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Manipulating    MoralityThird-party intentions alter moral judgment Jonathan Phillips and Alex Shaw             Yale Unive...
Typical moral judgments        Deserves         Blame?
Typical moral judgments        Deserves      Intentions         Blame?
Typical moral judgments                 DeservesSituations                     Intentions                  Blame?
Typical moral judgments                 Deserves    Agent’sSituations                  Intention   Intentions             ...
Typical moral judgments             Situational   Deserves    Agent’sSituations   Constraint               Intention   Int...
A Moral Situation
A Moral Situation
A Moral QuestionShould   be blamed for his actions?
A Moral QuestionShould   be blamed for his actions?
NE 1110a 4-8Situational Constraint
NE 1110a 4-8Situational Constraint
NE 1110a 4-8Situational Constraint
NE 1110a 4-8Situational Constraint
Another Moral QuestionShould   be blamed for his actions?
Another Moral QuestionShould   be blamed for his actions?
Do third-party intentions        matter?
Some reason to think   they shouldn’t
Some reason to think   they shouldn’t• Normative: Irrelevant to whether or not  the agent acted wrongly
Some reason to think   they shouldn’t• Normative: Irrelevant to whether or not  the agent acted wrongly• Theoretical: Gree...
Some reason to think   they shouldn’t• Normative: Irrelevant to whether or not  the agent acted wrongly• Theoretical: Gree...
Reasons to think they     do matter
Reasons to think they      do matter• Empirical support: Studies 1, 2 & 3
Reasons to think they      do matter• Empirical support: Studies 1, 2 &    3•   Theoretical support:
Reasons to think they      do matter• Empirical support: Studies 1, 2 & 3•Theoretical support: • Theoretical proposal
Reasons to think they      do matter• Empirical support: Studies 1, 2 & 3•Theoretical support: • Theoretical proposal • St...
Study 1: Intentional Condition
Study 1: Intentional ConditionIsabels daughter has a rare disease that requires her to take medication every day, andIsabe...
Study 1: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Study 1: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?     • Isabel should be blamed for her actions.
Study 1: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?     • Isabel should be blamed for her actions.       Str...
Study 1: Accidental ConditionIsabels daughter has a rare disease that requires her to take medication every day, andIsabel...
Study 1: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?     • Isabel should be blamed for her actions.       Str...
Results     Agent Blame(""&"%"                           ./0-/12/+*"                             34456-/0+*"$"#"!"      )*...
Study 2
Study 2          I’d kill for some              food right                 now!
Study 2: Intentional Condition
Study 2: Intentional Condition   In the 1960s, the government of a small Eastern European country plotted tosecretly start...
Study 2: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?     • The workers should be blamed for their       actio...
Study 2: Accidental ConditionIn the 1960s, the government of a small Eastern European country planned tostart a new econom...
Study 2: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?     • The workers should be blamed for their       actio...
Study 2: Results     Agent Blame(""&"%"                         ./0-/12/+*"                           34456-/0+*"$"#"!"   ...
Studies 1 & 2: Boring    Explanations
Studies 1 & 2: Boring      ExplanationsThird-party mental states influence moraljudgment....
Studies 1 & 2: Boring      ExplanationsThird-party mental states influence moraljudgment.... ....through implicit compariso...
Studies 1 & 2: Boring    Explanations
Studies 1 & 2: Boring      ExplanationsThird-party mental states influence moraljudgment...
Studies 1 & 2: Boring      ExplanationsThird-party mental states influence moraljudgment...   ....through seeing the agent ...
Study 3
Study 3 I want to makesure they attack    village A!
Study 3 I want to makesure they attack    village A!       We’d kill for                    Village A’s food              ...
Study 3 I want to makesure they attack              We’d kill for    village A!               Village B’s food            ...
Study 3: Intention-Consistent
Study 3: Intention-ConsistentIn the 1960s the government of a small Eastern European country plotted tosecretly start a wa...
Study 3: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?     • The workers should be blamed for their       actio...
