The Influence of Parenting onAdolescent Academic Success and Well-being Claudia, Xueli and Jin 24. 01.2006
Overview The influence of parenting practices on Adolescent Academic Success and Well-being - The relationship between parenting practices and adolescent school achievement - The influence of parenting practices on adolescent well-being: A specific study: The family context of gender intensification in early adolescence. The influence of parenting styles on Adolescent Academic Success and well-being - Theoretical background of parenting styles - A specific study : Over-time changes in adjustment and academic competence among adolescent from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families.
Parenting practices Definition : Parenting practices refer to specific behaviors that parents use to socialize their children (Darling & Steinberg, 1993) Parenting practices include some constructs: - parental involvement - parental monitoring - parental goals, values, and aspirations
Parenting practices: Parental involvement Two types of parental involvement practices (Epstein, 1996): parents-initiated involvement practices Parents-initiated involvement practices represent parental efforts to become directly involved with school decisions and activities. school-initiated involvement practices School-initiated involvement practices represent efforts by the school to provide parents with routine information about school policies, procedure, and events, as well as their children’ s progress.
Parenting practices: Parental involvement Research findings: There is a strong positive relationship between parents- initiated involvement practices and school outcomes (Epstein and Sanders, 2002; Hess and Holloway, 1984) - Parental assistance with homework is positively related to the amount of time adolescents spend on their homework (Becker and Epstein, 1982; Stevenson and Baker, 1987). - A strong positive relationship between school-initiated involvement practices and children’s school achievement (Greenwood and Hickman, 1991).
Parenting practices: Parental involvement Research findings: Parental involvement declines in adolescence. - Epstein and Dauber (1991) found that the level of parental involvement with school activities was stronger in elementary school than middle school. - A National Household Education Survey conducted by U.S. Department of Education (1998) found that the provision of opportunities by schools for parents to participate in school activities declined in middle school.
Parenting practices: Parental monitoring Parenting monitoring refer to the construct used to explain parenting behaviors, knowledge, or attitudes that influence adolescent use of free time: - monitoring the completion of homework - supervising activities with peers - checking on school progress.
Parenting practices: Parental monitoring Research findings: - Muller and Kerbow (1993): parental involvement with and monitoring of homework is related to adolescents’ completion of homework. - Clerk (1993) : parents of children who monitor their children’s behavior after school were more likely to have high achieving children than parents who do not monitor their children’s after- school behavior. - Muller (1993) : parents’ knowledge of their adolescent’s friends was positively related to their child’s standardized achievement scores.
Parenting practices:Parental goals, values and aspirations A primary way parents socialize their children is by communicating the goals they want their children to attain, the aspirations they want their children to fulfill, and the values they want their children to internalize, such as finishing homework on time, graduating high school or attending college.
Parenting practices: Parental goals, values and aspirations Research finding: Parental aspirations, goals, and values are related to their children’s setting of academic goals, persistence in school, course enrollment, intellectual accomplishments, and attendance of college (Astone and Mclanahan,1991; Crandall et al., 1964; Keeves, 1972; Pugh,1976)
The Family Context of Gender Intensification in Early Adolescence Ann C. Crouter, Beth A. Manke, and Susan M. Mchale
Gender IntensificationIn this article, gender intensification refersto divergence over time in adolescentboys and girls daily experiences in theirfamilies.
Family Context The traditionality of parents’ division of housework. Traditional pattern -- Families in which mothers performed more than 75% of all housework were categorized as traditional. Egalitarian pattern -- Families in which mothers performed less than 75% of all housework were categorized as egalitarian. The presence of a younger sibling of the opposite sex.
