Pioneer of small
life of Jenner….
Born on 17th
From the age of 14yrs ,trained as
apprentice to Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon
In 1770-worked under surgeon John
Hunter at St.George’s hospital.
Returned to Berkeley in 1773,practised
as GP & surgeon.
Edward Jenner died of stroke at the age
of 73, on 26 January 1823
through stages of
over the skin.
Greatly feared disease for thousands of years
Caused by Variola virus
of the patients died
Survivors –badly disfigured
10 yrs before eradication ,the disease was
present in 44 countries, with a global incidence
of around 10 million cases annually !!!
Jenner Vs Pox
Jenner’s initial theory-
The initial source of infection was a disease of
horses, called "the grease", and that this was
transferred to cows by farm workers,
transformed, and then manifested as cowpox.
He noted-Milkmaids don't generally get small
He theorized it-pus in the blisters which
milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease
similar to smallpox, but much less virulent)
protected the milkmaids from smallpox.
On 14 May 1796,
Inoculated James Phipps, a young boy of 8
years (the son of Jenner's gardener), with
material from the cowpox blisters of the hand of
Sarah Nelmes, a milkmaid who had caught
cowpox from a cow called Blossom
produced a fever and some uneasiness but no
Injected Phipps with variolous material –No
Again challenged with variolous material-but no
sign of infection
Why Jenner was successful??
Not only inoculated cowpox ,but also
proved that they are immune to small
Demonstrated that the protective
cowpox could be effectively inoculated
from person to person, not just directly
He tested his theory on a series of 23
subjects. This aspect of his research
method increased the validity of his
He continued his research and reported it
to the Royal Society, who did not publish
the initial report.
After improvement and further work, he
published a report of twenty-three cases
In 1803 in London he became involved
with the Jennerian Institution, a society
concerned with promoting vaccination to
Post- Jenner era
17 yrs after his death(1840), British
government banned variolation ( the
use of smallpox itself) and provided
vaccination (using cowpox )free of
In 1976,Global eradication programme
of Smallpox –initiated by WHO.
After 10 years-disease was wiped out ,
Last stock is in – USA and Russia
They were to be destroyed by June 30 ,
But fears of the possible use of small pox
in bioterrorism led to an indefinite
extension of the deadline.
Whole world was certified “small pox free
area” in October 1979.
Formally declared by WHO in 8th
Remembering the great man…..
-Jenner's house is now a small museum
housing among other things the horns of
the cow, Blossom (Berkeley).
-Near the small Gloucestershire village of
Uley, Downham Hill is locally known as
'Smallpox Hill', with a possible connection
to Jenner's local work with the disease.
A statue was erected
in Trafalgar Square,
later moved to