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07.lamination adhesives



Lamination and Bonding adhesives Part 2

This is Presentation on Bonding Technology of Variety of Substrates , based on Flexible Foam , Rigid Foam , Glass wool, Felt, Rubber, Foil , Paper, Fabrics etc.
I am dedicating this Presentation in the honor of Mr. M. Prabhakara , MD , Monarch Self Adhesive Tapes and Foams Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore

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Lamination and Bonding adhesives Part 2

  1. 1. Bonding( Lamination )AdhesivesPart TwoLatest DevelopmentsPresented byShrikant AthavalePrathith ConsultantsOn 26-05-2013.5/30/2013 1
  2. 2. 5/30/2013 2
  3. 3. 5/30/2013 3
  4. 4. Adhesion is a attraction process betweendissimilar surfaces that stick to one anotherand cohesion takes place between similarmolecules.Cohesion refers to the tendency of similar oridentical particles / surfaces to stick to oneanother.The forces that cause adhesion and cohesioncan be divided into several different types5/30/2013 4
  5. 5. Mechanisms of adhesionThe most important theories of adhesion are1.Physical absorption,2.Chemical bonding,3.Diffusion,4.Electrostatic,5.Mechanical interlocking andAs all adhesive bonds involve molecules inintimate contact, physical adsorption must alwayscontribute.5/30/2013 5
  6. 6. To know more about Adhesive and adhesionTheory ,Pl click on the link pasted below : 6
  7. 7. Adhesive TypesAdhesives are typically organized by the method ofadhesion. These are then organized into reactive and non-reactive adhesives, which refers to if the adhesivechemically reacts to harden. Alternatively they can beorganized by whether the raw stock is of natural, orsynthetic origin, or by their starting physical phase.The Adhesives can be broadly divided into two classesNon-reactive adhesivesAndReactive Adhesives5/30/2013 7
  8. 8. Synthetic adhesivesSynthetic adhesives are based on elastomers,thermoplastics, emulsions, and thermosets.Examples of thermosetting adhesives are: epoxy,polyurethane, cyanoacrylate and acrylic polymers.5/30/2013 8
  9. 9. Non-reactive adhesivesAre further classified based on their sourceNatural Adhesivesuch as Starch , casein or animal glue.They are often referred to as bio-adhesives.Natural Rubber based AdhesiveSynthetic AdhesivesBased on synthetic Polymers ( or Elasomers ), such asStyrene Butadiene Rubber, Bytyl Rubber,Polychloroprene Rubber, Nitrile Rubber , Poly Urathane ,Silicone Rubber.5/30/2013 9
  10. 10. Adhesives are also classified asPressure SensitiveNon Pressure sensitivePressure Sensitive AdhesivesAs the name suggests , are sensitive to little pressure ,and are sticky in nature , at ambient temp.They are manufactured from various Polymers , such asNat. Rubber, and synthetic rubbers like Butyl, SBR,Nitrile , Silicone and AcrylicsThese adhesives are compounded using abovementioned polymer , Main Tackifying Resin , secondresin, antioxidant , plasticiser , filler and a solvent .5/30/2013 10
  11. 11. Non Pressure sensitiveSuch asLamination grade adhesiveContact adhesive5/30/2013 11
  12. 12. We are going to talk more about‘s ,in this article.5/30/2013 12
  13. 13. Contact adhesivesare used in strong bonds with high shear-resistance likelaminates, such as bonding Formica to a wooden counter,and in footwear, as in attaching outsoles to uppers.Natural rubber and polychloroprene (Neoprene) arecommonly used contact adhesives. Both of theseelastomers undergo strain crystallization.Contact adhesives must be applied to both surfaces andallowed some time to dry before the two surfaces arepushed together.5/30/2013 13
  14. 14. Some contact adhesives require as long as 24 hours to drybefore the surfaces are to be held together. Once thesurfaces are pushed together, the bond forms veryquickly.It is usually not necessary to apply pressure for a longtime, so there is less need for clamps.5/30/2013 14
  15. 15. For compliance and productivity, now is the time toswitch from solvent-based adhesives to water-based.No nPB or methylene chloride solvents, eliminating thetime and work of managing a controlled substance• High solids content for cost-effective high coverage,bonding moresquare footage for less money• Non-flammable in the wet state for easy storagewithout fireproof Cabinets5/30/2013 15