Hypothesis Girl BoyHousehold chores More involved in More involved in feminine household masculine household tasks tasksDyadic activities with More involved in More involved inparents dyadic activities dyadic activities with with mothers fathersParents’ monitoring Receiving more Receiving less parental monitoring parental monitoring over time over time
Methods -- Participating criteria The fourth or grader was the oldest child in the family, and there was at least one younger sibling The family was intact Age and Si ze The father wasemployed full-time, Husband s age 37. 4 37. 8and mothers’ work wi f e s age 35. 8hours were 36. 3variable. 7. 2 Si bl i ng s age 7. 5 10. 4 Adol escent s age 10. 4 Egal i t ar i an Fami l i es Fam l y si ze i 4. 4 Tr adi t i onal Fami l i es 4. 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Husband s j ob pr est i ge W k and Educat i on or 53. 3 53. 3 Methods 48. 1 W f e s j ob pr est i ge i 42. 1 45. 2 -- Husband s wor k hour s 50. 2 23. 71 W f e s wor k hour s i 11. 38 Sample W f e s educat i on i 5. 4 5. 1 Egal i t ar i an Fam l i es i Husband s educat i on 4. 9 Tr adi t i onal Fam l i es i 4. 6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 I ncome $29, 195 Hus band s i ncome $30, 033 $10, 160 W f e s i ncom i e Egal i t ar i an Fam l i es i $3, 568 Tr adi t i onal Fam l i es i $0 $5, 000 $10, 000 $15, 000 $20, 000 $25, 000 $30, 000 $35, 000
Methods -- Process Phase 1 One year Phase 2 laterAt both phases, families participated in two types of data collection. Home interview Telephone interviews
Results 1-- Adolescents Involvement in Feminine Household Tasks Adolescents generally decreasing their involvement in feminine tasks. Girls spend more time in feminine tasks than boys.
Results 2 -- Adolescents Involvement in Feminine Household Tasks Adolescents participation in feminine household tasks Girls in traditional families with brothers 150 maintained a high level of involvement in 114.2 118.9 these activities over 100 97.2 time. Participation(Mins.) 71.4 While the rest of the 50 Girls with younger brothers in traditonal families sample evidenced All others declining participation. 0 Time 1 Time 2
Results -- Adolescents Involvement in Masculine Household Tasks Adolescents participation in masculine household tasks Boys in traditional families increased their 80 involvement in masculine 70 tasks over the year. 60 50 Other adolescents Participantion(Mins.) 40 generally decreased their 30 participation in these 20 activities. 10 0 Time 1 Time 2 Boys in traditional families Girls in traditional families Boys in egalitarian families Girls in egalitarian families
Results 3-- Adolescents’ Involvement in Joint activities with Parents Mothers were more involved in joint activities than fathers. Boys increased their involvement with father over time and girls increased their involvement with mother.
Results 4 -- Adolescents’ Involvement in Joint activities with Parents Dyanic involvement with mother 150 Boys with younger sisters 100 exhibited a grater increase over time in their jointInvolvement(Mins.) 50 activities with fathers than did all other adolescents. 0 Time 1 Time 2 Boys with younger brothers Boys with younger sisters Girls with younger brothers Girls with younger sisters
Results 5 -- Adolescents’ Involvement in Joint activities with Parents Dyanic involvement with father Girls with younger 150brothers increased theirinvolvement in dyadic 100activities with mothers Involvement (Mins.)more over time than did 50all other adolescents. 0 Time 1 Time 2 Boys with younger brothers Boys with younger sisters Girls with younger brothers Girls with younger sisters
Results 6 -- Parental Monitoring Parents became better monitors over time, and mothers were generally better monitors than fathers. Parents in traditional families became better at monitoring over time, while their counterparts in egalitarian households maintained their level of involvement in monitoring over time.
Discussion 11. The traditionality of parents’ division of housework was related to adolescents’ increasingly sex-typed patterns of involvement in feminine and masculine household chores over time. Girls exhibited an increasingly sex-typed pattern on involvement in feminine household tasks over time when their parents divided chores along traditional gender lines when a younger sibling of the opposite sex was present Boys exhibited the pattern of gender intensification in masculine task involvement when parents divided housework along traditional lines, regardless of the sex of the younger sibling
Discussion 22. The traditionality of parents’ division of housework, however was not associated with longitudinal patterns of boys’ and girls’ dyadic activities with mothers and fathers. The general pattern here was one of gender intensification exacerbated by the presence of a younger sibling of the opposite sex.
