Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
Facility Layout 
Contemporary Selected Issues 
Prepared by 
Sameeh Swaitti 
Supervised by 
Dr.Samir Abuznaid 
2014 
1
Outline 
Upon completing this presentation you are supposed 
to understand the following concepts breifly: 
1. What do we ...
What do we mean by facility layout? 
• layout design considers how to achieve higher 
utilization of space and people, how...
The Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions 
http://www.citeman.com/108-the-importance-of-layout.html#ixzz2hRMrOXU4 
Layo...
Factors affecting Facility Layout 
• Flexibility: Facility layout should provide flexibility 
for expansion or modificatio...
Types of layout 
• Office layout 
• Retail layout 
• Warehouse layout 
• Fixed-position layout 
• Process layout 
• Cellul...
Office Layout 
7
Office layout 
• Should office layout be private or open for 
public? 
• Should all employees use the same entrance, rest ...
Office Layout 
• Provides employees with the space and tools they need to complete 
assigned tasks. 
• Use of comfortable ...
Office Layout 
Defined as grouping the workers, their equipments, and 
spaces to provide comfort, safety and movement of 
...
Retail layout 
Based on the idea that sales and profitability vary 
directly with customer exposure to products. 
maximizi...
Retail Layout 
Useful arrangements: 
• Locate the high-draw items around the periphery المحيط 
of the store. 
• Use promin...
Retail layout 
physical surroundings in which the service takes place have 
humanistic effect on customers and employees: ...
Warehousing and Storage Layout 
Utilization of the total space of the warehouse while 
maintaining low material handling c...
Warehousing and Storage Layout 
Three terms in warehouse layout have to be mentioned: 
• Cross-docking: means to avoid pla...
Fixed-Position Layout 
The item being worked on remain stationary ثابتة and 
workers, materials, and equipment are moved a...
Fixed-position layout 
Some disadvantages with this kind: 
• Space. For many fixed-position layouts, the work 
area may be...
Process-Oriented Layout 
To minimize transportation cost, distance, and time. 
This usually achieved by locating departmen...
Process-Oriented Layout 
The design of process layout requires the following 
information: 
• A list of work centers to be...
Cellular Layout 
Recognizing people and machines into a group so that they 
can focus on making a single product or a grou...
Cellular Layout 
• Workers in cellular layouts are well cross-trained so 
that they can operate all the equipment within 
...
Cellular Layout 
Advantages of cellular manufacturing : 
• Cost. Cellular manufacturing provides for faster processing tim...
Cellular Layout 
The requirements of cellular production include: 
1. Identification of families of products 
2. A high le...
Poka-Yoke (from Wikipedia) 
• A poka-yoke is a Japanese concept (mistake-proofing) 
is a mechanism that helps an equipment...
Cellular Layout 
• About 50% of the U.S plants with fewer than 100 
employees use some sort of cellular system, 
whereas 7...
Product-Oriented Layout 
It is assembly lines that range from fairly short with 
just a few operations, to long lines that...
Product-Oriented Layout 
• Assigning tasks into workstations are called Line 
Balancing by task groupings that need equal ...
Product-Oriented Layout 
Advantages of product-oriented layouts include: 
• Output. Product layouts can generate a large v...
Layout Decisions 
Than you for listening 
29
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

