the Artificial Lift operation • Select the GOAL curve format • Enter the required data • Run the operation. • Save the model! The resulting data transfer files (*.PLT & *.PWH) are required by the optimization model. These files must then be transferred (manually) to the required optimization (GOAL) directory. 2.9.3.8 Reservoir Tables The following basic steps are required to create reservoir look-up tables; • Build the well performance model. • Select the reservoir tables operation • Select the reservoir simulator • Enter the required data • Run the operation. • Save the model! The resulting ASCII file can then be used directly by the reservoir simulator.
  54. 54. 2-18 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 2.9.3.9 Horizontal completion length The following basic steps are required to determine the optimal horizontal completion length; • Build the well (horizontal) performance model. • Select the Horizontal completion length operation • Enter the required data • Run the operation. • Save the model! 2.9.3.10 Gas Lift Rate v's Casing head pressure The following basic steps are required to analysis the effects of gas lift rate on the casing head pressure for a well; • Build the well performance model. • Insure that the gas lift depth and quantity has been set. • Select the Gas Lift rate v's casing head pressure operation • Select the sensitivity parameters • Run the operation • Save the model! 2.9.4 Network Analysis 2.9.4.1 Fluid properties In a network model different fluid descriptions can not be used, i.e. the model must be either black oil, compositional or steam. Each source can have it's own fluid description or use shared data. 2.9.4.2 Boundary Conditions In order to solve the network model the correct number of boundary conditions must be entered. Boundary nodes are those that have only one connecting branch, e.g. production well, injection well, source and sink. The number of boundary conditions that are required for a model is known as the models Degrees of Freedom. This is computed by the total number of boundary nodes, i.e. number of well (production and injection) + number of sources + number of sinks.
  55. 55. Model Overview 2-19 PIPESIM 2000 For example a 3 production well system producing fluid to a single delivery point has 4 degrees of freedom (3+1) regardless of the network configuration between the well and the sink. Each boundary can be specified in terms of; • Pressure • Flowrate OR • Pressure/Flowrate (PQ) curve. To enable the system to be solved 1: the number of Pressure, flowrate or PQ specifications must equal the degrees of freedom of the model. 2: At least 1 pressure must be specified 3: All each source (production well & source) the fluid temperature must be set. For example the above 3 well / 1 sink model could be specified as; • Well 1: Reservoir pressure, reservoir temperature • Well 2: Reservoir pressure, reservoir temperature • Well 3: Reservoir pressure, reservoir temperature • Sink: Delivery pressure OR • Well 1: Reservoir pressure, Flowrate, reservoir temperature • Well 2: reservoir temperature • Well 3: Reservoir pressure, reservoir temperature • Sink: Delivery pressure OR • Well 1: Flowrate, reservoir temperature • Well 2: Flowrate, reservoir temperature • Well 3: Flowrate, reservoir temperature • Sink: Delivery pressure Etc. 2.9.4.3 Network model The following basic steps are required to build a network model; • Select the units set of your preference • Develop the network model (wells and surface facilities). Pre- built models of wells/flowline can be used.
  56. 56. 2-20 Model Overview PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 • Set the fluid properties • Set the boundary conditions • Save the model! 2.9.5 Production Optimization The following basic steps are required to build an optimization (GOAL) model; • Select the units set of your preference • Develop the surface network model • Set the outlet pressure • Develop individual well models • Create well performance curves for each well • Save the model! See the GOAL Used Guide for details on; • building an optimization model • Calibrating the surface network • Calibrating the individual well models • Optimizing the field • Applying field constraints 2.9.6 Field Planning The following basic steps are required to build an FPT model; • Decide upon the reservoir description to use; • Tanks • Tables • Reservoir simulator • Set the name of the host UNIX workstation • Material balance program • Develop the network model (well and surface network) or models. • Link the wells to the reservoir description. • Specify any flowrate constraints • Define the time dependent events. • Define the conditional based events. • Select any auxiliary properties that are to be stored during the simulation and analyzed in the post-processor. • Set the convergence tolerance
  57. 57. Model Overview 2-21 PIPESIM 2000 • Save the model! See the FPT Used Guide for an example of building a Field Planning model. 2.9.7 Multi-lateral The following basic steps are required to build a multi-lateral well model; • Select the units set of your preference • Add the necessary components to the model (horizontal well section, branch, etc) and defined the necessary data. • Define the fluid specification (black oil or compositional). • Define the flow correlation to use. • Save the model! See the HoSim Used Guide for an example of building a multi-lateral well model.
