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The Effective Lesson

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Printed and published for ICDA School Program's Summer Training. Created by Alexander Cueto as a compilation of recent learning.

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The Effective Lesson

  1. 1. The Effective Lesson Essential Components of Modern Teaching
  2. 2. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 2 As teachers of English language, we face permanent challenges that put the quality of our work and professional development to the test. As a result, improving the quality of our lessons is a necessary piece for our careers. Professional development is anything that we choose to make better what we do, and so we can develop ourselves by making changes in the way lessons are delivered. Choice, change and trust are three pillars of professional development because when we choose a new way of teaching, trusting our ability to obtain results is a sign of adaptation to the needs of the environment. This guide shows options to designing and delivering effective English lessons, based on ongoing approaches of educational theories.
  3. 3. 3 • Experiential Learning • Meaningful Learning • Phases of Learning • ECRIF • Student-Centered Teaching • Classroom Setup • Giving Instructions • Correcting • Activities • Pairing and Grouping COMPONENTS
  4. 4. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 4 Modern Teaching Traditional learning relied on mechanical features like memorization and passive recitation from conventional resources. Today, modern education draws attention to experiences that lead to permanent changes in behavior. In addition, the impact of new theories in education and discoveries of how people learn, has brought out major repercussions in the classroom and how to develop the lessons. Teachers are now challenged to implant a personal brand with background information and their own learning experience. Following are some of the most notable implications of this new teaching model with the purpose to enrich and if desired, modify old standards to teach a lesson.
  5. 5. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 5 The Experiential Approach Learning from experience is the new ideal of constructivism in which the creation of spaces to build meaningful learning is emphasized. It is used in a conscious, planned and directed way that adapts to different learning styles –visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile. One basic concept is learning by doing or hands-on learning, where knowledge is displaced and the experience instills through emotions, sensations and principles that mark the individual. Experiential learning brings about new opportunities for self-discovery, experimenting and reflecting on group work, strengthening community building and reflecting on the experience.
  6. 6. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 6 Meaningful Learning David Ausubel, an educational psychologist, built upon the work of Jean Piaget and other constructivists. The theory of Meaningful Learning explains learning as the one achieved when putting together the following constituents: •Subject with disposition to learn •Previous knowledge •New knowledge •Subject-object interaction. Accordingly, the learning subject will be able to assimilate, relate and organize the new knowledge with the previous, in order to apply it in a practical way.
  7. 7. 7 Meaningful Learning ❑ Make Learning active • Role Playing • Think, Pair, Share • Peer Review • Discussions • Games ❑ Make Learning Constructive • Explore the world with real references • Make Learning Cooperative and Collaborative • Work In pairs ❑ Make Learning Authentic • Students think critically
  8. 8. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 8 Learning Stages When learning a new lesson, students go through different stages. It’s important to sequence activities so that they assimilate, relate and organize the new knowledge. • At a first stage, they discover the relation between previous and new knowledge, and from unconscious unskillfulness, the learner recognizes lack of ability on the skill. • Later, and through clarifying activities, students move on seeing increased level of competence. • The teacher then promotes retention using repetitions, visual references and choices, seeking meaning through familiar settings. • Internalization happens by providing chances of usage, reflecting and projecting application in real situations and contexts. • Lastly, the learner transfers the experience to the long-term memory.
  9. 9. 9 Phases of Learning I. Unconsciousl y Skilled I’m not sure what this is… II. Consciously Unskilled I can identify what this is but I can't do it. III. Consciously Becoming Skilled I can analyze and talk with ease about it, and with help, I can try it. IV. Consciously Skilled I can apply this knowledge consistently and intentionally, but I need to concentrate to do it well. V. Unconsciousl y Skilled I consistently and automatically (without thinking) do the task, I can transfer it to other contexts and I can help others do it.