  16. 16. • Dries fast without solvent odor, helping improveworker comfortand thus productivity• Choice of formulations that bond fast and strong with awide variety of substrates• Choice of spray (including low maintenance gravityfeed), roller, or brush application to meet productionrequirements5/30/2013 16
  17. 17. • a fast, powerful replacement for solvent-based adhesivesin a variety of applications:• Bond particle board, plywood, plastic laminate and otherrigid materials in cabinet and woodworking shops andelsewhere.• Bond EPS insulation inside metal doors and refrigerationunits• Secure rubber flooring in buses and headliners in boats• Bond fabric to drywall and felt to wood in speakers5/30/2013 17
  18. 18. For these and other applications, 30NF combines multipleadvantages for productivity and end use reliability:• Long bonding range of up to 4 hours for assembly atyour own pace• High immediate bond strength for fast throughput• Ultimate shear strength of 480 psi for reliabilityexceeding many solvent-based adhesives• High solids for more economical use of adhesive (up to3.5x more coveragethan a typical solvent-based product)• Heat-activatable for fast post forming5/30/2013 18
  19. 19. Factors that influence the adhesion - IntroductionThe stronger adhesion of bonds between mechanically orchemically roughened surfaces is based on theenlargement of the effective surface (contact surfacebetween the adhesive and the substrate), and an increasein the number of active centers, e. g. edges, corners, andfaulty parts which, as in the heterogeneous catalysis,increase the interactive forces in the interfaceadhesive/surface.5/30/2013 19
  20. 20. The following factors have a predominant importancein the adhesion process:1. Wetting of the surface2. Surface treatment3. Structure of the materials to be bonded (incl.Adhesives and substrates)4. Design of the joint (incl. stresses applied on thebonded materials)5. The Glass Transition Temp6. The actual surface contact area7. The hardness of the substrate5/30/2013 20
  21. 21. To know more about Adhesion process ,Pl click on the link pasted below : 21
  22. 22. Chemical structure of some of the polymer’s used inadhesive manufacture5/30/2013 22
  23. 23. 5/30/2013 23
  24. 24. Visco Elastic PropertiesPolymers are described as viscoelastic in that they show acombination of the properties of a spring, and a dashpot filledwith a viscous liquid (an automotive shock-absorber).A spring will deform instantaneously when loaded, and willrecover fully and instantaneously when the load is removed.The deformation of a dashpot will increase with time, and it willnot recover when the load is removed.5/30/2013 24
  25. 25. Clearly the properties of an adhesive that might be used inengineering will be dominated by the spring-like properties, andsuch adhesives are cross linked to eliminate the viscous element.5/30/2013 25
  26. 26. The AdhesiveApplication MethodsSpecific applications may require varying thicknessof adhesive coating .5/30/2013 26
  27. 27. Wet LaminatingWith wet laminations, the adhesive is applied to one substrate,usually by roller coating or air knife ( or by spraying ).The coated substrate is then nipped with another substrate, andthe resulting laminate may then be left to air dry or passedthrough a heated oven to remove solvent and build bondstrength.5/30/2013 27
  28. 28. The substrateAdhesive coatedlaminateddried5/30/2013 28
  29. 29. Wet lamination via waterborne or solvent based adhesivesis confined to applicationswhere at least one substrate is porous (e.g., paper, cardboard, textiles)to facilitate drying.Once cured, bond strength is generally high enough to cause failureor tearing of the porous substrate.Most often, waterborne synthetic latex adhesives are utilized for wetbonding because of their high initial strength and fast dryingcharacteristics when applied to porous substrates.5/30/2013 29