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  59. 59. Fluid & Multiphase Modeling PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 3 FLUID & MULTIPHASE FLOW MODELLING 3-1 3.1 Black Oil 3-1 3.1.1 Lasater 3-1 3.1.2 Standing 3-2 3.1.3 Vazques and Beggs 3-2 3.1.4 Glasø 3-3 3.1.5 Coning 3-4 3.1.6 Liquid Viscosity 3-5 3.1.7 Dead Oil Viscosity 3-5 3.1.8 Live Oil Viscosity 3-6 3.1.9 Undersaturated Oil Viscosity 3-7 3.1.10 Oil/Water Mixture Viscosity 3-8 3.1.11 Gas Viscosity 3-9 3.2 Compositional 3-9 3.2.1 EOS (Equations of State) 3-9 3.2.2 Viscosity model 3-10 3.2.3 BIP (Binary Interaction Parameter) Set 3-12 3.2.4 Hydrates 3-12 3.3 Pressure Drop Calculation 3-14 3.3.1 Flow regimes 3-15 3.3.2 Single Phase Flow Correlations 3-18 3.3.3 Vertical Multiphase Flow Correlations 3-19 3.3.4 Horizontal Multiphase Flow Correlations 3-24 3.4 References 3-29
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  61. 61. Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-1 PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 3 Fluid & Multiphase Flow Modelling This section defines the fluid models and flow correlation modelled available in PIPESIM 2000. 3.1 Black Oil Fluid properties can be predicted by black-oil correlations that have been developed by correlating gas/oil ratios for live crudes with various properties, such as oil and gas gravities. The selected correlation is used to predict the quantity of gas dissolved in the oil at a particular pressure and temperature. The black oil correlations have been developed specifically for crude oil/gas/water systems and are therefore most useful in predicting the phase behavior of crude oil well streams. When used in conjunction with the calibration options, the black oil correlations can produce accurate phase behavior data from a minimum of input data. They are particularly convenient in gas lift studies where the effects of varying GLR and water cut are under investigation. However, if the accurate phase behavior prediction of light hydrocarbon systems is important, it is recommended that the more rigorous compositional models are employed. 3.1.1 Lasater A correlation developed in 1958 from 158 experimental data points. The data points spanned the following ranges: pb (bubble point pressure): 48 to 5,780 psia TR (reservoir temperature): 82 to 272 °F g API (API gravity): 17.9 to 51.1 °API g g (gas specific gravity): 0.574 to 1.223 Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 3 to 2,905 scf/STB 3.1.1.1 Bubble point pressure Step 1: Calculate Mo (molecular weight of the stock tank oil) For API <= 40: Mo = 630 - 10g API For API > 40: Mo = 73,110(g API) -1.562 Step 2: Calculate yg (mol fraction of gas) yg = (Rsb/379.3)/(Rsb/379.3 + 350g o/Mo) where g o = oil specific gravity Step 3: Calculate the bubble point pressure factor (pbg g/TR)
  62. 62. 3-2 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 For yg <= 0.6: pbg g/TR = 0.679 exp(2.786yg) - 0.323 For yg > 0.6: pbg g/TR = 8.26yg 3.56 + 1.95 Step 4: Calculate pb pb = (pbg g/TR )(T/g g) 3.1.1.2 Solution gas Rs = 132755 g o yg/(Mo(1 - yg)) 3.1.2 Standing Standing presented an equation to estimate bubble point pressures greater than 1,000 psia. The correlation was based on 105 experimentally determined bubble point pressure of California oil systems. The data points spanned the following ranges: pb (bubble point pressure): 130 to 7,000 psia TR (reservoir temperature): 100 to 258 °F gAPI (API gravity): 16.5 to 63.8 °API g g (gas specific gravity): 0.59 to 0.95 Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 20 to 1,425 scf/STB 3.1.2.1 Bubble point pressure Step 1: Calculate yg (mol fraction of gas) yg = 0.00091TR - 0.0125g API Step 2: Calculate pb pb = 18(Rsb/g g) 0.83 x 10 yg 3.1.2.2 Solution gas Rs = g g (p/(18 x 10 yg )) 1.204 3.1.2.3 Oil formation volume factor - saturated systems Step 1: Calculate F (correlating factor) F = Rs (g g /g o) 0.5 + 1.25T Step 2: Calculate Bo (oil formation volume factor in bbl/STB) Bo = 0.972 + 0.000147F 1.175 3.1.3 Vazques and Beggs Vasquez and Beggs used results from more than 600 oil systems to develop empirical correlations for several oil properties including bubble point pressure.