Discussion 33. We fail to find a pattern of gender intensification that parents become more protective of daughters tan of sons in early adolescence.Reasons: The measure may not focus on the right issues. The sample might be not old enough. Others
Overview The influence of parenting practices on Adolescent Academic Success and Well-being - The relationship between parenting practices and adolescent school achievement - The influence of parenting practices on adolescent well-being: A specific study: The family context of gender intensification in early adolescent. The influence of parenting styles on Adolescent Academic Success and well-being - Introduction to parenting styles - A specific study : Over-time changes in adjustment and academic competence among adolescent from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families.
Parenting Styles The construct of parenting style is used to capture normal variations in parents’ attempts to control and socialize their children (Baumrind, 1991)
Parenting Styles In the early work on parenting style, there were many researchers who classified parenting styles in different dimensions: - love-oriented / object-oriented (Sears et al.,1957) - responsiveness / unresponsiveness (Baldwin, 1948; Freud, 1933; Rogers, 1960; Sear et al.,1957; Schaefer, 1959) - democratic / autocratic (Baldwin, 1948) - emotionally involved / uninvolved (Baldwin, 1948) - control / noncontrol (Schaefer, 1959) - acceptance / rejection (Symonds,1993) - dominance/ submission (Symonds,1993) - restrictiveness / permissiveness (Becker,1964)
Four types of parenting styles There are four types of parenting styles: Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent and Uninvolved. Each of the patterns has a distinct balance of parental responsiveness and demandingness (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). - Parental responsiveness (parental warmth or supportiveness) refers to "the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self- regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to childrens special needs and demands" (Baumrind, 1991, p. 62). - Parental demandingness (behavioral control) refers to "the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys" (Baumrind, 1991, pp. 61- 62).
Four types of parenting styles Four parenting styles Responsivenss high Indulgent Authoritative low high Demandingness Uninvolved Authoritarian low
Four types of parenting styles What are the characteristics of these four types of parenting styles? - Authoritative - Authoritarian - Indulgent - Uninvolved
Parenting style Characteristics of the four parenting styles (I) (Baumrind, 1971 & Maccoby and Martin, 1983) Indulgent /permissive parents: -more responsive than demanding -do not require mature behaviour -avoid confrontation Authoritarian parents: -highly demanding and directive, not responsive -expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation -expect their children to accept their judgments, values, and goals without questioning
Parenting style Characteristics of the four parenting styles (II) Authoritative parents: - demanding and responsive - disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive - are more open to give and take with their children and make greater use of explanations (equally high in behavioral control as authoritarian parents) Uninvolved /Neglectful parents: - low in both responsiveness and demandingness BUT: Parenting style is a typology, each parenting style is more than and different from the sum of its parts (Baumrind, 1991).
Adjustment and Competence among Adolescents fromAuthoritative,Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families Steinberg, L. et al. (1987,1988)
Study of Steinberg, L. et al. Purpose: to examine adolescents adjustment and competence in families with different parenting styles1st part (1987); outcome: adolescents adjustment varied as a function of their parenting style2nd part (1988): follow-up to examine whether the observed differences are maintained over time
Sample and procedure Ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample of 2300 (14-18 years old) students from 8 different highschools Students filled out questionnaires to provide information to classify the parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent & neglectful) in their families. Students filled up questionnaires on psychosocial developement, academic achivement, internalized distress, and problem behavior. IV & DV:- Independent variable: the different parenting styles- Dependent variable: the change in the outcome of a certain aspect in adjustment and competence.
4 sets of variables All these outcome variables were scaled on four-point Likert scales, with 1as low (never, strongly disagree) and 4 as high (frequently,strongly agree )- Psychosocial Development • Self-reliance scores • Work orientation (the adolescent‘s pride in the successful completion of tasks) •Social competence- Academic Achievement • Academic competence • Grade point average • School orientation (feeling of attachment to school)
4 different aspects- Problem Behavior • School misconduct (cheat ,copy homework...) • Drug and alcohol use • Delinquency (carry weapon, theft...)- Internalized Distress • Psychological symptoms • Somatic symptoms
Group workYou will get a copy of a table of 1 aspect. Please discuss the results within your group (10minutes) and give a short presentation of it for the restof the class answering the following questions:1.) How did t1 vary across parenting styles in terms ofthese variables in each aspect?2.) What are the outcomes of the follow-up for eachparenting style over time?3.) What conclusion can you draw from the results in the table (such as which parenting style is favourable for adolescents‘ adjustment and school outcomes)?