  30. 30. Substrate 2Substrate 1Must be porousWetAdhesiveCross Section of Coated laminateImmediately after laminationSubstrate 2Substrate 1Must be porousDryAdhesiveCross Section of Coated laminateafter dryingT 3T 45/30/2013 30
  31. 31. What do youobserve ?T 1is thinnerthanT 2Why ?5/30/2013 31
  32. 32. YesThe adhesive thickness has reduced , due toevaporation of solvent ( water / organic solvent( toluene / ethyl acetate / alcohol etc. ) )5/30/2013 32
  33. 33. The solvent vapor has escaped through theporous substrate as shown belowThe solvent vaporMagnified view5/30/2013 33
  34. 34. Dry LaminationDry laminations are those in which the liquid adhesive is first driedbefore lamination.The adhesive is either coated to one substrate and dried or it is coatedas a hot melt type of film (essentially another film layer).The adhesive is then in the dry stage (solid or slightly tacky ) whenlaminated with the other substrate.The bonding is generally achieved during a high temperature, highpressure nip.The temperature and pressure are sufficient to cause the adhesive toflow and create an instantaneous bond when it cools and gels.5/30/2013 34
  35. 35. Substrate 2Substrate 1Must be porousDryAdhesiveCross Section of Coated laminate( lamination done after drying )T5/30/2013 35
  36. 36. Dry Laminationcan be applied to a broader range of products such as film-to-film , film to paper ,paper to foiland film-to-foil .Dry laminating adhesives are water or solvent based . WaterBorne adhesives are now developed to replace Solvent borne tomeet environmental regulations.5/30/2013 36
  37. 37. Chemical · Mixing ratio of components· Shelf-life of resins· Pot-life after mixing· Curing time and energy requiredPhysical · Molecular weight· Solids content· Solution viscosity, melt viscosity· Wetting behavior and coating ability· Drying speedPerformance • Initial bond strength (green tack)· Ultimate bond strength· Resistance to service environments· Adaptability to laminating processes· Laminating conditions (nip pressure,temperature, speed, etc.)5/30/2013 37
  38. 38. It should be noted that the adhesive in a laminate is often chosenfor more than only its bonding ability.In addition to holding the substrates together for the life of thelaminate, the adhesive might have to perform certain otherfunctions that are necessary to the success of the final product.5/30/2013 38
  39. 39. Substrate 2Substrate 1AdhesiveCross Section of laminatein stretched stageStretched web5/30/2013 39
  40. 40. Substrate 2Substrate 1AdhesiveCross Section laminateIn relaxed stage( relaxed Stage )Void/ air bubbletunneling5/30/2013 40
  41. 41. Substrate 2Substrate 1AdhesiveCross Section laminateIn relaxed stage( relaxed Stage )Void/ air bubbletunneling5/30/2013 41
  42. 42. EconomicsPerformance and ease ofapplicationSupply Chain BenefitsEHS BenefitsWhy Move toWater Borne technology?The Value Proposition5/30/2013 42
  43. 43. • Lower Coating Weight / Lower Applied Cost as compared toSolvent Based adhesives• Low Capital Expenditure & Savings in Working Capital –Run onexisting Dry Laminators with minor modifications–Lower inventorycarrying cost due to immediate slitting advantage• Lower Waste Costs (1 K)No mixed adhesive wastage during roll changes & at the end of theday.No waste through wrong mixesReduced waste disposal costs as product is non-hazardousEconomics5/30/2013 43
  44. 44. Supplied ready to use ( 1 K )Excellent wet out and adhesion to low surfaceenergy substrates (1K)Bonds to a wide variety of films , Paper , foams ,fabrics and the same is most cost effectivesolution5/30/2013 44
  45. 45. Excellent green shear and comparable bond andseal strengths to SB / SL adhesivesComparable Heat and Chemical Resistance to SB/ SL adhesivesExcellent gloss & clarity of laminateWater wash up5/30/2013 45
  46. 46. Laminates can be slit immediately resulting in shorter leadtime to customerLower rework / rejection of laminate due to solvent retention/ odor issuesReduced requirement of warehousing area for finishedlaminateMost economical and suitable for short job runs due to betterpot life ( especially 1 K )5/30/2013 46