  63. 63. Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-3 PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 Approximately 6,000 measured data points were collected across the following ranges: pb (bubble point pressure): 50 to 5,250 psia TR (reservoir temperature): 70 to 295 °F g API (API gravity): 16 to 58 °API g g (gas specific gravity): 0.56 to 1.18 Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 20 to 2,070 scf/STB 3.1.3.1 Bubble point pressure pb = (Rsb/(C1g g exp(C3g API/( TR + 460)))) 1/C2 where for g API <= 30: C1 = 0.0362, C2 = 1.0937, C3 = 25.724 g API > 30: C1 = 0.0178, C2 = 1.187, C3 = 23.931 3.1.3.2 Solution gas Rs = C1 g g p C2 exp((C3 g API )/(T + 460)) where for g API <= 30: C1 = 0.0362, C2 = 1.0937, C3 = 25.724 g API > 30: C1 = 0.0178, C2 = 1.187, C3 = 23.931 3.1.3.3 Oil formation volume factor - saturated systems Bo = 1 + C1 Rs + C2 (T - 60)(g API/g gc) + C3 Rs (T - 60)(g API/g gc) where for g API <= 30: C1 = 4.677e-4, C2 = 1.751e-5, C3 = -1.811e-8 g API > 30: C1 = 4.67e-4, C2 = 1.1e-5, C3 = 1.337e-9 3.1.3.4 Oil formation volume factor - undersaturated systems Bo = Bob exp(co (pb - p)) 3.1.4 Glasø Glasø developed PVT correlations from analysis of crude oil from the following North Sea Fields:- Ekofisk Stratfjord Forties Valhall COD 30/7-2A
  64. 64. 3-4 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 3.1.4.1 Bubble point pressure and solution gas pb = f 1 [(Rs /g g ) 0.816 (T 0.172 /g API 0.989 )] 3.1.4.2 Oil formation volume factor - saturated systems Bob = f 2 [Rs (g g/g o) 0.526 + 0.968T] 3.1.4.3 Oil formation volume factor - undersaturated systems Bt = f 3 [Rs (T 0.5 /g g 0.3 ) g o A p -1.1089 ] Where A = 2.9 x 10 -0.00027Rs 3.1.5 Coning In order to simulate gas and/or water breakthrough from the reservoir, flowrate dependent values of GOR and watercut may be entered. In a homogeneous reservoir, analysis of the radial flow behavior of reservoir fluids moving towards a producing well shows that the rate dependent phenomenon of coning may be important. The effect of increasing fluid velocity and energy loss in the vicinity of a well leads to the local distortion of a gas-oil contact or a water-oil contact. The gas and water in the vicinity of the producing wellbore can therefore flow towards the perforation. The relative permeability to oil in the pore spaces around the wellbore decreases as gas and water saturation increase. The local saturations can be significantly different from the bulk average saturations (at distances such as a few hundred meters from the wellbore). The prediction of coning is important since it leads to decisions regarding: • Preferred initial completions • Estimation of cone arrival time at a producing well • Prediction of fluid production rates after cone arrival • Design of preferred well spacing
  65. 65. Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-5 PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 3.1.6 Liquid Viscosity There are four steps to calculating the liquid viscosity as follows: 1 Calculate the dead oil viscosity at atmospheric pressure and the flowing fluid temperature. The methods available for calculating dead oil viscosity are: Beggs and Robinson, Glasø, or Users data. 2 Calculate the saturated live oil viscosity at the flowing fluid pressure and temperature assuming that the oil is saturated with dissolved gas. The methods available for calculating live oil viscosity are: Chew and Connally or Beggs and Robinson. 3 Establish if the flowing pressure is above the bubble point pressure for the flowing fluid temperature. If not, continue to step 4, otherwise calculate the undersaturated oil viscosity. The methods available for calculating undersaturated oil viscosity are: Vazquez and Beggs, Kousel, or None. 4 Determine the viscosity effects of water in the liquid phase. The methods available for calculating the oil/water mixture viscosity are: Inversion, Volume Ratio, or Woelflin. 3.1.7 Dead Oil Viscosity The following Dead Oil Viscosity methods are available • Beggs & Robinson • Glasø • Curve fit through user defined data
  66. 66. 3-6 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 3.1.7.1 Beggs and Robinson method Beggs and Robinson used results from 600 oil systems to develop relationships for dead and live oil viscosity. 460 dead oil observations and 2,073 live oil observations were taken. The range of data analysed was as follows: p (pressure): 50 to 5,250 psia T (temperature): 70 to 295 °F g API (API gravity): 16 to 58 °API Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 20 to 2,070 scf/STB Dead oil viscosity is calculated as follows: m OD = 10 x - 1 where x = yT -1.163 y = 10 z z = 3.0324 - 0.02023 gAPI 3.1.7.2 Glasø method Dead oil viscosity is calculated as follows: mOD = c(loggAPI) d where c = 3.141(10 10 )T -3.444 d = 10.313(logT) - 36.447 3.1.7.3 User's data method A curve is fitted through the supplied data points of the following form: Log(mOD) µ (1/T) 3.1.8 Live Oil Viscosity The following live Oil Viscosity methods are available • Chew and Connally • Beggs and Robinson
