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Structure of LO’s Modeling for eLearning Miguel Rodr í guez Artacho UNED University [email_address]
What is ‘educational content’? <ul><li>Educational material developed to be consumed in computer based learning using on-l...
Educational Content:  Desired properties <ul><li>Interoperability     Combine different specification in different contex...
Educational Content: Current problems <ul><li>Interoperability     It is not possible to re-assemble  content </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Technical issues </li></ul><ul><li>HTML tree, *.asp, form, GET/POST, ... </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Ped...
Learning Content Specification <ul><li>Lack of an appropriate abstraction level </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Prov...
Learning Objects <ul><li>Interoperable educative content components </li></ul><ul><li>Labeled with Metadata </li></ul><ul>...
Uses of LO’s <ul><li>Metadata allow search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregation of LO’s acording to its aggregation...
Drawbacks <ul><li>De-contextualized learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reusability  vs. Aggregation level </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Expressivity of contents <ul><li>Need of semantics associated to specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping of elements in ...
Educational Content IMS -LD EML PALO … IMS CP IMS SS SCORM 1.2 SCORM 1.3 Description levels of an educational material IMS...
Content Packaging: XML
IMS Content Package (Ex.) <ul><li>TOC 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 1 lesson1.html </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction intro1....
Educational Content IMS -LD EML PALO … IMS CP IMS SS SCORM 1.2 SCORM 1.3 Description levels of an educational material IMS...
Sequencing Model (IMS)
Map SS and CP XML (Extensions)
IMS Specifications <ul><li>Describe separately different aspects of learning material </li></ul><ul><li>Identify complexit...
Current Authoring model using LO’s Source: Carnegie Mellon  www.lsal.cmu.edu/lsal
Celebrate Demo Portal <ul><li>Celebrate created a Demo Portal to illustrate Search, retrieval and use of LO’s </li></ul><u...
Celebrate Demo Portal
LO Examples <ul><li>http://celebrate.ls.no/english/animations/science/orespill.swf </li></ul><ul><li>http://celebrate.ls.n...
Instructional Design & LO’s <ul><li>Research explores definition of activities as part of LO’s  </li></ul><ul><li>David Me...
Concept of educational modeling language <ul><li>Content representation in a variety of levels </li></ul><ul><li>Descripti...
Educational Content IMS -LD EML PALO … IMS CP IMS SS SCORM 1.2 SCORM 1.3 Description levels of an educational material IMS...
Evolution of Educational Modeling Languages <ul><li>CEN/ISSS Meeting in Torino (Oct 2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>   Introd...
IMS-LD <ul><li>Based on EML OUNL   </li></ul><ul><li>started 1997, research into pedagogies in use </li></ul><ul><li>no de...
EML: simple yet powerful <ul><li>People engage in Activities, for which they use Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People: o...
<ul><li>play </li></ul>Activity- Description method components Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Act 4 Act 5 Role-part 1 Role-part 2 Role-...
LD: XML - top level
LD: XML - method
LD: XML - components
Example: Course creation in EML <ul><li>Roles : Definition of roles (ex. Student, staff member) and definition of the work...
Authoring process and use <ul><li>Requires a RTE to play the course (Edubox, Coppercore, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Manage ac...
More approaches to LO creation <ul><li>PALO Educational Modeling Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed at UNED Universi...
Cognitive Design Process Creation of a  generic domain  to describe content matter = ONTOLOGY Creation of one or more  ins...
An example: Models and Meta-Models Prob004 Prob003 Prob002 Prob001 Involve Con 031 Sol 023 Is Solution  Model Instance Con...
Use of ontologies of LO’s <ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here you can find more   < relation Name =&quot; Illust...
PALO production cycle PALO Template (DTD) Domain Knowledge  Base PALO File  (XML) PARSER
Editing Process PALO  Compiler Domain Model PALO  Document Student Scenario Tutor Scenario
Structure of LO’s Modeling for eLearning Miguel Rodr í guez Artacho UNED University [email_address] www.uned.es Thanks!
