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SxSW 2013: Behavior Change as Value Proposition

Design to support behavior change is getting increased exposure as technology has allowed products and services to have a more pervasive role in people's lives. But where does persuasion live? What's caused the tipping point for the growth of this new wave of services? The primary characteristic of our new, connected world is the increasing ubiquity of sensors providing the ability to collect data passively and present it back—via feedback loops and visualizations—in a meaningful way to the user. New "smart products" with personalized intelligence about our behavior help us track how many time we brush our teeth or walk the dog with the hope we'll be better at maintaining these habits. Where do these new offerings map on our landscape of products and services? While more products have an explicit influence on our daily lives, they require you to increasingly relinquish self-determination as a prerequisite for use. How do we design to support behavior change as a value proposition?

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SxSW 2013: Behavior Change as Value Proposition

  1. Behavior Change As Value Proposition Chris Risdon @chrisrisdon #behaviordesign SxSWi 2013
  2. It was 3 years ago I started to dive deeper into the psychology of how we made decisions and were influenced by technology.
  3. Three years ago I moved from NYC to Atlanta, GA.
  4. Within two months, I gained 10 pounds.
  5. My whole family gained weight, even our three dogs.
  6. Obviously I moved from a city where I walked everywhere, to one where I drove everywhere. I became fascinated how the design of city spaces influenced my health and how my perceptions changed around certain activities.
  7. In New York, if you said there was a great restaurant just a 20 minute walk away, I thought that was convenient. If you said that restaurant was a 20 minute walk in Atlanta, I was going to drive, and have it only take 8 minutes.
  8. If I have a few of these choices every day, every week, I think about how I can maximize my time, not rationally about long term environment or health impact.
  9. Dan Ariely Predictably Irrational The Upside of Irrationality http://www.flickr.com/photos/ billhr/3266119190/
  10. Let’s say I have a half a box of chocolates open here in front of you. I offer to give you this half box of chocolates now, or I will give you a full box of chocolates in a week. Most people will select the half box of chocolates now. If you ask if they want a half box of chocolates in a year, or a full box in a year and one week, they will be able to think rationally and select the full box.
  11. “ Active Design is the idea that we can design...buildings to encourage people to get more exercise... By attacking obesity through urban design and architecture, governments are beginning to realize that designers might ” be their best warriors in the battle against obesity and its costs. —Fast Company
  12. “ This strategy recognizes that the public’s underlying motivations are not ” about health, but rather, about what is convenient and enjoyable. —Fast Company
  13. BJ Fogg When we understand how people make decisions, and how we can provide insight to their behaviors, how do we target behavior change? http://www.flickr.com/photos/ netliferesearch/2867937570/
  14. 2004: During a layover you’re sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Your heart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s halfway around the world. But the story of destruction and loss of life understandably creates sympathy. In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the redcross.org. To do this, you may need to take your flight, get home, remember that you wanted to donate, then go through traditional ecommerce funnel, providing billing address and credit card details. Then you also have to think, “how much do I want to donate?” You have to be fairly motivated to follow-through and donate.
  15. 90999 2010: During a layover you’re sitting at the airport bar having a beer. On the news you see reporting about the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Your heart goes out. It’s not personal - you don’t know anyone, and it’s in another part of the world. But the story understandably creates sympathy. In the news story there’s a call to action to donate money to the Red Cross by texting “Haiti” to 90999. $10 will be added to your phone bill. You pull out your phone there at the bar (it can even be a feature phone), type 90999, and “Haiti”, hit send, and you’re done. No billing, and it’s just $10. And you feel good about helping out.
  16. Opportune Moments We can see these “triggers” at other opportune moments. How about when you go to the pet store and buy pet supplies? The POS credit card swiper asks if you want to add $1 to your charge to help animal shelters. You’re already spending $50, what’s $51? And you’ll feel good about donating, since you do love animals. Would they be just as successful if they gave you a flyer that made the case to donate and asked you to get online and donate an unspecified amount?
  17. Robert Cialdini Robert Cialdini wrote Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion in the 90s, and not in the context of technology...
  18. Reciprocity Commitment & Consistency Social Proof Authority Liking Scarcity ...yet his “6 weapons of influence” are more pervasive than ever in our digital products and services.
  19. Behavior Design (short for designing for behavior change) Design with the intent to change someone’s behavior or attitude. Persuasive Technology Technology designed to persuade the user to use a system or platform in a desired way. (may/may not have intent to change someone’s behavior or attitude) These are unofficial definitions that may differ from academic thinking. This represents my synthesis and understand and how I’ve chosen to make sense of them in the context of my work.
  20. All around us. Bitter nail polish for nail bitters, if they use it, they’ll taste a bitter taste when trying to bite their nails, perhaps dissuading them from the habit.
  21. All around us. Design patterns such as interlocking, where tasks are required to be done in a certain way or order. For example, this ATM machine requires you to take your card back before getting your money, so you don’t accidentally leave it behind.