  67. 67. Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-7 PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 3.1.8.1 Chew and Connally Chew and Connally used results from 457 oil systems to develop relationships for live oil viscosity. The range of data analyzed was as follows:- p (pressure): 132 to 5,645 psia T (temperature): 72 to 292 °F Rsb (solution gas at bubble point pressure): 51 to 3,544 scf/STB Live oil viscosity is calculated as follows:- mOb = AmOD B where A and B are given by the following table: Rs (cu ft/bbl) A B 0 1.000 1.000 50 0.898 0.931 100 0.820 0.884 200 0.703 0.811 300 0.621 0.761 400 0.550 0.721 600 0.447 0.660 800 0.373 0.615 1,000 0.312 0.578 1,200 0.273 0.548 1,400 0.251 0.522 1,600 0.234 0.498 3.1.8.2 Beggs and Robinson Live oil viscosity is calculated as follows: mOb = AmOD B where A = 10.715(Rs + 100)- 0.515 B = 5.44(Rs + 150) - 0.338 3.1.9 Undersaturated Oil Viscosity 3.1.9.1 Vasquez and Beggs Undersaturated oil viscosity is calculated as follows:- m = mOb(p/pb) m
  68. 68. 3-8 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 where m = 2.6p 1.187 exp(-8.98x10 -5 p - 11.513) For dead oils at high pressures the Vasquez and Beggs correaltion overestimates the viscosity: Use Kousel. 3.1.9.2 Kousel method Undersaturated oil viscosity is derived from the equation Log(mp/ma) = p/1000(A + Bma 0.278 ) Where A and B are parameters entered by the user. Suggested values for A and B are 0.0239 and 0.01638 respectively. m a is the viscosity of the oil at the same temperature and atmospheric pressure. 3.1.9.3 No calculation The undersaturated oil viscosity is assumed to be the same as the saturated live oil viscosity at the same temperature and pressure. 3.1.10 Oil/Water Mixture Viscosity 3.1.10.1 Inversion method The inversion method assumes that the continuous phase changes from oil to water at a given watercut cutoff point. This means that, at a watercut below or equal to the cut-off value, water bubbles are carried by oil, and the mixture assumes the same viscosity as that of the oil. At a watercut above the cut-off value, oil bubbles are carried by water, and the mixture assumes the same viscosity as that of the water. 3.1.10.2 Volume ratio method Mixture viscosity is calculated as follows mm = mOVo + mw Vw where mO = oil viscosity Vo = volume fraction of oil mw = water viscosity Vw= volume fraction of water
  69. 69. Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-9 PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 3.1.10.3 Woelflin method The Woelflin option assumes that the continuous phase changes from emulsion to water at a given watercut cutoff point. This means that, at a watercut below or equal to the cut-off value, an emulsion forms and the emulsion viscosity is given by the Woelflin equation for emulsions. At a watercut above the cut-off value, oil bubbles are carried by water, and the mixture assumes the same viscosity as that of the water. The Woelflin equation is as follows mm = mO(1 + 0.0023 Vw 2.2 ) 3.1.11 Gas Viscosity 3.1.11.1 Lee et al. Method Gas viscosity is calculated as follows: mg = Kexp(Xr y ) where K = (7.77 + 0.0063M)T1.5 /(122.4 + 12.9M + T) X = 2.57 + 1914.5/T + 0.0095M Y = 1.11 + 0.04X M is the gas molecular weight r is the gas density 3.2 Compositional 3.2.1 EOS (Equations of State) Equations of state describe the pressure, volume and temperature behaviour of pure components and mixtures. Most thermodynamic and transport properties are derived from the equation of state. The following equations of state are available:- • SRK (advanced and standard) • PR (advanced and standard) • SMIRK 3.2.1.1 Soave-Redlich-Kwong The standard SRK equation is; P = (NRT/(V - b)) + (a/(V(V + b)))
  70. 70. 3-10 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 The values of "a" and "b" in the above equations are derived from functions of the pure component critical temperatures, pressures, and acentric factors. The advanced implementation of SRK contains additional non- standard features. These include the ability to match stored values for the liquid density (Peneloux correlation) and the saturated vapor pressure and a choice of mixing rule. 3.2.1.2 Peng-Robinson The standard PR equation is; P = (NRT/(V - b)) + (a/(V2 + 2bV - b2 )) The values of "a" and "b" in the above equations are derived from functions of the pure component critical temperatures, pressures, and acentric factors. The advanced implementation of PR contains additional non- standard features. These include the ability to match stored values for the liquid density (Peneloux correlation) and the saturated vapor pressure and a choice of mixing rule. 3.2.1.3 SMIRK The Shell SPPTS package uses the SMIRK equation of state. 3.2.2 Viscosity model The following methods are available to predict the liquid and gas viscosity; • Pederson • LBC (Lohrenz-Bray-Clark) These are not available when using SMIRK (SPPTS) Preliminary testing has shown the Pedersen method to be the most widely applicable and accurate for oil and gas viscosity predictions. Both methods are based on the corresponding state theory.
