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NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1951 1980

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The Nobel Prize in Physics is one of the five Prizes established by Alfred Nobel in 1895.
It is awarded annually by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to those who have made the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of Physics.
It is considered the most prestigious Prize in Physics.
Between 1901 and 2019, the Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to 212 individuals.
The following slides present, in chronological order, the Nobel Prize Laureates in Physics from 1901 to 2019.

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NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1951 1980

  1. 1. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1951-1980 DR. BASIL BEMGBA ACHIE MBBS Ibadan
  2. 2. Introduction • The Nobel Prize in Physics is one of the five Prizes established by Alfred Nobel in 1895. • It is awarded annually by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to those who have made the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of Physics. • It is considered the most prestigious Prize in Physics. • Between 1901 and 2019, the Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to 212 individuals. • The following slides present, in chronological order, the Nobel Prize Laureates in Physics from 1901 to 2019.
  3. 3. 1951: Sir John Douglas Cockcroft 1956: John Bardeen 1951: Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton 1956: Walter Houser Brattain 1952: Felix Bloch 1957: Chen Ning Yang 1952: Edward Mills Purcell 1957: Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee 1953: Frits Zernike 1958: Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov 1954: Max Born 1958: Il’ja Mikhailovich Frank 1954: Walther Bothe 1958: Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm 1955: Willis Eugene Lamb 1959: Emilio Gino Segre 1955: Polycarp Kusch 1959: Owen Chamberlain 1956: William Bradford Shockley 1960: Donald Arthur Glaser
  4. 4. 1961: Robert Hofstadter 1965: Sin-Itiro Tomonaga 1961: Rudolf Ludwig Mossbauer 1965: Julian Schwinger 1962: Lev Davidovich Landou 1965: Richard P. Feynman 1963: Eugene Paul Wigner 1966: Alfred Kastler 1963: Maria Goeppert Mayer 1967: Hans Albrecht Bethe 1963: J. Hans D. Jensen 1968: Luis Walter Alvarez 1964: Charles Hard Townes 1969: Murray Gell-Mann 1964: Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov 1970: Hannes Olof Gosta Alfven 1964: Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov 1970: Louis Eugene Felix Neel
  5. 5. 1971: Dennis Gabor 1976: Samuel Chao Chung Ting 1972: John Bardeen 1977: Philip Warren Anderson 1972: Leon Neil Cooper 1977: Sir Nevill Francis Mort 1972: John Robert Schrieffer 1977: John Hasbrouck van Vleck 1973: Leo Esaki 1978: Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa 1973: Ivar Giaever 1978: Arno Allan Penzias 1973: Brian David Josephson 1978: Robert Woodrow Wilson 1974: Sir Martin Ryle 1979: Sheldon Lee Glashow 1974: Antony Hewish 1979: Abdus Salam 1975: Aage Niels Bohr 1979: Steven Weinberg 1975: Ben Roy Mottelson 1980: James Watson Cronin 1975: Leo James Rainwater 1980: Val Logsdon Fitch 1976: Burton Richter
  6. 6. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1901 • The 1901 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him".
  7. 7. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1951 • The 1951 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles“
  8. 8. 1951 Sir John Douglas Cockcroft Lifetime: 1897-1967 Nationality –Britain • English nuclear physicist
  9. 9. 1951 Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton Lifetime: 1903-1995 Nationality – Ireland • Irish physicist.
  10. 10. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1952 • The 1952 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith“
  11. 11. 1952 Felix Bloch Lifetime: 1905-1983 Nationality – United States • Swiss-born American physicist, educator.
  12. 12. 1952 Edward Mills Purcell Lifetime: 1912-1997 Nationality – United States • American physicist, educator.
  13. 13. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1953 • The 1953 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Frits Zernike "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope".
  14. 14. 1953 Frits Zernike Lifetime: 1888-1966 Nationality - Netherlands • Dutch physicist .
  15. 15. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1954 • The 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics was divided equally between Max Born "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction" and Walther Bothe "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith".
  16. 16. 1954 Max Born Lifetime: 1882-1970 Nationality – Germany. Britain. • German-British physicist.
  17. 17. 1954 Walther Bothe Lifetime: 1891-1957 Nationality – Germany • German physicist, mathematician, chemist.
  18. 18. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1955 • The 1955 Nobel Prize in Physics was divided equally between Willis Eugene Lamb "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum" and Polykarp Kusch "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron".
  19. 19. 1955 Willis Eugene Lamb Lifetime: 1913-2008 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  20. 20. 1955 Polycarp Kusch Lifetime: 1911-1993 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  21. 21. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1956 • The 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".