  22. Persuasion
  23. Neutral (utility/usability) Persuasive In some camps, certain techniques are seen as a means to persuade, in others that same technique is a means to aid cognition. Trialability is the concept that if you simulate an activity, or demonstrate a product, the user will be more likely to engage in that activity, or with that product - it’s a tool for persuasion. But others, such as an information architect or usability specialist, may see this as a means for aiding cognition, allowing the user to better complete the activity, or understand how to use the product.
  24. Neutral (utility/usability) Persuasive Amazon One Click is a persuasive tool designed to prompt more impulse purchases (think: reduce friction, increase ability). But it’s not a binary proposition only in Amazon’s interest. The feature has value to the user, it makes purchasing an item easier.
  25. Neutral (utility/usability) Persuasive Good Defaults (AKA Smart Defaults) are intended to aid in completing forms or wizards easily and correctly. But it also persuades the user’s actions. People will be less likely to consider their options. This ‘cognitive shortcut’ persuades the user to go with the system defaults.
  26. Intent is the primary factor in placement on the spectrum.
  27. Clearly intent and purpose are key. Defaults can be pushed within the spectrum, like in the case of defaulting to “yes” in selecting organ donation when applying for a driver’s license, and needing to opt out. Countries that require opt-out have very high organ donation volunteerism, and countries that require you to opt in are much lower. Neutral (utility/usability) Persuasive Example: Organ Donation Opt-in vs. Opt-out
  28. Let’s take the scale and add a second axis. This is the user’s awareness of your intent as a designer. (or as a product/service) High Awareness (of your intent) Low Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  29. We’ve seen where features like good defaults and one-click are. We can plot other design patterns, such as progress indicators. The middle horizontal line represents the ‘intent declaration’ line, these don’t “declare” their intent, yet they don’t deliberately conceal High it either. So they sit slightly below that. Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Low Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  30. Manipulation: all persuasion with no value to the user Deception: covert in intentions Stay away from this ethically mucky area. This is where you see products and High services that hide their true intent (deception) and involve you in a service that you were not aware of or didn’t explicitly approve (manipulation). Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Freecreditreport.com Dark Patterns Manipulation Low Deception Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  31. Products and services above the horizontal line have a clearly stated value proposition (creating explicit awareness of their intent). High High utility High persuasion Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Freecreditreport.com Dark Patterns Manipulation Low Deception Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  32. High High utility High persuasion Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Gmail Flickr iTunes Basecamp Shortmail Mailbox Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Freecreditreport.com Dark Patterns Manipulation Low Deception Utility /Usability Persuasion Applications with high utility (iTunes, Gmail, Basecamp, etc.). Intent of utility is fairly high, usually as part of value proposition. Some products deliberately constrains features, as part of their value proposition, so they may move slightly to the Macro Micro right of the scale, as the product’s features will influence how you manage your projects with the tool. Such as email apps that promise to get positive behavior based outcomes around email management. (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  33. We now have an influx of products and services, enabled by technology, that are designed with the intent of influencing our behavior. Intent is made clear, usually in value proposition (reduce your debt, get in shape, etc.) High utility High persuasion High Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) Ready for Zero Gmail Flickr Nike+ Weight iTunes Mint.com Nest Watchers Basecamp Shortmail Mailbox Awareness (of your intent) Amazon Good One-Click defaults Progress Visualizations indicator Freecreditreport.com Dark Patterns Manipulation Low Deception Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  34. Behavior change as value proposition. High utility High persuasion Obvious intent (value prop) Obvious intent (value prop) High Awareness Gmail Flickr Nike+ Ready for Zero Weight (of your intent) iTunes Mint.com Nest Watchers Basecamp Shortmail Mailbox Low Utility /Usability Persuasion Macro Micro (utility / prods. & services) (usability / features)
  35. Behavior Change as Value Proposition
  36. The New “Me” Generation
  37. Behavior Change as Value Proposition Products and services designed and marketed on the premise that their benefits—the value received—are specific behavioral-based outcomes.
  38. Behavior Change as Value Proposition Value proposition is directly related to behavior- based outcome (Rewarding outcomes from persistent behaviors) Data collection is a primary feature System makes recommendations or guidance Behavior is measurable Prescriptive / Constrained self-determination
  39. The fuel... Sensors & Data Feedback & Feedforward Framing & Profiling
  40. Sensors & Data
  41. If it can be connected, it will be connected.
  42. It hasn’t just been the proliferation of sensors, but also our attitudes and behaviors around our data. Collection GPS Accelerometers Sensors RFID Image Capture Profiles Attitudes Status Updates & Behaviors Shared credentials
  43. Passive data collection
  44. Feedback and Feedforward
  45. In the 60s most people didn’t have personal scales. If you joined weight watchers, you attended a weekly meeting, where you were weighed and received group therapy style guidance. The feedback loop was one week. You got feedback on all your decisions and behaviors over the course of 7 days at one-week intervals, and received guidance that wasn’t custom for you.
  46. Connected scales mean immediate feedback loop.
  47. Realtime feedback and guidance just for you.
  48. “ I do take some of the totals to heart and try to adjust ” my behavior accordingly. —Nicholas Felton The utility and pervasiveness of data has grown.