  71. 71. Fluid & Multiphase Modeling 3-11 PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 The choice of the equation of state has a large effect on the viscosities predicted by both methods. The LBC method is more sensitive to equation of state effects than the Pedersen method. 3.2.2.1 Lower Alkanes Predicted liquid viscosities using LBC and Pedersen methods have been compared to experimental data for Methane and Octane as a function of both temperature and pressure and for Pentane as a function of temperature. For both Methane and Pentane the Pedersen method predictions show close agreement with experimental data. For Octane, the Pedersen and LBC methods give comparable results. For the aromatic compound, Ethyl Benzene, the Pedersen method is not as good as the LBC method. 3.2.2.2 Higher Alkanes The results for higher alkanes Eicosane and Triacontane are mixed: the Pedersen method is adequate for Eicosane whereas the LBC method is slightly better than Pedersen for Triacontane. For Triacontane both LBC and the Pedersen methods are inadequate. However, in the majority of cases the higher hydrocarbons should be treated as petroleum fractions rather than as single named components. 3.2.2.3 Petroleum Fractions The LBC method describes viscosity as a function of the fluid critical parameters, acentric factor and density. The LBC model is therefore very sensitive to both density and the characterization of the petroleum fractions. 3.2.2.4 Water The Pedersen method suffers the same drawback as the LBC method in that it is unable to predict the temperature dependence of water, a polar molecule. To overcome this problem, the Pedersen method has been modified especially for water so that it now accurately models the viscosity of water in the liquid phase. This was achieved by the introduction of a temperature-dependent correction factor. However the prediction of the viscosity of the gas phase is also affected, though in only a minor way.
  72. 72. 3-12 Fluid & Multiphase Modeling PIPESIM 2000PIPESIM 2000 3.2.2.5 Methanol Neither the LBC nor the Pederson method can deal with polar components with the Pederson method slightly worse than the LBC method. This is not surprising, as both methods were developed for non-polar components and mixtures. The Pedersen method works best with light alkanes and petroleum mixtures in the liquid phase. It performs as well or better than the LBC method in nearly all situations. 3.2.2.6 Emulsion The following options are available for handing emulsions; • Inversion method • Volume ratio method • Woelflin method The methods are as described for Black Oil emulsions. 3.2.3 BIP (Binary Interaction Parameter) Set Binary Interaction parameters (BIPs) are adjustable factors which Are used to alter the predictions from a model until these reproduce as closely as possible the experimental data. BIPs apply between pairs of components. The SRK and PR EOS (being cubic equations of state) require only a single BIP, kij, in the model description. The closer the binary system to ideality the smaller the size of kij, which will be zero for ideal systems. It is unlikely that the value of kij will be greater than 1, although it is possible for it to be negative. 3.2.4 Hydrates Natural gas hydrates are solid ice-like compounds of water and light components of natural gas. They form at temperatures above the ice point and are therefore a serious concern in oil and gas processing operations. The phase behavior of the systems involving hydrates can be very complex because up to six phases must normally be considered. The behavior is particularly complex if there is significant mutual solubility between phases. The hydrate model uses a modification of the RKS equation of state for the fluid phases plus The van der Waals and Platteeuw model for the hydrate phases. The model can explicitly represent all the effects of the presence of inhibitors.
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