Study 3: Intention-DeviantIn the 1960s the government of a small Eastern European country plotted tosecretly start a war u...
Study 3: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?     • The workers should be blamed for their       actio...
Study 3: Results      Agent Blame (" " &" %"                          ./0-/12/+*"                              Consistent ...
Study 3: Discussion
Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts
Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts
Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim
Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim
Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim• Third-party intentions influenc...
Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim• Third-party intentions influenc...
Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim• Third-party intentions influenc...
So why would the content of the    third-party intention be           important?
Proposal
Proposal The content of the third-party intention canchange how we see the situation by giving it a        teleological st...
Proposal The content of the third-party intention canchange how we see the situation by giving it a        teleological st...
Intention-ConsistentGovern-   Crops      News         Workers   Villagers ment     burned    released       raid        di...
Intention-Consistent              Intentional StructureGovern-   Crops      News         Workers   Villagers ment     burn...
Intention-Consistent              Intentional StructureGovern-   Crops      News         Workers   Villagers ment     burn...
Intention-Consistent              Intentional StructureGovern-   Crops      News         Workers   Villagers ment     burn...
Intention-Consistent              Intentional StructureGovern-   Crops      News         Workers   Villagers ment     burn...
Intention-Consistent              Intentional StructureGovern-   Crops      News         Workers   Villagers ment     burn...
So what’s important about a   situation’s teleological structure?Govern-   Crops      News      Workers     Villagers ment...
Intention-Deviant              Intentional StructureGovern-   Crops       News         Workers   Villagers ment     burned...
Intention-Deviant              Intentional StructureGovern-   Crops       News         Workers   Villagers ment     burned...
Intention-Deviant              Intentional StructureGovern-   Crops       News         Workers   Villagers ment     burned...
Intention-DeviantGovern-   Crops News            Workers    Villagers ment     burned released        raid         die    ...
Intention-DeviantGovern-   Crops News            Workers    Villagers ment     burned released        raid         die    ...
Proposal• When the third-party’s intention matches  the outcome of the events, it orders the  perceived causal chain teleo...
Empirical Test
Empirical TestIf this theory is right, then we should alsoexpect to see differences in...
Empirical TestIf this theory is right, then we should alsoexpect to see differences in...• ... who caused the outcome
Empirical TestIf this theory is right, then we should alsoexpect to see differences in...• ... who caused the outcome     ...
Empirical TestIf this theory is right, then we should alsoexpect to see differences in...• ... who caused the outcome     ...
Study 4 I want to makesure they attack                        We’d kill for    village A!       We’d kill for     Village ...
Study 4: Replication      Agent Blame                    t(62) = 2.56, p = .013
Study 4: CausationDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?    • The government caused the attack on the     ...
Study 4: Causation(""&"%"                                    .120304-24"                                      5-63+24"$"#"...
Study 4: ‘Had to’Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?    • The workers had to attack the village.       ...
Study 4: ‘Had to’            Had to: t(62) = 2.82, p = .006
Study 4: FreedomDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?    • The government forced the workers to      atta...
Study 4: Freedom            Force: t(62) = 4.13, p < .001
Intention-Consistent       Vs. Intention-Deviant
Intention-ConsistentGovern-   Crops     News      Workers    Villagers ment     burned   released    raid         die     ...
But why would this influence moral responsibility of the          agent?
But why would this influence moral responsibility of the          agent?If your action was caused,  then you aren’t morally...
Alternative Hypothesis: The   Conservation of Blame
Alternative Hypothesis: The   Conservation of Blame‘The more you blame the government,   the less you blame the workers’
Alternative Hypothesis: The   Conservation of Blame‘The more you blame the government,   the less you blame the workers’  ...
Alternative Hypothesis: The   Conservation of Blame‘The more you blame the government,   the less you blame the workers’  ...
Supporting EvidenceDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?    • The government should be blamed for the    ...
Supporting Evidence(""&"%"                                    4/25653-23"                                      7-06+23"$"#...
How to decide?