  10. 10. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 10 ECRIF Framework • Understanding in which stage learners are found is essential because each stage marks the type of complexity. • ECRIF Framework is designed to help teacher focus on the learning process that students go through as they work with the target skill or knowledge rather than what the teacher is doing during the lesson. • In this way, the teacher plans activities and thinks about the content to service learning in a principled way.   • ECRIF can be used to plan lessons and adapt course book materials = (reflecting for action) • to assess where students are in their learning process during a lesson = (reflecting in action) • to reflect on student learning after a lesson = (reflecting on action)
  11. 11. 11 Scaffolding with ECRIF ENCO UNTE R Providing clear context. Giving students chance to talk, providing text to read or listen to, eliciting vocabulary. Brainstorming vocabulary, answering questions with target language, describing a picture, gap fill activity, choosing the best response to a dialog, marking specific words in a text CLARI FY Finding out what students already know. Matching meaning or rules to words or sentences, sorting sentences or words into groups, Discussing the meaning, pronunciation, rules of the language items, Using dictionaries. REME MBER Dong choral repetition, giving specific feedback to students. Having students quiz each other, for example, with pictures, meaning and words. Drills, Playing games, Recognition activities, saying a word and pointing a picture, matching questions and answers, meaning and words, sentences and situations. INTE RNAL IZE Providing chances to use the vocabulary, or structure to talk about themselves, giving students time to think and recall, allowing students to write and reflect. Answering questions, doing gap fill activities, choose correct words, place into blanks, doing tailless sentences, correcting sentences with mistakes, making a story, creating a survey, making sentences about yourself, putting words in order, ranking. FLUE NTLY USE Encouraging students to ask more questions and give longer answers, giving students time to get ideas, noting errors that students make for future lessons. Retelling stories, doing role-plays, discussing questions, jigsaw activities, making a decision based on oral analysis.
  12. 12. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 12 Student-Centered Lessons When designing a lesson, teachers normally consider what they will do but take less time to position themselves under the learner’s perspective. This is an essential step when planning objectives and activities since we want to ensure that our learners are capable of using the target language. Finding out what students already know or activating schema prepares them for the new material. Also, the objectives and the ways to measure learning must align with the content. Objectives that are easy to track can be stated with the format SWBAT: • By the end of the lesson, Students Will Be Able To: write, draw, identify, sort, construct, compare, label, list, describe, arrange, match. Define, decide, explain, recommend.
  13. 13. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 13 Teacher Talking Time Effective classes develop with participation that places students at the center, either individually, in pairs, or in group work. This means the teacher speaks less during the presentation and development of activities to support the lessons, using inductive teaching rather than traditional account of concepts. Inductive teaching entails that learners discover for themselves and are more involved in the learning process, rather than being passive recipients. This way they are likely to be more attentive and motivated. If the class is done collaboratively, learners get the opportunity for extra language processing which in turn prepares them for greater self-reliance and autonomy. Effective teachers aim to reduce their talking time increasing students’ production instead.
  14. 14. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 14 Collaborative Learning The notion of making students responsible for their learning implies that learning can happen from other sources besides the teacher’s. This is a key component of student-centered classes in which learners are empowered to use language. In order to create an environment in which cooperative learning can take place, three things are necessary. First, students need to feel safe, but also challenged. Second, groups need to be small enough that everyone can contribute. Third, the task students work together on must be clearly defined.  The simplest format of collaborative learning is Think-Pair-Share and it can be used in every class. Changing the size of groups and adjusting the amount of interaction adds more interest and excitement to the lesson, transforming sessions in fun and cherished experiences.
  15. 15. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 15 Tips to Empower Students •Make students write their questions about a text, rather that asking them. Later, they discuss their questions with students in other groups. •Students take dictations from each other. One way to do this is having all students at the board. Student X dictates to everyone and can immediately see the results. •Students bring in sentences they’ve found for analysis in class. •A student writes the day’s plan on the board and opens the class by greeting everyone, calling attention to the plan, and reading through it. •Students give closure to the lesson by asking and answering, “What have we learned today?” or they can write a sentence or two about what they have learned.