  49. Feedback is still a response after an action—after a decision or behavior has been made. As we get “smarter” with our services, we will present feedforward, guidance at the point of a decisions to engage in a behavior, such as making the right choice on a menu in a fast food restaurant. Feedforward
  50. Framing & Profiling
  51. Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people... Option A: 200 people will be saved. Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will be saved and 2/3 probability that no people will be saved. Option A: 400 people will die. Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
  52. Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people... Option A: 200 people will be saved. Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will be saved and 2/3 probability that no people will be saved. Option A: 400 people will die. Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
  53. Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people... Option A: 200 people will be saved. Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will be saved and 2/3 probability that no people will be saved. Option A: 400 people will die. Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
  54. Asian Flu has hit, and expected to kill 600 people... Option A: 200 people will be saved. Option B: 1/3 probability that 600 people will A = 72% be saved and 2/3 probability that no people will be saved. B = 28% Option A: 400 people will die. A = 22% Option B: 1/3 probability no one will die and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die. B = 78% How We Decide, Jonah Lehrer
  55. Math is hard!
  56. “ Choice Architecture...organizing the context in which people ” make decisions. Nudge Richard Thaler Cass Sunstein
  57. Depth versus breadth
  58. Persuasion Profiling “ Persuasion profiling means that each one of us has a different set of persuasion strategies that affect us. Just like we like different types of food or are vulnerable to giving in to different types of food on a diet, we are vulnerable to different ” types of persuasion strategies.* — BJ Fogg “ PersuasionAPI helps companies increase customer loyalty and conversion by personalizing content to the specific persuasion preferences of individual ” customers and builds individual intelligent profiles. — Science Rockstars *http://www.deaneckles.com/blog/256_persuasion-profiling-and-genres-fogg-in-2006/? utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=persuasion-profiling-and-genres-fogg-in-2006
  59. Behavior Heuristics “ Rules (of thumb) that people might follow when ” interacting with a system. —Dan Lockton “ Asking users questions about how and why they behaved in certain ways with technology led to answers which were ” resolvable into something like rules. http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
  60. Behavior Heuristics Peel back layers Similar to “5 Whys” “Let’s look in more detail at ‘People will do what they see other people doing’: Why? Why will people do what they see other people doing? If we break this down, asking ‘Why?’ a couple of times, we get to tease out some slightly different possible factors.” http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
  61. Behavior Heuristics Create heuristics ▶ If lots of people are doing it, do it Show directly how many (or what proportion of) people are or principles choosing an option ▶ If people like me are doing it, do it Show the user that his or her peers, or people in a similar situation, make a particular choice ▶ If people that I aspire to be like are doing it, do it Show the user that aspirational figures are making a particular choice ▶ If something worked before, do it again Remind the user what worked last time ▶ If an expert recommends it, do it Show the user that expert figures are making a particular choice http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2012/02/09/if/
  62. Implicit Prescriptive Both can be effective and have different value propositions. One will have broader adoption due to wider range of utility. It may have lower rate of sustained behavior change, but number could still be high do to high overall product usage. The other is more narrowly focused on a specific problem, lower adoption, but higher rate of sustained behavior change among users.
  63. Collection > Visualization > Story Data Framing Feedback Loop
  64. We’ve created the technology, and we’ve started to understand the psychology, but we are still learning to marry the two together to provide an effective value proposition around services providing a positive behavior-based outcome. Technology Psychology Collection > Visualization > Story Data Framing Feedback Loop
  65. Every design decision influences the user. (however benevolent the intent)
  66. “Life as it is.” —Dziga Vertov “A factual film which is dramatic” —Dziga Vertov Documentary filmmaking is an analogy I’ve often used. Long considered the “objective” form of cinema, in contrast to fictional, scripted and reenacted films. However, the moment you “frame” a story with constraints (for example tell a story in 2 hours that played out over 2 years), you make decisions; where the filmmaker points the camera, how they edit the story, all these decision affect how the view receives—perceives and understands—the story. Interaction design is no different.
  67. “ We should look at what kind of impact people’s behavior ” should have on design. —Paola Antonelli
  68. Behavior Change As Value Proposition Thank you!! Chris Risdon @chrisrisdon #behaviordesign SxSWi 2013
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Design to support behavior change is getting increased exposure as technology has allowed products and services to have a more pervasive role in people's lives. But where does persuasion live? What's caused the tipping point for the growth of this new wave of services? The primary characteristic of our new, connected world is the increasing ubiquity of sensors providing the ability to collect data passively and present it back—via feedback loops and visualizations—in a meaningful way to the user. New "smart products" with personalized intelligence about our behavior help us track how many time we brush our teeth or walk the dog with the hope we'll be better at maintaining these habits. Where do these new offerings map on our landscape of products and services? While more products have an explicit influence on our daily lives, they require you to increasingly relinquish self-determination as a prerequisite for use. How do we design to support behavior change as a value proposition?

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