  47. 47. Safer work place ( solvents have extremely low flash points andare a potential fire hazard )Reduced staff exposure to solventsNo Primary Aromatic Amine issues ( Liquid food packaging )Compliance with all major Food Safety regulations such as FDAand EU FC/PNo solvent vented to the atmosphere –no air pollution duringlamination5/30/2013 47
  48. 48. WB Dry laminationAdvantages over SB AdhesivesMore cost effectiveLower dry adhesive cost.Lower coat weights can be applied.No need for dilution for machine runs.Avoids viscosity control requirement during production.Lowers inventory costs for laminated stock –instant slitting & cure.Odor free laminate –no solvents from the adhesive.5/30/2013 48
  49. 49. Economy Safety Cure Time processingWB V good V good slow easySB poor poor high easy5/30/2013 49
  50. 50. WB Dry laminationThe misunderstandings“I can not run WB adhesives because “it will not work for film to film laminationmy machine can not dry waterI will need to run my machine slowermy ovens will rustI will not get performance necessary for my packagingrequirement5/30/2013 50
  51. 51. Water Based Adhesive Technology Runs on existing dry laminators with minormodifications user friendly - easy mixing / no viscosity adjustment Excellent clarity No VOC issues , much safer superior economics as compared to solvent borne highly suitable for shorter run odour free laminates general to high performance as far as service temp oflaminates are concerned5/30/2013 51
  52. 52. Water Based Adhesive CoatingCoat able on dry laminators with minor modificationUser friendly , easy to mix , viscosity modificationExcellent clarity , good glossNo voc issuesSuperior economicsMost suitable for shorter runs / lamination of metallisedfilm/paperOdor free laminatesPerformance level – general to medium5/30/2013 52
  53. 53. How do we run WBadhesivesThe key requirementssuitable Gravure Cylindersuitable drying tunnel and temperatureCarona treaterLamination nip and pressureAdhesive recirculationMetering or smoothing bar5/30/2013 53
  54. 54. WaterBorneSolventBorne5/30/2013 54
  55. 55. WaterBorneAcrylic baseStyrene Acrylate basePU BasedPoly Chloroprene based5/30/2013 55
  56. 56. Please contact us for the ProductData sheet and MSDS5/30/2013 56
  57. 57. SolventBorneAcrylic basePoly Chloroprene BaseSilicone based5/30/2013 57
  58. 58. Please contact us for the ProductData sheet and MSDS5/30/2013 58
  59. 59. Bonding by Dry Lamination methodA liquid adhesive is coated on a substrate,dried with heat and air flow, and thenlaminated to a second substrateBrush, Roller, Spray orGravure roll coatingPolyurethane dispersions, acrylic,emulsions, acrylic solvent, water-based polyvinyl alcohol, ethylenevinyl acetate copolymers, siliconesolventDescriptionApplicationmethodsTypicalAdhesive5/30/2013 59
  60. 60. Bonding by Wet Lamination methodLiquid adhesive is coated to a substrate, thenimmediately laminated to a second substratevia a nip followed by drying with heat andair flow (one substrate must be porous toallow evaporation of water or solvent)Brush, Roller, Spray orGravure roll coatingPolyurethane dispersions, acrylic,emulsions, acrylic solvent, water-based polyvinyl alcohol, ethylenevinyl acetate copolymers, siliconesolventDescriptionApplicationmethodsTypicalAdhesive5/30/2013 60
  61. 61. 5/30/2013 61
  62. 62. Contact AdhesiveApplication Methods5/30/2013 62
  63. 63. You can spray these Adhesivesfor faster application with ease5/30/2013 63
  64. 64. Foam BondingCarpet BondingSilicone LinerTeflon / Syn. Rubber Coatedfabric SplicingSplit LeatherManufacturing5/30/2013 64
  65. 65. The Bonding Techniques and theSpecialty MachinesFor FoamBondingFor Split LeatherManufacturing5/30/2013 65
  66. 66. The Bonding Techniques andthe Specialty MachinesFoamBondingThe Challenge’s Foam softness Very low Actual contact area due to Open cell structure The lower surface tension The surface contamination with silicone release oil whilefoam slicing much harder ( rigid ) substrate to be laminated to develop bonded laminate without sacrificing theflexibility5/30/2013 66
  67. 67. The spraying , drying and Lamination5/30/2013 67
  68. 68. Please contact usforthe plant and equipment forAdhesive spraying , drying andLamination equipmentDeveloped by usRecently5/30/2013 68