  16. 16. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 16 Classroom Set Up The way that learners are arranged plays an important role for the interactions and the nature of planned activities. Our intention to enhance the channels of communication is easily achievable when students are strategically positioned. Also, teachers can better see their behavior which in turn facilitates classroom management. Typical lay-outs with students facing each other is ideal for classes, and it fits TPS activities as well as easy attention to the teacher. Consider grouping people with enough ease of access and circulation, since it creates the appropriate setting to execute instructions that derive from activities. Another point is allowing students to stand up and move for a specific purpose. There will be as many possibilities as space available.
  17. 17. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 17 Lay-Out Considerations •Can I see the faces of every single student and can they see me? •Can everyone see the board (if you're planning on using it)? •Can the students see one another? •Can I move around the room so that I can monitor effectively?
  18. 18. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 18 Giving Instructions There are plenty of ways to give instructions, from simply telling them to writing steps on the board, or modeling with a volunteer. In short, instructions must be given beforehand, making sure doubts are not left unattended. Get students’ attention ensuring they are listening. Sequence the steps in a logical way. Be as brief as possible. Use simple, direct language –such as commands. Use visual, tactile or kinesthetic support. Write keywords on the board. Use an appropriate pace for your learners. Speak slowly and clearly. Maintain eye contact and watch for signs of incomprehension. Only give the instructions necessary for the particular stage of the activity. Have two participants model the task.
  19. 19. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 19 CCQs CCQs or Comprehension Checking Questions are used to help students understand the meaning of new language by highlighting what is important about it and making clear what is not. They also serve the purpose of revalidating instructions previously given. These questions follow a defined sequence of increasing difficulty: • Yes/No and Either/Or questions • Example • Short answer • Definition Ask CCQs to the whole class, not just one person so that you aren’t pressuring them to get the right answer. If wrong answers are given, then the teacher goes back to present again emphasizing what was confusing.
  20. 20. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 20 Correcting Teachers regularly have to decide about the best way to provide feedback of flaws detected. This unavoidable task implicates diverse factors depending if you want to encourage fluency or accuracy. It is relevant to pay attention to the learning stage in which the student is found: ❑ Pre-learning: Ignore and continue the conversation. Take note to teach it in the future. ❑ Encounter: Ignore the inaccuracy but begin to create opportunities to clarify. ❑ Clarify: Answer the learner’s question or create the opportunity. ❑ Remember: Provide direct hints or the answer so that the learner can self-correct if at all possible. ❑ Internalize: Provide slight/indirect hints that really gives the learner the chance to self-correct. ❑ Fluent use: Ignore them but note that student is self-correcting.
  21. 21. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 21 Techniques for Responding to Mistakes and Identifying Errors.* Student Error: I go to the bank yesterday. ❑ “No, that’s wrong. You must say, “I went to the bank yesterday.” ❑ “I went to the bank yesterday.” ❑ “Yesterday, I…” (pause to let student correct). ❑ “Verb tense?” ❑ “Go is in the present. You need past tense.” ❑ “What’s the second word?” ❑ Whisper or mouth, “I went.” ❑ “What?” ❑ “Oh, you went to the bank yesterday.” (in conversational tone.) ❑ Draw six lines on the board _ _ _ _ _ _ and point to the second line to indicate a problem with the second word. ❑ “Really? Did you make a deposit?” ❑ “Go?” ❑ Make a gesture to indicate past tense. ❑ Use fingers to indicate where the error is. (Each finger represents a word in the sentence.) allow time for self-correction. ❑ Finger touches ear, quizzical expression on face. ❑ “Can anyone help (name student)?” ❑ “Please repeat.” ❑ “You go to the bank yesterday?” (stress “go”).