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Modeling Learnig Objects

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LOs Modelization Miguel CBUC June 2004

  1. 1. Structure of LO’s Modeling for eLearning Miguel Rodr í guez Artacho UNED University [email_address]
  2. 2. What is ‘educational content’? <ul><li>Educational material developed to be consumed in computer based learning using on-line web environments </li></ul><ul><li>Educational material has embedded pedagogical & instructional information </li></ul><ul><li>Complex specifications and a variety of description standards </li></ul><ul><li>Complex authoring process and difficult to maintain </li></ul>
  3. 3. Educational Content: Desired properties <ul><li>Interoperability  Combine different specification in different contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Maintainability  Contents must be maintainable and upgradeable </li></ul><ul><li>Reusability  Allow ‘Cut & Paste’ for building new content </li></ul><ul><li>Durability  Independence of the delivery technology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Educational Content: Current problems <ul><li>Interoperability  It is not possible to re-assemble content </li></ul><ul><li>Maintainability  Difficulty to update content, authoring not independent from VLE </li></ul><ul><li>Reusability  Content embedded in VLE and nor searchable or retrievable </li></ul><ul><li>Durability  Do not recover from a deep change in the delivery format or content format </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of an abstraction level </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Technical issues </li></ul><ul><li>HTML tree, *.asp, form, GET/POST, ... </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagógical/Instructional </li></ul><ul><li>Module, Task, Sequence, Prerequisite, Assignment, Exercise, Simulation, ... </li></ul>Educational Content: Abstraction Level
  6. 6. Learning Content Specification <ul><li>Lack of an appropriate abstraction level </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Provide specifications with associated operational semantic. Not related with delivery formats </li></ul><ul><li>Provide pedagogical design elements </li></ul><ul><li>Authoring tools should not be in VLE’s but as standalone applications </li></ul><ul><li>Make LO’s interoperable and reusable </li></ul>
  7. 7. Learning Objects <ul><li>Interoperable educative content components </li></ul><ul><li>Labeled with Metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Context independent  reusables </li></ul><ul><li>Organizez in repositories (disteibuted) or in conceptual maps (ontologies) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Uses of LO’s <ul><li>Metadata allow search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregation of LO’s acording to its aggregation level </li></ul><ul><li>Repositories of LO’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARIADNE (1997)  Development of LOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other projects: OASIS, CELEBRATE (IST E.U.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authoring process based on selection and aggregation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Drawbacks <ul><li>De-contextualized learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reusability vs. Aggregation level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context vs. Interchangeability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of personalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No adaptability to students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex business model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known problems of distribution (KaZaA, ...) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Expressivity of contents <ul><li>Need of semantics associated to specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping of elements in semantic layers </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful elements for rest of layers </li></ul><ul><li>Different specifications in different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of specifications depending on the covered levels </li></ul>
  11. 11. Educational Content IMS -LD EML PALO … IMS CP IMS SS SCORM 1.2 SCORM 1.3 Description levels of an educational material IMS -QTI IMS -DR Pedagogical Information Pedagogical/Instructional Educative processes y activities. Collaborative tasks and activities Activity/Task Small LO’s, assets and formatted content Content Navigational model Structure Sequencing, prerrequisites, deadlines, dependencies Sequencing Interoperability parameters with LMS Management
  12. 12. Content Packaging: XML
  13. 13. IMS Content Package (Ex.) <ul><li>TOC 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 1 lesson1.html </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction intro1.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content content1.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary summary1.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lesson 2 … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul></ul>IMS Manifest (XML)
  14. 14. Educational Content IMS -LD EML PALO … IMS CP IMS SS SCORM 1.2 SCORM 1.3 Description levels of an educational material IMS -QTI IMS -DR Pedagogical Information Pedagogical/Instructional Educative processes y activities. Collaborative tasks and activities Activity/Task Small LO’s, assets and formatted content Content Navigational model Structure Sequencing, prerrequisites, deadlines, dependencies Sequencing Interoperability parameters with LMS Management
  15. 15. Sequencing Model (IMS)
  16. 16. Map SS and CP XML (Extensions)
  17. 17. IMS Specifications <ul><li>Describe separately different aspects of learning material </li></ul><ul><li>Identify complexity of learning content authoring </li></ul><ul><li>No RTE available for the whole mode (CP+SS+(LD|QTI)) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Current Authoring model using LO’s Source: Carnegie Mellon www.lsal.cmu.edu/lsal
  19. 19. Celebrate Demo Portal <ul><li>Celebrate created a Demo Portal to illustrate Search, retrieval and use of LO’s </li></ul><ul><li>More than 1.500 LO’s currently available </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly focused on schools, not for higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Currently launching LIFE initiative to continue Celebrate (European School net, EUN) </li></ul><ul><li>http://life.eun.org </li></ul>
  20. 20. Celebrate Demo Portal