How to decide?Govern-     Crops     News      Workers   Villagers ment       burned   released    raid        die         ...
How to decide?Govern-     Crops     News      Workers   Villagers ment       burned   released    raid        die         ...
How to decide?            Crops     News      Workers   VillagersGovern- ment       burned   released    raid        die  ...
Evidence for causal              structure              ?                ?                  Government Intention          ...
Evidence for causal              structure              ?                       ?                  Government Intention   ...
Evidence for causal              structure                          = .013                      p             .3 08,      ...
Evidence for causal              structure                                                   β=                           ...
Evidence for causal              structure                                                   β=                           ...
Evidence for      conservation of blame? IntentionConsistency    vs.                  β= .309, p = .013Deviation          ...
Evidence for      conservation of blame? IntentionConsistency    vs.                               β= .309, p = .013Deviat...
Evidence for      conservation of blame? IntentionConsistency    vs.                               β= .309, p = .013Deviat...
Evidence for      conservation of blame? Intention                     β= .290, p = .030Consistency    vs.                ...
Some evidence...                   Government Intention           CausedConsistency    vs.Deviation                       ...
Some evidence...                   Government Intention           CausedConsistency    vs.Deviation                       ...
Some evidence...                   Government Intention           CausedConsistency    vs.Deviation                       ...
Moral Judgment    Deserves     Blame?
Moral Judgment             Situational   Deserves    Agent’sSituations   Constraint               Intention   Intentions  ...
Moral Judgment                           Third-party             Situational     Deserves     Agent’sSituations   Constrai...
Thanks!Yale Experimental Philosophy LabYale Mind and Development Lab
Study 1b: Replication                    SarahKate
Study 1b: Replication            I want to make              sure she gets            caught cheating!                    ...
Study 1b: ReplicationI feel really bad about ruiningher computer...                        Sarah  Kate
Study 1b: Replication                           I want                         to win the                        scholarsh...
Replication Results       Agent Blame  ("  "  &"  %"                           ./0-/12/+*"                               3...
Manipulating Morality: Third-party intentions alter moral judgments
Manipulating Morality: Third-party intentions alter moral judgments
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Manipulating Morality: Third-party intentions alter moral judgments

Presentation given at SPP 2011 in Montreal. On the influence of Third-party intentions on moral judgment.

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Manipulating Morality: Third-party intentions alter moral judgments

  1. 1. Manipulating MoralityThird-party intentions alter moral judgment Jonathan Phillips and Alex Shaw Yale University
  2. 2. Typical moral judgments Deserves Blame?
  3. 3. Typical moral judgments Deserves Intentions Blame?
  4. 4. Typical moral judgments DeservesSituations Intentions Blame?
  5. 5. Typical moral judgments Deserves Agent’sSituations Intention Intentions Blame?
  6. 6. Typical moral judgments Situational Deserves Agent’sSituations Constraint Intention Intentions Blame?
  7. 7. A Moral Situation
  8. 8. A Moral Situation
  9. 9. A Moral QuestionShould be blamed for his actions?
  10. 10. A Moral QuestionShould be blamed for his actions?
  11. 11. NE 1110a 4-8Situational Constraint
  12. 12. NE 1110a 4-8Situational Constraint
  13. 13. NE 1110a 4-8Situational Constraint
  14. 14. NE 1110a 4-8Situational Constraint
  15. 15. Another Moral QuestionShould be blamed for his actions?
  16. 16. Another Moral QuestionShould be blamed for his actions?
  17. 17. Do third-party intentions matter?