Table 1 for group 1 PARENTING STYLE Authoritative Authoritarian Indulgent Neglectful 1-Year 1-Year 1-Year 1-Year T1 Change T1 Change T1 Change T1 ChangePsychosocialdevelopment: 2.9Self-reliance* 3.19 0.04 2.92 0 3.09 0.01 3 -0.06Work 2.6orientation*** 2.99 -0.01 2.77 -0.1 2.78 -0.05 1 -0.14social 2.8 competence 3.13 0.05 2.8 0 3.11 -0.01 8 0 Note.--Different superscripts indicate that adjusted change scores are significantly different at p< .10 or better (two-tailed). Minimum N=1,084.
Table 2 for group 2 Mean outcome scores at time 1 and adjusted change scores from TABLE 2 time 1 to time 2 among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families PARENTING STYLE Authoritative Authoritarian Indulgent Neglectful 1-Year 1-Year 1-Year 1-Year T1 Change T1 Change T1 Change T1 ChangeAcademicachievement Grade point average 3.11 -0.01 2.86 -0.02 2.9 -0.05 2.61 -0.05School orientation** 3.02 -0.11 2.81 -0.09 2.78 -0.16 2.55 -0.21Academic competence* 3.1 0.18 2.75 0.11 2.92 0.21 2.68 0.06
Table 3 for group 3 Mean outcome scores at time 1 and adjusted change scores from TABLE 3 time 1 to time 2 among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families PARENTING STYLE Authoritative Authoritarian Indulgent Neglectful 1-Year 1-Year 1-Year 1-Year Chang T1 Change T1 Change T1 Change T1 eInternalizeddistress: Psychological 2.5symptoms 2.39 0.08 7 0.21 2.43 0.07 2.53 0.11Somatic 2.1symptoms* 2.13 0.08 5 0.15 2.17 -0.08 2.17 0.04
Table 4 for group 4 Mean outcome scores at time 1 and adjusted change scores from time 1 TABLE 4 to time 2 among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families PARENTING STYLE Authoritative Authoritarian Indulgent Neglectful 1-Year 1-Year 1-Year 1-Year Cha T1 Change T1 T1 Change T1 Change ngeProblembehaviors: School 2.2misconduct* 2.15 -0.11 5 -0.05 2.45 0.1 2.52 -0.02Drug and 1.3alcohol use+ 1.32 0.02 6 0.01 1.79 0.05 1.83 0.13 1.1Delinquency*** 1.09 -0.02 5 -0.03 1.22 0.01 1.31 0.11
Summary Differences in adjustment associated with variations in parenting are either maintained or increase over time.Benefits of authoritative parenting are largely in the maintenance of previous levels of high adjustment Negative consequences of neglectful parenting continue to accumulate Mixed outcomes for adolescents from authoritarian /indulgent homes (for grade point average, indugent style is better; but for problem behavior, authoritarian style is better )
Ethnicity and parenting styles The study of Steinberg, L. et al. investigated the effects of different parenting styles at different ethnic groups. Outcome: patterns of change in adolescent adjustment vary by ethnicity:- asian-american report greater improvement in school performance- african-american report the most positive changes in self- perceptions and a great decline in academic performance- Hispanic-american report a great decline in academic performance- European-american report the greatest increases in drug and alcohol use
EthnicitySeveral of the effects of parenting style appear to be moderated by adolescents ethnicity:• Authoritative parenting and psychosocial / academic competence is strongest among european-americans,• Negative consequences of parental authoritarianism is not as severe among minority youth as among european-americans (meaning of authoritarian is moderated by the cultural context)But: parental aloofness and disciplinary laxity appears universally harmful to adolescents across all ethnic groups
Critics on the study of Steinberg, L. et al. All of the data derive from youngsters self-reports (subjective experience) Focus on the extreme quadrants in the sample limits the external validity further longitudinal research will help to provide a clearer picture of the effects
Open discussion How to identify the threshold or cutoff between a healthy and unhealthy level of parenting involvement? Which parenting style is the best? What role culture plays in the relationship between parenting style and children’s well-being?