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Why We Need a Dark(er) Web
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Why we need a "Dark Web"

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Presentatie op De Privacyproef, @jbaert, 1/06/2017

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Why we need a "Dark Web"

  1. 1. Why we need a Dark Web Jeroen Baert - @jbaert De Privacyproef – Ghent, 2017 / 06 / 01
  2. 2. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert About me ● Jeroen Baert (@jbaert) – Engineer – Computer Scientist – PhD Student (Computer Graphics @ KU Leuven) – Improv / Stand-up comedian ● Belgian Improv League – jeroen-baert.be – forceflow.be – PGP: 30F2 857D 9129 3519
  3. 3. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert GRAPHICS! ALL THE GRAPHICS! ● Out-of-core construction and visualisation of Sparse Voxel Octree structures on modern GPU hardware NOT TODAY
  4. 4. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert BAD NEWS EVERYONE
  5. 5. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The internet is broken because ... ● TRACKING – Websites, apps, … – Ads = Trackers (+ malware vector) – Without knowledge or consent ● Everybody hates reading ToS / Cookie warnings – Profiling / identifying you ● Content is not free – Business model: You pay with private data
  6. 6. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tracking: Websites ● Belgian news sites – Not only connect to site itself – Background: 30+ third-party connections http://www.forceflow.be/2015/11/11/tracking-users-across-websites-wheres-my-data-going/
  7. 7. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tracking: Websites (2) ● Third parties following you across ALL sites
  8. 8. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tracking: People Farmers ● Facebook = “People Farmer” – Build advertising profile – Everywhere you see – All over the web – Logging out won’t help – Behavioural Advertising Tech https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/may/01/facebook-advertising-data-insecure-teens
  9. 9. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tracking: Big Data = Big Business ● Cambridge Analytica – Buy/collect massive amounts of data ● From Social Media, web trackers, ... – Data mining & analysis – Political microtargeting ● Influenced Brexit, Trump Victory ● Would be impossible without current state of the internet to gather tracking data Adam Curtis – Hypernormalization (2016)
  10. 10. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The internet is broken because of... ● CENSORSHIP – Internet services not decentralized = easy to censor – Easy to filter at ISP level ● Packet inspection, DNS block ... – For a lot of people: Internet = Social Media Platforms – Private companies decide ● What you see ● When you see it ● What you can and cannot share
  11. 11. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Censorship ● Turkey – Protests: National shutdown of all social media – Sharing Erdogan cartoons = block ● China – “Great Firewall of China” – No Wikipedia (no “Tiananmen Square”)
  12. 12. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Centralization: DNS ● October 2016 – Infected IoT devices (Mirai worm) – DdoS attack on Dyn.org (DNS provider) ● DNS : 9.21.102.183 → Paypal.com – Twitter, Paypal, Spotify, … hit
  13. 13. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The internet is broken because ... ● Not designed with ANONIMITY in mind ● Not designed with PRIVACY in mind ● Problem for – Journalists (protect identity sources) – Activists / Whistleblowers (face prosecution) ● Snowden / Manning – Companies (protect communication) – Everyone
  14. 14. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The internet is broken because ... ● Using the internet = leaking very personal info – Sites you visit tell your (intimate) story (Tim Berners-Lee) – American ISP’s : Selling your browsing history ● Technical identifiers: – IP address ● In the clear (by design), (pretty) unique Identifier – HTTP protocol and Browsers ● Provide unique footprint ● Time, Browser, Version, plugins, screen size, GPU, IP, Network, Settings, … ● Check it yourself! amiunique.org
  15. 15. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Am I Unique? - amiunique.org
  16. 16. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert We need an alternative web ● The internet is a wonderful place – But by design, it makes it easy to track, censor and identify users ● Need alternative, different network with better privacy properties
  17. 17. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Enter ... THE “DARK WEB”
  18. 18. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The “Dark Web” ● A lot of misconceptions – Blame: ● Media & Politics ● Technical nature ● Confusing terminology ● “Dark Web” is actually really interesting from privacy POV
  19. 19. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert “Dark Web” versus “Normal Web” ● Often explained: – Surface web – Deep web – Dark web ● But Dark Web is: – Alternative, parallel – Can be used to access surface web D A R K W E B
  20. 20. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Dark Web(s) ● There is no such thing as one Dark Web ● Alternative networks focused on privacy: – Tor (The onion router) ● Most popular, we’ll focus on this – I2P Project – Freenet – … (TRY THEM ALL!) ● All different specifications / properties