  18. 18. Some reason to think they shouldn’t
  19. 19. Some reason to think they shouldn’t• Normative: Irrelevant to whether or not the agent acted wrongly
  20. 20. Some reason to think they shouldn’t• Normative: Irrelevant to whether or not the agent acted wrongly• Theoretical: Greene & Cohen (2004); Rosen (2002)
  21. 21. Some reason to think they shouldn’t• Normative: Irrelevant to whether or not the agent acted wrongly• Theoretical: Greene & Cohen (2004); Rosen (2002)• Empirical: Lagnado (2008); Brickmann (1975)
  22. 22. Reasons to think they do matter
  23. 23. Reasons to think they do matter• Empirical support: Studies 1, 2 & 3
  24. 24. Reasons to think they do matter• Empirical support: Studies 1, 2 & 3• Theoretical support:
  25. 25. Reasons to think they do matter• Empirical support: Studies 1, 2 & 3•Theoretical support: • Theoretical proposal
  26. 26. Reasons to think they do matter• Empirical support: Studies 1, 2 & 3•Theoretical support: • Theoretical proposal • Study 4
  27. 27. Study 1: Intentional Condition
  28. 28. Study 1: Intentional ConditionIsabels daughter has a rare disease that requires her to take medication every day, andIsabel has always been very careful to make sure that her daughter takes hermedicine. While Isabel doesnt know it, her mother-in-law has never liked her and hascome up with a plan to get custody of her daughter by forcing her to steal medicine.While going through the medicine cabinet, Isabels mother-in-law intentionally hidesthe medication knowing that Isabel wont be able to get any more. The next day,Isabel realizes that all the medicine is gone and starts to panic. Knowing that herdaughter cant survive without the medicine, she goes to the doctors office but findsthat it has closed for a holiday. In desperation, she breaks into the doctors office andsteals the medicine. Because of her theft, another child in town did not get hermedicine and died as a result.  When the police start to investigate the crime, theyrealize that Isabels daughter is one of the few children that take that particularmedicine. Eventually the police question Isabels mother-in-law and she admits that itwas Isabel who stole the medicine. Once Isabel is convicted of the crime, she has toserve a jail sentence and loses custody of her daughter. Isabels mother-in-law knewher plan had worked perfectly, and took custody of her granddaughter while Isabelwas in jail. 
  29. 29. Study 1: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement?
  30. 30. Study 1: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • Isabel should be blamed for her actions.
  31. 31. Study 1: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • Isabel should be blamed for her actions. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  32. 32. Study 1: Accidental ConditionIsabels daughter has a rare disease that requires her to take medication every day, andIsabel has always been very careful to make sure that her daughter takes hermedicine. While Isabel doesnt know it, her mother-in-law has never realized thather granddaughter needs this medicine to survive. While going through themedicine cabinet, Isabels mother-in-law accidentally hides the medication withoutknowing that Isabel wont be able to get any more. The next day, Isabel realizes thatall the medicine is gone and starts to panic. Knowing that her daughter cant survivewithout the medicine, she goes to the doctors office but finds that it has closed for aholiday. In desperation, she breaks into the doctors office and steals the medicine.Because of her theft, another child in town did not get her medicine and died as aresult. When the police start to investigate the crime, they realize that Isabelsdaughter is one of the few children that take that particular medicine. Eventually thepolice question Isabels mother-in-law and she admits that it was Isabel who stole themedicine. Once Isabel is convicted of the crime, she has to serve a jail sentence andloses custody of her daughter. Isabels mother-in-law had not known this wouldhappen at all, and took custody of her granddaughter while Isabel was in jail.
  33. 33. Study 1: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • Isabel should be blamed for her actions. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  34. 34. Results Agent Blame(""&"%" ./0-/12/+*" 34456-/0+*"$"#"!" )*+,-" t(58) = 2.44 , p = .018.
  35. 35. Study 2
  36. 36. Study 2 I’d kill for some food right now!
  37. 37. Study 2: Intentional Condition
  38. 38. Study 2: Intentional Condition In the 1960s, the government of a small Eastern European country plotted tosecretly start a war, using industrial workers, and get revenge on a neighboringcountry. For the first part of their plan, the government intentionally destroyedfarm machinery and set fire to several food stores on purpose. As a result, therewas a serious lack of food in the country. Soon the people living in the citycouldnt get enough food to feed themselves. The whole city shut down, crimeskyrocketed and a small but violent uprising broke out. The government knew their plan was working perfectly. Right at that time, agroup of industrial workers heard on the government news channel that aneighboring village had a surplus of food. After hearing the news, the group ofindustrial workers raided the small village on the countrys border, stealingfood from the farmers and killing innocent people. The government had knownthis would happen all along and felt great about their successful plan.