  69. 69. YesWe are proudto say“ Our newly Developed Adhesive ”meet these challenges5/30/2013 69
  70. 70. Whatis FoamA productExpanded /Blown to biggervolumeMouldRaw material/PolymerPre MixBlowingAgentandApplyHeat andPressureAirRaw material/Polymer Expandsand Fills the mouldcompletelyreplacing the airinside5/30/2013 70
  71. 71. This way many polymers could be expandedTo various proportionsMay be 1.5 times / 2 times 3 times/ 4 times and onDepending upon the end property desired.5/30/2013 71
  72. 72. The expansion of polymer is pre determined and issuitably compounded.The main property of the end product , i.e. the foamthe Density.We know very well thatDensity = Mass ( weight ) VolumeSo let’s consider that the Polymer + all ingredients , initial weight ,when charged in the mould was 50 kgs.The volume say 60 ltrsAfter expansionThe weight remains the sameButThe volume has increased to 100 ltrs.Which means that the density is much lower than earlier, and it willgo on reducing as the volume increases further5/30/2013 72
  73. 73. LowDensityLowerDensityLowestDensity5/30/2013 73
  74. 74. The Blowing of the foam is controlled byOr the Density of foam The proportion of polymer content in the batch The amount of blowing agent The temperature The material qty charged inside or the initial mass The final volume , or the mould cavity volume5/30/2013 74
  75. 75. Foams are classified asLow Density medium Density high DensityFurther classified asFlexibleOr SoftRigidOr HardOpen cell Closed cell5/30/2013 75
  76. 76. Polymers used for FoamRubbers Natural Synthetic - Nitrile , Neoprene , EPDM , Silicone , AcrylicPlastics PE / PS / PU / EVAEach polymer mentioned above has some special propertysuch as , abrasion resistance, oil resistance , heat resistance,compression set, durability, weather resistance etc.We need to select a proper polymer for foaming keepinginto mind the end application, ease of manufacture and themost important is the cost, as the market is highlycompetitive5/30/2013 76
  77. 77. Lets now discuss about PE Foampopularly it’s called as Expanded PolyEthylene ( EPE )It’s available inOpen cellAndclosed cell5/30/2013 77
  78. 78. Generally , open cell foams , is like a spongebreathable and absorptiveAndClosed cell foams arenon-breathable and non-absorptive .Expanded Polyethylene Foam combines the bestproperties of both, creating a material that breathes(passes air) and allows water to pass through it withoutabsorbing.5/30/2013 78
  79. 79. The foam is made up of little beads connected only attheir edges. There is an air space between each bead,making the material breathable. In addition to itsbreathable characteristics, it also offers superior impactabsorption because each bead tries to deflect adjacentbeads sideways, absorbing energy instead oftransmitting it.5/30/2013 79
  80. 80. the application areas ofpackaging, insulation and constructiona closed cell extruded EPE foam is of light weight, tough anddurable, flexible and resilient, highly shock absorbent, non-toxic,odorless, water and water vapor proof, fungi and insect resistant, andchemical resistant.Advantages:thickness available – 0.85 to 10 mm and above in roll form;planks available – 15 to 100 mm and higher thickness customized;variants available – with length, width, thickness, densitycolors available – natural, black or as specified.Compared to EPS, EPE is: less rigid and hence absorbs shocks better;non-abrasive; non-brittle and non-dusting; and does not requiremoulds (as required when making fitments from EPS). Therefore,economical5/30/2013 80
  81. 81. Closed cell foam is a strong, flexible material thats madeup of internal pores, or cells, that sit closely together butare not connected.Its structure can be compared to a net filled with balloons,where the balloons are trapped tightly against each other,but they are not interconnected. Its a versatile material thatcan be used in everything from crafts to construction.5/30/2013 81