  22. 22. 1956 William Bradford Shockley Lifetime: 1910-1989 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  23. 23. 1956 John Bardeen Lifetime: 1908-1991 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  24. 24. 1956 Walter Houser Brattain Lifetime: 1902-1987 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  25. 25. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1957 • The 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles“
  26. 26. 1957 Chen Ning Yang Born 1 October 1922 Nationality – United States • American Theoretical Physicist.
  27. 27. 1957 Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee Born 24 November 1926 Nationality – United States • Chinese born American Physicist.
  28. 28. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1958 • The 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect".
  29. 29. 1958 Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov Lifetime: 1904-1990 Nationality – Russia • Russian Physicist.
  30. 30. 1958 Il’ja Mikhailovich Frank Lifetime: 1908-1990 Nationality – Russia • Russian Physicist.
  31. 31. 1958 Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm Lifetime: 1895-1971 Nationality – Russia • Soviet Physicist.
  32. 32. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1959 • The 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain "for their discovery of the antiproton”.
  33. 33. 1959 Emilio Gino Segre Lifetime: 1905-1989 Nationality – Italy. United States • Italian American nuclear Physicist.
  34. 34. 1959 Owen Chamberlain Lifetime: 1920-2006 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  35. 35. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1960 • The 1960 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Donald A. Glaser "for the invention of the bubble chamber".
  36. 36. 1960 Donald Arthur Glaser Lifetime: 1926-2013 Nationality – United States • American Physicist and neurobiologist.
  37. 37. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1961 • The 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics was divided equally between Robert Hofstadter "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons" and Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name".
  38. 38. 1961 Robert Hofstadter Lifetime: 1915-1990 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  39. 39. 1961 Rudolf Ludwig Mossbauer Lifetime: 1929-2011 Nationality - Germany • German Physicist.
  40. 40. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1962 • The 1962 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Lev Landau "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium".
  41. 41. 1962 Lev Davidovich Landau Lifetime: 1908-1969 Nationality – Russia • Soviet Theoretical Physicist.
  42. 42. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1963 • The 1963 Nobel Prize in Physics was divided, one half awarded to Eugene Paul Wigner "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles", the other half jointly to Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure".
  43. 43. 1963 Eugene Paul Wigner Lifetime: 1902-1995 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  44. 44. 1963 Maria Goeppert Mayer Lifetime: 1906-1972 Nationality – United States • German born American theoretical Physicist.
  45. 45. 1963 J. Hans D. Jensen Lifetime: 1907-1973 Nationality – Germany • German nuclear Physicist.
  46. 46. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1964 • The 1964 Nobel Prize in Physics was divided, one half awarded to Charles Hard Townes, the other half jointly to Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser- laser principle".
  47. 47. 1964 Charles Hard Townes Lifetime: 1915-2015 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  48. 48. 1964 Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov Lifetime: 1922-2001 Nationality – Russia • Soviet Physicist.
  49. 49. 1964 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokharov Lifetime: 1916-2002 Nationality – Russia • Soviet Physicist.
  50. 50. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1965 • The 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles".
  51. 51. 1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga Lifetime: 1906-1979 Nationality – Japan • Japanese Physicist.
  52. 52. 1965 Julian Schwinger Lifetime: 1918-1994 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  53. 53. 1965 Richard P. Feynman Lifetime: 1918-1988 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  54. 54. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1966 • The 1966 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Alfred Kastler "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms".
  55. 55. 1966 Alfred Kastler Lifetime: 1902-1984 Nationality – France • French Physicist.
  56. 56. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1967 • The 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Hans Bethe "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars".
  57. 57. 1967 Hans Albrecht Bethe Lifetime: 1906-2005 Nationality – United States • .German born American Physicist.
  58. 58. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1968 • The 1968 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Luis Alvarez "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis".
  59. 59. 1968 Luis Walter Alvarez Lifetime: 1911-1988 Nationality – United States • American scientist.
  60. 60. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1969 • The 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Murray Gell-Mann "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions".