  39. 39. Study 2: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • The workers should be blamed for their actions. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  40. 40. Study 2: Accidental ConditionIn the 1960s, the government of a small Eastern European country planned tostart a new economic program, using industrial workers, to increase thecountrys wealth. While it wasnt part of their plan, the governmentaccidentally destroyed farm machinery and set fire to several food stores bymistake. As a result, there was a serious lack of food the country. Soon thepeople living in the city couldnt get enough food to feed themselves. Thewhole city shut down, crime skyrocketed and a small but violent uprising brokeout. The government knew their plan wasnt working at all. Right at that time, agroup of industrial workers heard on the government news channel that aneighboring village had a surplus of food. After hearing the news, the group ofindustrial workers raided the small village on the countrys border, stealing foodfrom the farmers and killing innocent people. The government had not knownthis would happen and felt terrible about their unsuccessful plan.
  41. 41. Study 2: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • The workers should be blamed for their actions. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  42. 42. Study 2: Results Agent Blame(""&"%" ./0-/12/+*" 34456-/0+*"$"#"!" )*+,-" t(36) = 3.47, p = .001
  43. 43. Studies 1 & 2: Boring Explanations
  44. 44. Studies 1 & 2: Boring ExplanationsThird-party mental states influence moraljudgment....
  45. 45. Studies 1 & 2: Boring ExplanationsThird-party mental states influence moraljudgment.... ....through implicit comparisons of immoral acts
  46. 46. Studies 1 & 2: Boring Explanations
  47. 47. Studies 1 & 2: Boring ExplanationsThird-party mental states influence moraljudgment...
  48. 48. Studies 1 & 2: Boring ExplanationsThird-party mental states influence moraljudgment... ....through seeing the agent as a manipulated victim
  49. 49. Study 3
  50. 50. Study 3 I want to makesure they attack village A!
  51. 51. Study 3 I want to makesure they attack village A! We’d kill for Village A’s food right now!
  52. 52. Study 3 I want to makesure they attack We’d kill for village A! Village B’s food right now!
  53. 53. Study 3: Intention-Consistent
  54. 54. Study 3: Intention-ConsistentIn the 1960s the government of a small Eastern European country plotted tosecretly start a war using industrial workers, in order to get revenge on thewealthy citizens of the Shaki village. For the first part of their plan, thegovernment intentionally destroyed farm machinery and set fire to several foodstores on purpose. As a result, there was a serious lack of food in the country.Soon the people living in the city couldnt get enough food to feed themselves.The whole city shut down, crime skyrocketed and a small but violent uprisingbroke out. The government knew their plan was working perfectly. Right at that time, agroup of industrial workers heard through the government news channel thatthe Shaki village had a surplus of food. After hearing the news, the group ofindustrial workers raided the Shaki village, stealing food from the farmers andkilling innocent people. The government had known this would happen allalong and it was exactly what they planned. 
  55. 55. Study 3: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • The workers should be blamed for their actions. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  56. 56. Study 3: Intention-DeviantIn the 1960s the government of a small Eastern European country plotted tosecretly start a war using industrial workers, in order to get revenge on thewealthy citizens of the Shaki village. For the first part of their plan, thegovernment intentionally destroyed farm machinery and set fire to several foodstores on purpose. As a result, there was a serious lack of food in the country.Soon the people living in the city couldnt get enough food to feed themselves.The whole city shut down, crime skyrocketed and a small but violent uprisingbroke out. The government knew their plan was working perfectly. Right at that time, agroup of industrial workers heard through the government news channel thatthe Shaki village had a surplus of food. After hearing the news, the group ofindustrial workers raided a village on the opposite side of the small countrycalled the Nobi village, stealing food from the farmers in that village andkilling innocent people. The government had not known this would happen atall and it wasnt what they planned.
