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Introduction to-vitamins

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Vitamin A, B , C and D,

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Introduction to-vitamins

  1. 1. Terminology: 1920, originally vitamine (1912) coined by Polish biochemist Casimir Funk (1884-1967), from Latin vita "life" + amine , because they were thought to contain amino acids. When it became clear that some of them were not amines and did not even contain nitrogen, Drummond suggested the modification that led to the term vitamin. Definition: vitamin is an organic compound/molecule required as a nutrient n small amount, by an organism. The distinguishing feature of the vitamins is that they generally cannot be synthesized by mammalian cells and, therefore, must be supplied in the diet.
  2. 2. Types of vitamins:
  3. 3. Fat soluble vitamins: Generalities 1. The fat soluble vitamins do not serve as coenzymes but rather act directly, or bind to specific receptors in cell nucleus. 2. They are absorbed in association with dietary fat, bile is required for absorption. Ulcerative colitis can lead to deficiencies. 3. Vitamins A and D are stored in liver and it takes time to bring on a deficiency state. However they are more likely to cause toxicity on overdosage.
  4. 4. Roll no: 11800
  5. 5. "Vitamin A" is the blanket term for retinoids, biologically active compounds that occur naturally in both plant and animal tissues. According to some research, having more than an average of 1.5mg a day of vitamin A over many years may affect your bones, making them more likely to fracture when you are older.
  6. 6. Vitamin A Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. Types of vitamin A: 1. Preformed vitamin A 2. pro-vitamin A Vitamin A is also available in dietary supplements, usually in the form of retinyl acetate or retinyl palmitate.
  7. 7. Sources of Vitamin A Top sources of vitamin A include: 1. Beef liver 2. Egg yolk 3. Cheddar cheese 4. Fortified milk 5. Top sources of beta- carotene include: 6. Sweet potato 7. Carrots 8. Pumpkin 9. Cantaloupe 10. Broccoli 11. Apricots 12. Spinach and collard greens
  8. 8. Vitamin A deficiency : • Keritinsed skin • Dry mucous • Membranes • Night blindness • Susceptibility to disease • impairs immunity • Hematopoiesis • fat malabsorption • liver disorders
  9. 9. Functions : • Vision • Gene transcription • Immune function • Embroyonic development and reproduction • Bone metabolism • Haematopoieses • Skin health antioxidant activity
  10. 10. VITAMIN B AMMARA FAROOQUI 11734
  11. 11. VITAMIN B1
  12. 12. GENERAL INFORMATION: Also called Anti-beri beri factor, anti-neuritic factor • Involved in carbohydrate, fats, amino-acid, glucose, and alcohol metabolism. • Required as co-enzyme in enzymatic reactions that involve the transfer of an aldehyde group. • Essentially non-toxic. • Can be synthesized by plants and some micro-org., but not usually by animals. • Human being require it from diet • The body can store upto 30mg in its tissues. • Half-life 9-18 days, excreted via kidney • Whole wheat flour, unpolished rice, beans, nuts and yeast are good sources. Also present in liver, meat and eggs.
  13. 13. CHEMISTRY: Thiamine contains substituted pyrimidine ring (dimethyl 6-amino pyrimidine) and a substituted thiazole ring (methyl hydroxyl ethyl thiazole), connected by a methylene bridge.
  14. 14. THIAMINE SYNTHESIS: Synthesis of Pyrimidine moiety (1) of thiamine
  15. 15. Synthesis of Thiazole moiety (2) of Thiamine Condensation of (1) and (2) to form Thiamine
  16. 16. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP (SAR): Essential features for activity: • Methylene bridge. • Amino group in the pyrimidine ring. • Hydroxy ethyl group at the thiazole ring. • Methyl group of pyrimidine ring, when replaced by: a- Ethyl or propyl groups gives an active compound. b- Butyl group gives inactive compound. N N N NH2 S Me Me CH2CH2OH
  17. 17.  Oxythiamine is a competitive inhibitor.  Neopyrithiamine prevent phosphorylation of hydroxy ethyl group that is essential for activity of the vitamin. N N N OH S Me Me CH2CH2OH N N N NH2Me CH2CH2OH Oxythiamine Me Pyridine Ring Neopyrithiamine
  18. 18. THIAMINE DERIVATIVES: Benfothiamine Fursulthiamine Lipophilic analogues Water soluble analogues Thiamine nitrateThiamine hydrochloride
  19. 19. DISEASES: Deficiency causes Beri-beri and Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
  20. 20. THERAPEUTIC USES: • Digestive problems like ulcerative colitis, • AIDS, • Diabetic pain • Heart diseases • Aging • Vision problem • Prevent cervical cancer, etc.