  22. 22. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 22 Classroom Activities The objective of a lesson defines the nature of the activities to put the target language in practice. Games and motions in the classroom activate senses and brain activity that otherwise would not get involved. 1. Teachers must decide how much content students can focus on without being overwhelmed. They also need create a logical sequence that helps students work toward a final objective. With the inclusion of pictures and verbal directions, the teacher helps students focus on key elements of the lesson. Effective teachers need to break down content so that students can progress step by step. The use of pictures, demonstrations, verbal explanations. Peer teaching, and practice all contribute to students relating new information to prior knowledge, a key feature of learning. By using a variety of sensory models, the teacher helps students with different learning styles notice key features in the content.
  23. 23. Tools for Activities •Brainstorming ideas •Engage in discussions •Prepare presentations Small Groups •Students get a new partner each time the outer or inner circle moves one person to the right. Fluency Circles •Students change partners when the last person on the left side moves to the right and everyone slides down one position to face a new person. Line ups •An inner circle of students participates in a discussion or activity, Students in the outer circle either observe or whisper ideas to the inner circle. Fishbowl Many factors contribute to how and whether students participate in an activity and learn from it: • What options are there for the arranging students in the classroom? • How can decisions about timing and staging of an activity affect student participation? • How can the position and participation of the teacher affect? • How can the use of materials and/or technology affect? • How can the classroom environment affect? 8/8/2016A. Cueto 23
  24. 24. How to Pair and Group •Students move around the room in cocktail-party style getting new partners and chatting. Mingling •Students move to different parts of the room to do activities. They can also remain in place and rotate pieces of paper with activities written for them around the room. Stations •Students in small groups (As, Bs, Cs, Ds) do an activity such as discussing, listening, or reading. They are then regrouped by counting them off (1,2,3,4) so that new groups each have only one member from their previous groups. Students report to the new groups what they learned in the old groups. Jigsaw • Assign students to groups or pairs by gesturing who will work together. • Count off students. If you have 16 students and want pairs, count off students one-through-eight. Put the ones together, the twos together, etc. • Count off using different vocabulary (sports, fruit, animals). This is a fun way to review vocabulary and add some more excitement: Okay, all of the monkeys over here!” • Line up students according to height (birthday, time it takes to get to school, etc.). • Ask students to find a new partner. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 24
  25. 25. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 25 Best Practices Effective teachers use the following: ☺ They always greet students when arriving to the classroom. ☺ They write relevant information about the lesson, e.g. objectives, book unit, etc. ☺ They bring dynamism to the class by not remaining seated at their desk. ☺ Start their lessons with a reference from students’ surroundings. ☺ Ask questions and encourage students to ask questions as well. ☺ Call students by their names. ☺ Praise students when they achieve progress, no matter how little they are. ☺ Allow students to have a say about the lesson. Give them options to decide.
  26. 26. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 26 Best Practices ☺ Using background music when appropriate. ☺ Inaccuracy response techniques –including peer correction. ☺ Teach to different modalities (VAKT). ☺ Use Think/Pair/Share. ☺ Getting students to keep eye contact during pair work. ☺ Modeling –both Teacher to Student and Student to Student. ☺ Giving students solitary time to work and process information. ☺ Using humor. ☺ Move around room, both teacher-student. ☺ Keep ratio of student talking time vs. teacher talking time. ☺ Pair work/group work –varying methods of pairing/grouping and switching partners/groups.
  27. 27. 8/8/2016A. Cueto 27 Best Practices ☺ Peer-teaching. ☺ Use Concept Checking Questions. ☺ Get feedback from learners –Example: ask for their feelings on tasks; ask if it was too easy, too difficult, or just right. ☺ Ask students to share one thing they learned in the lesson before leaving. ☺ Discover the world outside by bringing authentic material to the classroom. Take students outside when possible. ☺ Use technology as a supporting tool, to complement what is discussed in class. ☺ Circulate to detect possible distractions, engage by letting them know you are aware of their presence. ☺ Provide equal opportunities to participate, even if they have to call on some of them.
  • Yassergebril1980

    Nov. 25, 2018

Printed and published for ICDA School Program's Summer Training. Created by Alexander Cueto as a compilation of recent learning.

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