  21. 21. LO Examples <ul><li>http://celebrate.ls.no/english/animations/science/orespill.swf </li></ul><ul><li>http://celebrate.ls.no/English/Animations/Science/destillasjon_eng.swf </li></ul><ul><li>Change of State – Water </li></ul>
  22. 22. Instructional Design & LO’s <ul><li>Research explores definition of activities as part of LO’s </li></ul><ul><li>David Merrill (Utah Univ) proposes 4 types of LO’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entities (objects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties (attributes of entities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities (Actions on objects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes (Change attributes triggered by activities) </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Need to incorporate learning processes </li></ul>
  23. 23. Concept of educational modeling language <ul><li>Content representation in a variety of levels </li></ul><ul><li>Description of learning tasks: Modelization of activities and instructional processes </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with LO model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored in repositories as another LO’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of ontology and conceptual maps to retrieve “low granularity” LO’s </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Educational Content IMS -LD EML PALO … IMS CP IMS SS SCORM 1.2 SCORM 1.3 Description levels of an educational material IMS -QTI IMS -DR Pedagogical Information Pedagogical/Instructional Educative processes y activities. Collaborative tasks and activities Activity/Task Small LO’s, assets and formatted content Content Navigational model Structure Sequencing, prerrequisites, deadlines, dependencies Secuencing Interoperability parameters with LMS Management
  25. 25. Evolution of Educational Modeling Languages <ul><li>CEN/ISSS Meeting in Torino (Oct 2001) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Introduction of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EML (UONL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PALO (UNED) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Targeteam (German Mil. Forces Lab) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See “Europe Focuses on EML” S. Wilson (CETIS) in http://www.cetis.ac.uk/content/20011015103421 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Survey of Educational Modeling Languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Development of IMS-LD based on EML (OU of the Nederlands) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. IMS-LD <ul><li>Based on EML OUNL </li></ul><ul><li>started 1997, research into pedagogies in use </li></ul><ul><li>no description per pedagogy, but </li></ul><ul><li>one meta-language to describe them all: Educational Modelling Language (EML), published in December 2000 </li></ul>
  27. 27. EML: simple yet powerful <ul><li>People engage in Activities, for which they use Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People: one or many, learner or staff roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities: description, structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources: learning objects & services (chat, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many roles, activities and resources need co-ordination in a workflow: learning flow </li></ul><ul><li>An instructional design/pedagogy/learning design essentially is a learning flow. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>play </li></ul>Activity- Description method components Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Act 4 Act 5 Role-part 1 Role-part 2 Role-part 4 Role-part 5 Role Activity Environment Learning objects Learning services
  29. 29. LD: XML - top level
  30. 30. LD: XML - method
  31. 31. LD: XML - components
  32. 32. Example: Course creation in EML <ul><li>Roles : Definition of roles (ex. Student, staff member) and definition of the workspaces of each one of the roles, and also types of outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: Definition of content by mean of ona or more activities </li></ul><ul><li>Methods : Definition of sequences of activities defining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play per role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul></ul>XML File (Example)
  33. 33. Authoring process and use <ul><li>Requires a RTE to play the course (Edubox, Coppercore, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Manage activities independently from LO’s and other static resources </li></ul><ul><li>Manage static resources independently from activities defined in the course </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse ALL: Resources, Activities, Course templates  !!This is it!! </li></ul>
  34. 34. More approaches to LO creation <ul><li>PALO Educational Modeling Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed at UNED University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presented in CEN/ISSS EML Workshop in Torino (2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses of domain ontologies rather than metadata labeled LO’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple tasks (no roles) and sequencing </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Cognitive Design Process Creation of a generic domain to describe content matter = ONTOLOGY Creation of one or more instances for a particular domain matter Conceptualisation Phase Instantiation Phase
  36. 36. An example: Models and Meta-Models Prob004 Prob003 Prob002 Prob001 Involve Con 031 Sol 023 Is Solution Model Instance Concept Involve Problem Is Solution Solution
  37. 37. Use of ontologies of LO’s <ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here you can find more < relation Name =&quot; Illustrates &quot; Domain =&quot; Conceptual &quot; Subject =&quot; invariant &quot; Category =&quot; Example &quot;> examples </ relation > </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of the concept invariant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>XML Example Example Concept has illustrates Explanation prerequisite Compound Functional group has belongs to IR spectrum has Molecular Formulae
  38. 38. PALO production cycle PALO Template (DTD) Domain Knowledge Base PALO File (XML) PARSER
  39. 39. Editing Process PALO Compiler Domain Model PALO Document Student Scenario Tutor Scenario
  40. 40. Structure of LO’s Modeling for eLearning Miguel Rodr í guez Artacho UNED University [email_address] www.uned.es Thanks!

Modeling Learnig Objects

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