  21. 21. VITAMIN B2
  22. 22. GENERAL INFORMATION: • Riboflavin was once called Vitamin G. • This vitamin plays an important role in the metabolism of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. • The vitamin acts as a precursor for the synthesis of cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). These coenzymes are involved in a wide range of redox reactions, involved in Activation of vitamin B12 and folate, Protection of erythrocytes and other cells from oxidative stress. • Milk, eggs, leaf vegetables, legumes, and mushrooms are good sources of the vitamin. Intestinal bacteria are also known to synthesise riboflavin. • Added as food colouring agent, and Fortify some foods as baby foods, breakfast cereals, sauces, processed cheese, fruit drinks and vitamin-enriched milk).
  23. 23. CHEMISTRY: It chemically has a three rings structure (isoalloxazine) linked to ribityl moiety. N N NH N Me Me O O CH2OH (HO-C-H)3 CH2 Ribose moiety Vit B2 = Riboflavin Isoalloxazine moiety
  24. 24. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP: The ribitol-like moiety can be cleaved from the vitamin, resulting in lumiflavin. It is produced by the photolysis of Riboflavin, act as riboflavin uptake inhibitor. .
  25. 25. SYNTHESIS OF RIBOFLAVIN:
  26. 26. DISEASE: Riboflavin decomposes when exposed to visible light. This characteristic can lead to riboflavin deficiencies in newborns treated for hyperbilirubinemia by phototherapy. The severe deficiency of riboflavin is known as ariboflavinosis
  27. 27. THERAPEUTIC USES: • Migraine headaches in use of high doses of riboflavin • Improve memory • Healthy development of the fetus • Boost the body's level of glutathione which is an anti-oxidant.
  28. 28. VITAMIN B3
  29. 29. GENERAL INFORMATION: • Also called Vitamin P • The body can also synthesise niacin from the essential amino acid, tryptophan. So it is not a true vitamin in the strictest definition since it derives from aminoacid. • Niacin synthesized in liver by tryptophan but the synthesis is extremely slow and require Vit. B6. • Precursor of important coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) which function as cofactors for numerous dehydrogenases, e.g., lactate and malate dehydrogenases. • Food sources of niacin include tuna, venison, beef, chicken, avocados, tomatoes, whole grain products, and shiitake mushrooms.
  30. 30. CHEMISTRY: Niacin is a pyridine derivative with a carboxyl group at 3rd position. NIACIN DERIVATIVES: Both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are derivatives of niacin and can serve as the dietary source of vitamin B3. N COOH N CONH2 Nicotinic acid Nicotinamide
  31. 31. SYNTHESIS OF NICOTINIC ACID:
  32. 32. DISEASE: Niacin chronic deficiency results in Pellagra.
  33. 33. THERAPEUTIC USES: •Decrease blood cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart attack. • Niacinamide used on a long-term basis to prevent the onset of juvenile diabetes (children). • Involved in production of sex and stress hormones. • Improve blood circulation. • Regulate blood sugar level.
  34. 34. VITAMIN B5
  35. 35. GENERAL INFORMATION: It is an important precursor of coenzyme-A (CoA) that assists the following reactions: Formation of Sterols (Cholesterol and 7-Dehydrocholesterol). Formation of Fatty acids. Formation of Keto acids such as Pyruvic acid. Pantothenate is required for the metabolism of carbohydrate via the TCA cycle and all fats and proteins. Only the R enantiomer of the vitamin is biologically active .i.e D-panthenol. Meat, whole grains, cereals are major sources of pantothenic acid. Other sources of the vitamin include avocados and broccoli.