  61. 61. 1969 Murray Gell-Mann Lifetime: 1929-2019 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  62. 62. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1970 • The 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics was divided equally between Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén "for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics" and Louis Eugène Félix Néel "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics".
  63. 63. 1970 Hannes Olof Gosta Alfven Lifetime: 1908-1995 Nationality – Sweden • Swedish Physicist.
  64. 64. 1970 Louis Eugene Felix Neel Lifetime: 1904-2000 Nationality – France • French Physicist.
  65. 65. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1971 • The 1971 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Dennis Gabor "for his invention and development of the holographic method".
  66. 66. 1971 Dennis Gabor Lifetime: 1900-1979 Nationality - Britain • British Physicist and Engineer.
  67. 67. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1972 • The 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory".
  68. 68. 1972 John Bardeen Lifetime: 1908-1991 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  69. 69. 1972 Leon Neil Cooper Born 28 February 1930 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  70. 70. 1972 John Robert Schrieffer Lifetime: 1931-2019 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  71. 71. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1973 • The 1973 Nobel Prize in Physics was divided, one half jointly to Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively" and the other half to Brian David Josephson "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects".
  72. 72. 1973 Leo Esaki Born 12 March 1925 Nationality – Japan • Japanese Physicist.
  73. 73. 1973 Ivar Giaever Born 5 April 1929 Nationality – United States • Norwegian-born American physicist.
  74. 74. 1973 Brian David Josephson 4 January 1940 Nationality – Britain • Welsh Physicist.
  75. 75. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1974 • The 1974 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”.
  76. 76. 1974 Sir Martin Ryle Lifetime: 1918-1984 Nationality – Britain • British Astronomer.
  77. 77. 1974 Antony Hewish Born 11 May 1924 Nationality – Britain • British Astronomer.
  78. 78. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1975 • The 1975 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson and Leo James Rainwater "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection".
  79. 79. 1975 Aage Niels Bohr Lifetime: 1922-2009. Nationality – Denmark • Danish nuclear Physicist.
  80. 80. 1975 Ben Roy Mottelson Lifetime: 9 July 1926 Nationality – United States. Denmark. • American Danish Physicist.
  81. 81. 1975 Leo James Rainwater Lifetime: 1917-1986 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  82. 82. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1976 • The 1976 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”.
  83. 83. 1976 Burton Richter Lifetime: 1931-2018 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  84. 84. 1976 Samuel Chao Chung Ting Born 27 January 1936 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  85. 85. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1977 • The 1977 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck van Vleck "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems".
  86. 86. 1977 Philip Warren Anderson Lifetime: 13 December 1923 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  87. 87. 1977 Sir Neville Francis Mort Lifetime: 1905-1996 Nationality – Britain British Physicist.
  88. 88. 1977 John Hasbrouck van Vleck Lifetime: 1899-1980 Nationality – American Physicist • American Physicist.
  89. 89. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1978 • The 1978 Nobel Prize in Physics was divided, one half awarded to Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics", the other half jointly to Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation".
  90. 90. 1978 Pyotr Leonidovitch Kapitsa Lifetime: 1894-1984 Nationality – Russia • Soviet Physicist.
  91. 91. 1978 Arno Allan Penzias Born 26 April 1933 Nationality –
  92. 92. 1978 Robert Woodrow Wilson Born 10 January 1936 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  93. 93. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1979 • The 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current".
  94. 94. 1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow 5 December 1932 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  95. 95. 1979 Abdus Salam Lifetime: 1926-1996 Nationality – Pakistan • Pakistani Physicist.
  96. 96. 1979 Steven Weinberg Born 3 May 1933 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  97. 97. NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS 1980 • The 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”.
  98. 98. 1980 James Watson Cronin Lifetime: 1931-2016 Nationality – United States • American Physicist.
  99. 99. 1980 Val Logsdon Fitch Lifetime: 1923-2015 Nationality – United States • American experimental physicist.
  100. 100. THANK YOU

The Nobel Prize in Physics is one of the five Prizes established by Alfred Nobel in 1895. It is awarded annually by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to those who have made the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of Physics. It is considered the most prestigious Prize in Physics. Between 1901 and 2019, the Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to 212 individuals. The following slides present, in chronological order, the Nobel Prize Laureates in Physics from 1901 to 2019.

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