  57. 57. Study 3: DVDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • The workers should be blamed for their actions. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  58. 58. Study 3: Results Agent Blame (" " &" %" ./0-/12/+*" Consistent Deviant 34456-/0+*" $" #" !" )*+,-" t(48) = 2.473, p = .017
  59. 59. Study 3: Discussion
  60. 60. Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts
  61. 61. Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts
  62. 62. Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim
  63. 63. Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim
  64. 64. Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim• Third-party intentions influence moral judgment in an interesting way
  65. 65. Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim• Third-party intentions influence moral judgment in an interesting way
  66. 66. Study 3: Discussion• Contrast effects of immoral acts• Merely seeing the agent as a victim• Third-party intentions influence moral judgment in an interesting way• Specifically, the content of the third-party’s intention is important
  67. 67. So why would the content of the third-party intention be important?
  68. 68. Proposal
  69. 69. Proposal The content of the third-party intention canchange how we see the situation by giving it a teleological structure
  70. 70. Proposal The content of the third-party intention canchange how we see the situation by giving it a teleological structure (Lombrozo
&
Carey
2006;
 Keleman
&
Rosset
2009)
  71. 71. Intention-ConsistentGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal Structure
  72. 72. Intention-Consistent Intentional StructureGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal Structure
  73. 73. Intention-Consistent Intentional StructureGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal Structure
  74. 74. Intention-Consistent Intentional StructureGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal Structure
  75. 75. Intention-Consistent Intentional StructureGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal Structure
  76. 76. Intention-Consistent Intentional StructureGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal Structure
  77. 77. So what’s important about a situation’s teleological structure?Govern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal-Teleological Structure
  78. 78. Intention-Deviant Intentional StructureGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal Structure
  79. 79. Intention-Deviant Intentional StructureGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal Structure
  80. 80. Intention-Deviant Intentional StructureGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal Structure
  81. 81. Intention-DeviantGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal-Teleological Structure
  82. 82. Intention-DeviantGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal-Teleological Structure
  83. 83. Proposal• When the third-party’s intention matches the outcome of the events, it orders the perceived causal chain teleologically• But when the intention doesn’t match, the perceived causal chain lacks this teleological structure
  84. 84. Empirical Test
  85. 85. Empirical TestIf this theory is right, then we should alsoexpect to see differences in...
  86. 86. Empirical TestIf this theory is right, then we should alsoexpect to see differences in...• ... who caused the outcome
  87. 87. Empirical TestIf this theory is right, then we should alsoexpect to see differences in...• ... who caused the outcome • ... whether the agent had to bring about the outcome
  88. 88. Empirical TestIf this theory is right, then we should alsoexpect to see differences in...• ... who caused the outcome • ... whether the agent had to bring about the outcome • ...whether the agent acted freely
  89. 89. Study 4 I want to makesure they attack We’d kill for village A! We’d kill for Village B’s food Village A’s food right now! right now!
  90. 90. Study 4: Replication Agent Blame t(62) = 2.56, p = .013
  91. 91. Study 4: CausationDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • The government caused the attack on the village. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  92. 92. Study 4: Causation(""&"%" .120304-24" 5-63+24"$"#"!" )*+,-" .+/0-" Cause: t(62) = 2.55, p = .013
  93. 93. Study 4: ‘Had to’Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? • The workers had to attack the village. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  94. 94. Study 4: ‘Had to’ Had to: t(62) = 2.82, p = .006
  95. 95. Study 4: FreedomDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • The government forced the workers to attack the village. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  96. 96. Study 4: Freedom Force: t(62) = 4.13, p < .001
  97. 97. Intention-Consistent Vs. Intention-Deviant
  98. 98. Intention-ConsistentGovern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Vs.Govern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Intention-Deviant
  99. 99. But why would this influence moral responsibility of the agent?
  100. 100. But why would this influence moral responsibility of the agent?If your action was caused, then you aren’t morally responsible for it.