  82. 82. All types of closed cell foam are known for their highstructural integrity, high compressive strength, and lowmoisture absorption. It is lightweight, flexible, andfirm, and resists most solvents and chemicals as well asfungi and mold.Durable enough to withstand a large amount of pressurewithout major distortion, its stronger than open cellfoam, but also requires more material, which makes itmore expensive.5/30/2013 82
  83. 83. EPE Foam Roll & SheetsUsed as protective packaging by:1. Electronic / electrical based appl.2. Computer, X-ray equipments 7 X-ray films3. Audio / Video equipments.Grade available - SL- Single layer Rolls - 1mm-5mmThickness : 15 mm - 100 mmSize : 1400 mm x 2000 mm5/30/2013 83
  84. 84. Cross linked EPEA high performance XL-EPE sheet forapplications requiring high resilience, it issmooth and flat surfaced has excellentmechanical propertieshas good dimensional stabilityIs easily thermo formableIs non-corrosive, non-abrasivehas low water absorptionIs extremely resilient, with high load bearingcapacityXL-EPE is available in with varying density,shore hardness and other mechanical properties.Both EPE and XL-EPE can be thermoformed forvarious applications like caps, sports goods,liners, etc5/30/2013 84
  85. 85. 5/30/2013 85
  86. 86. 5/30/2013 86
  87. 87. 5/30/2013 87
  88. 88. Expanded Polyethylene FoamBreathes, but doesnt absorb liquid5/30/2013 88
  89. 89. Non-Cross linkedPolyethyleneFoamsCross linkedPolyethylene Foams5/30/2013 89
  90. 90. 905/30/2013Nitrile Rubber FoamLaminated withAluminium Foil , FSKNitrile RubberFoam withReinforced PSA
  91. 91. 915/30/2013Nitrile Rubber Foamwith Reinforced PSANitrile Rubber FoamLaminated withAluminium Foil , FSK
  92. 92. 925/30/2013PU Foam laminated withEVA Foam
  93. 93. 935/30/2013PU Foam laminated withCotton reinforced PE Cloth
  94. 94. 945/30/2013PU Foam laminated withPE coatedFibre Glass Cloth
  95. 95. 955/30/2013PU Foam laminated with FSK( Film + scrim + Kraft Paper )
  96. 96. 965/30/2013PU Foam laminated withAlu Glass( Aluminium Foil + FiberGlass Cloth laminate )
  97. 97. 975/30/2013PU Foam laminated withFSK( Foil + scrim + KraftPaper )
  98. 98. 985/30/2013PU Foam laminated withCross linked PE Foam
  99. 99. 995/30/2013Nitrile Rubber ElastomericFoam , Pipe laminated withFSK , Alu Glass , Fibre Glasscloth ( PR Coated )
  100. 100. 1005/30/2013PU to PUFoam Joint
  101. 101. 1015/30/2013Cross Linked PE Foamlaminated with Alu Foil
  102. 102. 1025/30/2013EVA Foam laminated withAlu Foil , Alu Glass
  103. 103. PIR Rigid Foam Bonding withour Water Borne Adhesive5/30/2013 103
  104. 104. EVA foambonding with Wood5/30/2013 104
  105. 105. Felt Bonded with Non Woven5/30/2013 105
  106. 106. Bonding Glass wool with Alu FoilBonding Glass wool with NonWoven5/30/2013 106
  107. 107. CarpetBonding5/30/2013 107
  108. 108. CarpetManufactureBondinglamination5/30/2013 108
  109. 109. The Bonding Techniques and theSpecialty MachinesFor Split LeatherManufacturing5/30/2013 109
  110. 110. Split LeatherManufacturing5/30/2013 110
  111. 111. 5/30/2013 111
  112. 112. 5/30/2013 112
  113. 113. Please contact usforthe plant and equipment forSplit leather manufacturingDeveloped by usRecently5/30/2013 113
  114. 114. Silicone LinerTeflon / Syn. Rubber Coated fabricSplicing5/30/2013 114
  115. 115. 1155/30/2013Splicing , Silicone /other Syn. RubberCoated Fabrics
  116. 116. 1165/30/2013Splicing , PTFE CoatedFabrics
  117. 117. 1175/30/2013GLISSINEPetFilmBrownKraftSplicing ofSilicone releaseCoated Liner
  118. 118. 1185/30/2013MakingSilicone CoatedPaper Bags
  119. 119. For more Information : www.psadhesive.comContact DetailsEmail : shrikantathavale@psadhesive.comPersonal Email : psatechno@gmail.comCell : 00 91 75882882041195/30/2013
  120. 120. 1205/30/2013Tell me moreThe heart of a meaningful conversationDesigned to share knowledge andUnderstanding for mutual benefit
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This is Presentation on Bonding Technology of Variety of Substrates , based on Flexible Foam , Rigid Foam , Glass wool, Felt, Rubber, Foil , Paper, Fabrics etc. I am dedicating this Presentation in the honor of Mr. M. Prabhakara , MD , Monarch Self Adhesive Tapes and Foams Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore


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