  36. 36. CHEMISTRY: It is a peptide substance composed of Pantoic acid and b-Alanine. It can be present as the Calcium salt or the Alcohol “Pantothenol. HO CH2 C CH NH CH2 CH3 CH3 OH CH2 COOHC O HO CH2 C CH NH CH2 CH3 CH3 OH CH2 CH2OHC O -AlaninePantoic acid Pantothenic Acid Pantothenol
  37. 37. SYNTHESIS OF PANTHOTHENIC ACID:
  38. 38. DISEASE: Because pantothenic acid is common in the diet, cases of deficiency are rare. When occur it leads to Paresthesias
  39. 39. THERAPEUTIC USES: • Maintain growth of Nervous system of the body • Building cells of the body Helps in function of adrenal gland • Increase immunity of the body. • D-panthenol is an analogue of Panthothenic acid. It is a biologically active enantiomer of Panthenol. Use to to relive gas retention and Topically for: a) Burning b) Itching c) Irritation
  40. 40. . . . ANAM HASSAN 11736
  41. 41. Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically very similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems. Vitamin B6 is part of the vitamin B complex group, and its active form, Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) serves as a cofactor in many enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism Vitamin B6 Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)
  42. 42. Food sources:
  43. 43. The classic clinical syndrome for vitamin B6 deficiency is a seborrhoeic dermatitis-like eruption, atrophic glossitis with • ulceration, • angular cheilitis, • conjunctivitis, • intertrigo, and • neurologic symptoms of somnolence, • confusion, and • neuropathy[11] (due to impaired sphingosin synthesis) and • sideroblastic anemia (due to impaired heme synthesis) DEFICIENCY:
  44. 44. Vitamin B7 (Vitamin H, Biotin, Growth Factor, Co-enzyme R) It is 2-Imidazolidinone tetrahydrothiophene-4-valeric acid N H H N S H HH (CH2)4-COOH O
  45. 45. Natural Sources
  46. 46. Role of Vitamin B7  It is a co-enzyme for several carboxylation reactions.  Important for carbon dioxide fixation.  Important for Carbohydrates and Fats metabolism.  Co-factor for Pyruvate carboxylase.
  47. 47. Deficiency • Only induced in experimental animals not observed in human: • Skin lesions • Retarded growth • Hair loss Daily ammount required: 100- 200 mg/day.
  48. 48. Vitamin B9 (Vitamin M, Vitamin B-c, Folic acid ) • Conjugate of Pteridine, p-Aminobenzoic acid and Glutamic acid. N N N N CH2 NH C NH CH COOH CH2 CH2 COOH OH H2N O Pteridine p-Aminobenzoic acid Glutamic acid
  49. 49. Natural Sources
  50. 50. Role of Vitamin B9 Folic Acid Dihydrofolate (DHF) Tetrahydrofolate (THF) Folic acid reductase Dihydrofolic acid reductase THF act as Co-enzyme for: • Leucopoiesis (Production of Leukocytes). • Erythropoiesis (Production of Erythrocytes). • Nucleoprotein synthesis.
  51. 51. Deficiency • Very rare due to: • Malabsorption (due to alcoholism). • Impaired Hepatic functions (due to alcoholism). • Leads to: • Glossitis (is inflammation or infection of the tongue ). • Megaloblastic anemia • Leucopenia Daily ammount required: 0.1- 0.8 mg/day
  52. 52. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin, Antipernicious anemia factor)
  53. 53.  Bacteria such as Streptomycin and Bacillus present in the intestinal flora produce the vitamin required for man and animals.  The vitamin is stored in the liver with estimated t1/2 400 days.  B12 can be obtained from animal products only such as:
  54. 54. Role of Vitamin B12
  55. 55. Speaker :
  56. 56. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble nutrient found in some foods that is necessary for normal growth and development.
  57. 57. Vitamin C, is present in citrus fruits, tomato, potato, orange ,lemon juices and green vegetables. It should be taken 65-90mg regulary.
  58. 58. Szent gyorgi in 1932 isolated vitamin C from lemon juice.
  59. 59. 1 2 3 4 5 6 H2 Ni -2[H] A.subsidans Glucuronic acid Glucuronic acid Lactone Gulono lactone Oxogulono lactone Gulono Lactone Oxidase
  60. 60. C6H8O6 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE & SAR:
  61. 61. ASCORBIC ACID DERIVATIVES:
  62. 62. THERAPEUTIC USE: Cardiovascular disorders, Common cold, Vision problems, Sun burn or different skin problems, Cancer, Chronic pain etc.
  63. 63. DISEASE:
  64. 64. VITAMIN D Speaker: BUSHRA KHAN 11742
  65. 65. GENERAL INFORMATION  Promotes cell growth  Supports healthy immune sysyem  Promotes calcium absorption  Encourages good moods  Prevent depression  Reduces the risk of flu  Reduces the risk of cancer  Reduces the risk of developing diabetes  Reduces the risk of osteoporosis
  66. 66. CHEMISTRY OF VITAMIN D Vitamin D exists in two main forms, vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), differing in their side chain structure.
  67. 67. SYNTHESIS OF VITAMIN D
  68. 68. VITAMIN D DERIVATIVES Three vitamin D3 analogs are commonly used for the treatment of psoriasis: calcitriol, calcipotriol and tacalcitol
  69. 69. DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN D vitamin D deficiency, putting at risk of bone problems, including rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, severe asthma in children, Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer.
  70. 70. THERAPEUTIC USES  Bone and calcium homeostasis  Infections  Psoriasis  Multiple sclerosis  Respiratory health  Diabetes & other conditions

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