  101. 101. Alternative Hypothesis: The Conservation of Blame
  102. 102. Alternative Hypothesis: The Conservation of Blame‘The more you blame the government, the less you blame the workers’
  103. 103. Alternative Hypothesis: The Conservation of Blame‘The more you blame the government, the less you blame the workers’ 0
  104. 104. Alternative Hypothesis: The Conservation of Blame‘The more you blame the government, the less you blame the workers’ 0
  105. 105. Supporting EvidenceDo you agree or disagree with the following statement? • The government should be blamed for the the attack on the village. Strongly Strongly In Between Disagree Agree
  106. 106. Supporting Evidence(""&"%" 4/25653-23" 7-06+23"$"#"!" )*+,-" ./0-12,-23")*+,-" Government Blame: t(62) = 2.75, p = .01
  107. 107. How to decide?
  108. 108. How to decide?Govern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal-Teleological Structure
  109. 109. How to decide?Govern- Crops News Workers Villagers ment burned released raid die Causal-Teleological Structure vs
  110. 110. How to decide? Crops News Workers VillagersGovern- ment burned released raid die 0 Causal-Teleological Structure vs Conservation of Blame
  111. 111. Evidence for causal structure ? ? Government Intention CausedConsistency vs.Deviation ? Workers Blamed
  112. 112. Evidence for causal structure ? ? Government Intention CausedConsistency β= .309, p = .013 vs.Deviation Workers Blamed
  113. 113. Evidence for causal structure = .013 p .3 08, β= ? Government Intention CausedConsistency β= .309, p = .013 vs.Deviation Workers Blamed
  114. 114. Evidence for causal structure β= .333, = .013 p= p 08, .00 β= .3 7 Government Intention CausedConsistency β= .309, p = .013 vs.Deviation Workers Blamed
  115. 115. Evidence for causal structure β= .333, = .013 p= p 08, .00 β= .3 7 Government Intention CausedConsistency β= .309, p = .013 vs.Deviation β= .229, ns Workers Blamed
  116. 116. Evidence for conservation of blame? IntentionConsistency vs. β= .309, p = .013Deviation ? ? Workers Blamed Government Blamed
  117. 117. Evidence for conservation of blame? IntentionConsistency vs. β= .309, p = .013Deviation β= . 36 9, p ? Workers Blamed =. 00 3 Government Blamed
  118. 118. Evidence for conservation of blame? IntentionConsistency vs. β= .309, p = .013Deviation β= . 36 9, p s Workers Blamed =. 8, n 00 .15 3 β= Government Blamed
  119. 119. Evidence for conservation of blame? Intention β= .290, p = .030Consistency vs. β= .309, p = .013Deviation β= . 36 9, p s Workers Blamed =. 8, n 00 .15 3 β= Government Blamed
  120. 120. Some evidence... Government Intention CausedConsistency vs.Deviation Workers Blamed Government Blamed
  121. 121. Some evidence... Government Intention CausedConsistency vs.Deviation Workers Blamed Government Blamed
  122. 122. Some evidence... Government Intention CausedConsistency vs.Deviation Workers Blamed Government Blamed
  123. 123. Moral Judgment Deserves Blame?
  124. 124. Moral Judgment Situational Deserves Agent’sSituations Constraint Intention Intentions Blame?
  125. 125. Moral Judgment Third-party Situational Deserves Agent’sSituations Constraint Intention Intentions Blame?
  126. 126. Thanks!Yale Experimental Philosophy LabYale Mind and Development Lab
  127. 127. Study 1b: Replication SarahKate
  128. 128. Study 1b: Replication I want to make sure she gets caught cheating! SarahKate
  129. 129. Study 1b: ReplicationI feel really bad about ruiningher computer... Sarah Kate
  130. 130. Study 1b: Replication I want to win the scholarship! SarahKate
  131. 131. Replication Results Agent Blame (" " &" %" ./0-/12/+*" 34456-/0+*" $" #" !" )*+,-" t(54) = 2.65, p = .011

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