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Overview of protozoa
Overview of protozoa
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Microbiology protozoans

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medically important protozoans

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Microbiology protozoans

  1. 1. PROTOZOANS Protozoa means "first animal" and refers to simple eukaryotic organisms (e.g. amoebae). Reproduction may be through : Simple cell division (e.g. the ameboflagellates) Sexual involving the fusion of gametes in part of the life cycle (e.g. the apicomplexa)
  2. 2.  ENTAMEOBA HISTOLYTICA  PLASMODIUM VIVAX  HEMFLAGELLATES (a) Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (b) Trypanosoma cruzi
  3. 3. Entamoeba Histolytica E. histolytica is a true parasite in that the organism cannot multiply outside of the host.. ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA
  4. 4. LETS SEE HOW IT EFFECTS HUMAN BODY? E.AMEOBA cause of amoebic dysentery producing severe infection of the intestines that can spread to the liver.
  5. 5. Malaria. Plasmodium  Plasmodium species cause malaria. The four principal species are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. Malaria means "bad air" and dates from the time when the disease was thought to be spread from stagnant, foul smelling water. The disease is in fact transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito that inhabits such environments. In the stomach of the female Anopheles male (micro-) and female (macro-) gametocytes fuse to form a zygote. This in turn forms a motile ookinete that penetrates the midgut wall and develops into an oocyst within which are many thousands of sporozoites. When mature, the sporozoites rupture the oocyst and penetrate the salivary glands. When the mosquito next feeds on man, the sporozoites are passed via the blood stream to infect parenchymal cells of the liver. Here they form pre-erythrocytic schizonts in which several thousand daughter cells, called merozoites. These merozoites enter red blood cells to start the asexual intraerythrocytic cycle and form new gametocytes. The asexual red cell stages are responsible for the pathological changes that occur in malaria (fever, chills, anemia, liver enlargement, encephalitis renal damage and death).
  6. 6. Flagellates  These organisms have flagella in the trophozoite stage. Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted organism causing trichomoniasis infection of the vagina and urethra. Giardia lamblia causes giardiasis producing symptoms of diarrhea and other intestinal disturbances. Infection arises from the ingestion of cysts, usually through contaminated water.
  7. 7. Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense & T. Brucei Rhodesiense :  cause trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as African sleeping sickness. The disease is an arthropod (insect)-borne infections and is spread by the bite of the tsetse fly in which part of the trypanosome life cycle is completed. The eventual invasion of the central nervous system by the trypanosomes gives rise a comatosed state from which the common name for the disease is derived.
  8. 8. Trypanosoma Cruzi  causes Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis).The intermediate host in this case are triatomid bugs that feed off the blood of man. Infection results from the inoculation of the bug's feces that contains the organism into the bite wound. Individuals who survive the acute stage of the disease are frequently left with chronic and progressive neuronal and smooth muscle lesions in the heart and gastrointestinal tract.T. cruzi has an extensive reservoir in wild and domestic mammals and therefore Chagas' disease is a zoonosis.
  9. 9. Speaker: HIRA ARSHAD
  10. 10. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION  TYPES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION:  Binary fission and  Budding
  11. 11. Asexual reproduction
  12. 12. CONJUGATION
  13. 13. BINNARY FISSION
  14. 14. BUDDING
  15. 15. PROTOZOA Proto means 'first‘ zoa means 'animals'
  16. 16. General Characteristics Heterotroph •Most motile •Eukaryotes •Unicellular
  17. 17. HABITAT Protozoa are located in most moist habitats. Free-living species inhabit freshwater and marine environments, and terrestrial species inhabit decaying organic matter. Some species are parasites of plants and animals.
  18. 18. SIZE AND SHAPE Protozoa vary substantially in size and shape. Smaller species may be the size of fungal cells; larger species may be visible to the unaided eye. Protozoal cells have no cell walls and therefore can assume an infinite variety of shapes
  19. 19. RESPIRATION: Respiration takes place when oxygen diffuses into the cell, where the food molecules become oxidized. Waste products ,carbon dioxide and water diffuse out of the cell. Excretion Waste materials in protozoans are removed from the cell by diffusion through the cell.
  20. 20. MOVEMENT Through pseudopodia Through Cilia
  21. 21. Through flagella
  22. 22. http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/mhunt/replicat.htm http://biology.about.com/od/virology/ss/Virus- Replication.htm http://virology-online.com/general/Replication.htm http://www.epidemic.org/theFacts/hepatitisC/lifeCycle/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2794490/ www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/ContentFiles/HIVLifeCycle_FS_en. pdf www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/h iv.html faculty.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses /lytlc.html faculty.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/.../lysol c.html www.nlv.ch/Virologytutorials/Classification.htm References:

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