  21. 21. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: The Onion Router ● Most popular alternative network ● Open-Source – Original development: US Navy, DARPA – Now: Non-profit org – Network nodes run by volunteers – Endorsed: EFF, HRW, Amnesty, … – Unrelated to torrents ● Internal content: – Websites hosted on the Tor network : “Hidden services” ● Link with Surface Web
  22. 22. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: How it works
  23. 23. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: How it works
  24. 24. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: The onion Acpe 2014 Internet Anonymity Using Tor
  25. 25. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: How it works
  26. 26. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: How does it protect you ● Anonimity / Privacy – Original IP stays hidden – Strong encryption – New circuit for every site ● Cannot track users across websites – No logs
  27. 27. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert TOR: How does it protect you (2) ● Anti-censorship – Internal Tor content cannot be censored ● Nobody knows where it’s hosted – Circumvents surface web censorship ● Exit nodes in different countries – Tor traffic can be “disguised” ● As regular traffic: Browsing, Skype Call, … ● Very hard to filter at ISP level
  28. 28. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: Current status ● Network = growing
  29. 29. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: Detecting censorship events ● Censorship events = sudden peak in TOR usage
  30. 30. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The “Dark Web” is not illegal ● Using an alternative network is not illegal ● You are simply using a – Different communication protocol – Different way to exchange information – Different way to output 0’s and 1’s ● Like you do for a lot of other things – E-mail protocol: POP3 / IMAP
  31. 31. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The “Dark Web” is not illegal ● Media get it wrong all the time
  32. 32. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The “Dark Web” is not illegal ● National council of medical professionals:
  33. 33. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The “Dark Web” and criminality ● Alternative networks are not exclusively used for criminal activities ● Technology = inherently neutral ● Protecting your identity & privacy ● Useful services – Blogging platforms – E-mail / File storage – News – Whistleblowing services – ...
  34. 34. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The “Dark Web” and criminality ● What about – Drugs / Guns / Fake ID’s? – Terrorist forums? Murder plots? ● Same % of services on Surface Web ● A lot of Hidden Web services are scams – Anonimity + untraceable Bitcoin ● Hidden Web is actually tiny – 7k – 30k sites = 0.03% of surface web
  35. 35. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert The “Dark Web” and child pornography ● Child pornography is a problem on every network ● Research by Internet Watch Foundation (2015) – 31,266 URLs with CP content – 51 (0.2%) on Dark Web ● Break association Dark Web ↔ CP – Without ignoring / minimalizing CP problem
  36. 36. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Using the “Dark Web” ● Using the Dark Web does not require advanced technical knowledge ● For example, Tor: – Go to www.torproject.org – Download the TOR Browser Bundle – Install – Go!
  37. 37. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor on your desktop: Browser Bundle ● Custom version of Firefox – Great browser – Pre-configured for Tor – Masked fingerprint – Scripts blocked by default – Auto-updater ● Safety out-of-the-box
  38. 38. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor on your phone: Orbot ● Android: Orbot – In Play Store – VPN for all traffic – Free ● iOS – Onion Browser – App Store – Free
  39. 39. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Maybe start using it ... ● Unsafe networks – Free wifi networks ● All the time? ● More users = more diversity = more security
  40. 40. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: Helping the network ● Run a TOR node – I run a node! ● Dystopia: CCE6294300F6E075733E247DD05ADFE9875BCF 08 – VPS / Self-hosted – Limit bandwidth ● Donate at torservers.net
  41. 41. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: Helping the network ● Webmasters / IT: – Don’t block Tor usage – Don’t block Tor exit nodes ● Other ways to mitigate abuse (Captcha, …) ● If you use Cloudflare: explicitly allow Tor ● See Tor Abuse FAQ: – https://www.torproject.org/docs/faq-abuse.html.en
  42. 42. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: Helping the network ● Media / Press – Offer your site as a Hidden Service – Set up a SecureDrop
  43. 43. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Tor: Helping the network ● Programmers / Writers / Educators/ Jurists / Enthousiasts / Designers – Development – Documentation – Discussion – Education – Assist with legal issues of running Tor nodes
  44. 44. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert And you ... ● Try it! ● Spread the word – Educate friends & family – Talk to your IT department – “Well actually” when you hear misconceptions
  45. 45. Why we need a Dark Web - @jbaert Questions? @jbaert Jeroen.baert@cs.kuleuven.be Poke me @reception “The internet is a mirror which reflects the society we live in. If you don’t like what you see, don’t break the mirror.” - Vint Cerf
  • MahadiHasan136

    Sep. 27, 2017
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    Sep. 25, 2017
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    Jun. 2, 2017

Presentatie op De Privacyproef, @jbaert, 1/06/2017

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