Facility layout

main types of layout decisions

  • Soyez le premier à commenter

Facility layout

  1. 1. Facility Layout Contemporary Selected Issues Prepared by Sameeh Swaitti Supervised by Dr.Samir Abuznaid 2014 1
  2. 2. Outline Upon completing this presentation you are supposed to understand the following concepts breifly: 1. What do we mean by facility layout? 2. What is the strategic importance of layout decisions? 3. What are the main factors that effect facility layout? 4. What are the main types of facility layout ? 2
  3. 3. What do we mean by facility layout? • layout design considers how to achieve higher utilization of space and people, how to improve flow of information, materials or people, how to improve employee morale and safer working conditions , how to improve customer interaction with flexibility. • Although facility layout can be modeled mathematically, layout and design of physical facilities are still something of an art. 3
  4. 4. The Strategic Importance of Layout Decisions http://www.citeman.com/108-the-importance-of-layout.html#ixzz2hRMrOXU4 Layout is one of the key decisions that: Layout has numerous strategic implications because it establishes an organization’s competitive priorities in regard to capacity, process, flexibility, firm’s image ,cost and quality. An effective layout can help an organization to achieve a strategy that supports a differentiation, low cost, or response. So the objective of layout strategy is to develop an effective and efficient layout that will meet the firm’s competitive requirements. 1. Determines the long-run efficiency of operations. Establishing the firm’s image to be taken by others who dealing with the organization. 2. It makes the production process smooth and efficient and controlled. 3. Repeat orders and new customers will be the result of prompt execution of orders. Plant layout is a significant factor in the timely execution of orders 4. An ideal layout eliminates such causes of delays as shortage of space, long-distance movements of materials. 5. An ideal layout provides for inspection to ensure better quality control. 6. A good plant layout is one of the factors in effective utilization of labor and space. 7. Planned layout avoids frequent changes which are difficult and costly. 4
  5. 5. Factors affecting Facility Layout • Flexibility: Facility layout should provide flexibility for expansion or modification. • Space Utilization: Optimum space utilization reduces the time in material and people movement and promotes safety. • Capital: Capital investment should be minimal when finalizing different models of facility layout. www.managementstudyguide.com/facility-layout.htm 5
  6. 6. Types of layout • Office layout • Retail layout • Warehouse layout • Fixed-position layout • Process layout • Cellular layout • Product-oriented layout 6
  7. 7. Office Layout 7
  8. 8. Office layout • Should office layout be private or open for public? • Should all employees use the same entrance, rest room, lockers, and cafeteria? • Should the layout will meet the rapid in the technological advancements? • Should the layout cope with nature of the work? • Should the layout will promote the firm’s image and give a competitive advantage? 8
  9. 9. Office Layout • Provides employees with the space and tools they need to complete assigned tasks. • Use of comfortable chairs and adequate lighting may reduce muscle aches and eyestrain. • Place employee workstations near frequently used office equipment, such as copiers, postage machines and printers. Private Spaces versus Open Plan • An open office, employees work at communal tables or at low-walled workstations that allow them to view and interact with coworkers. • If the employees perform the type of work that requires intense concentration or privacy, traditional offices might be a better option. • Place communal spaces near employee work areas and provide enough room to meet the needs of the various groups. Informal communal spaces provide areas in which employees can take breaks and recharge. 9
  10. 10. Office Layout Defined as grouping the workers, their equipments, and spaces to provide comfort, safety and movement of information. Technological advancements change a lot in office layout. • Some layout considerations are universal, they have to work with 10 working conditions, teamwork, authority, and status. • The office reception is very significant, because putting the right impression which can help out you to increase your business. • Delay in the response could put a negative impression. • When you plan to design your office layout, make a list of key tasks employees perform. • An effective office layout groups people together based on the functions they perform.
  11. 11. Retail layout Based on the idea that sales and profitability vary directly with customer exposure to products. maximizing profit through product exposure • The main objective of retail layout is to maximize profitability per square foot of floor space. • The most the customers exposed to the products, the greater the sales and the higher return on investment. 11
  12. 12. Retail Layout Useful arrangements: • Locate the high-draw items around the periphery المحيط of the store. • Use prominent locations for high-impulse and high-margin items. • Use end-aisle locations because they have a very high exposure rate. • Convey the mission of the store by carefully selecting the position of the lead-off department, to be in broad view upon entering the store. Jay Heizer & Barry Render, “Operation Management”, 10th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersy,2010. P 379. 12
  13. 13. Retail layout physical surroundings in which the service takes place have humanistic effect on customers and employees: • Ambient conditions: such as lighting, sound, smell and temperature. • Spatial layout and functionality: involves customer circulation path planning, aisle, and product grouping. • Signs, symbols, and artifacts: which are characteristics of building design that carry social significant (as carpeted area that encourage shoppers to slow down and browse the assortments of the store). Jay Heizer & Barry Render, “Operation Management”, 10th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersy,2010.P 380 13
  14. 14. Warehousing and Storage Layout Utilization of the total space of the warehouse while maintaining low material handling costs. Minimizing the damage and spoilage of material within the warehouse. Nowadays, most the warehouses introduced the automated computerized system in managing the warehouse, so the layout should be designed to cope with new systems where everything will be computerized from the (automated order through storing on digital shelves till exporting items to clients). 14
  15. 15. Warehousing and Storage Layout Three terms in warehouse layout have to be mentioned: • Cross-docking: means to avoid placing materials or supplies in storage by processing them as they are received. This policy can reduce the cost of inventory handling. This system require tight scheduling and accurate inbound product identification. • Random stocking: Automatic Identification Systems(AISs), like bar codes to load units anywhere in the warehouse randomly. Computerized random stocking systems often include accurate records of existing inventory and its locations , sequencing items to minimize travel time. This can utilize the facility and decrease labor cost. • Customizing: to add value to a product through modification, repair, labeling and packaging in order to generate competitive advantage in markets. Jay Heizer & Barry Render, “Operation Management”, 10th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersy,2010. 15
  16. 16. Fixed-Position Layout The item being worked on remain stationary ثابتة and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed. • Fixed-position are used in large construction projects like(buildings, power plants, dams, shipbuilding, space mission rockets, large aircraft, drilling for oil, operating room in hospital etc….). • Because problems with fixed-Position Layout are so difficult to solve well onsite, an alternative strategy is to complete as much of the project as possible offsite. 16
  17. 17. Fixed-position layout Some disadvantages with this kind: • Space. For many fixed-position layouts, the work area may be crowded so that little storage space is available. This also can cause material handling problems. • Administration. The administrative burden is higher for fixed-position layouts like the span of control can be narrow, and coordination difficult. http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/IntLoc/Layout.html#ixzz2hWsY69U 17
  18. 18. Process-Oriented Layout To minimize transportation cost, distance, and time. This usually achieved by locating departments with relatively high interdepartmental work flow as close together as possible. Process-oriented layout deals with low-volume, high-variety production in which machines and equipment are grouped together. It is most efficient when making products differentiation or when handling customers, patients, or clients with different needs. Mathematical approaches can deal best with process layout issues 18
  19. 19. Process-Oriented Layout The design of process layout requires the following information: • A list of work centers to be arranged, their approximate dimensions and the dimensions of the building that will house the centers. • A projection of future work flows between the various work centers. • The distance between locations. • A list of any special considerations like (operations that must be separated or be closed together) • The location of key utilities, access and exit points. William J. Stevenson, “Operation Management”, 8Th ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. New York,2005.P 247 19
  20. 20. Cellular Layout Recognizing people and machines into a group so that they can focus on making a single product or a group of related products. The idea of work cells was first presented by R. E. Flanders in 1925. • Cellular manufacturing, where machines are grouped according to the process requirements for a set of similar items (part families) that require similar processing. • Processes are grouped into cells using a technique known as Group Technology (GT). Group technology involves identifying parts with similar design characteristics (size, shape, and function) and similar process characteristics (type of processing required) 20
  21. 21. Cellular Layout • Workers in cellular layouts are well cross-trained so that they can operate all the equipment within the cell and take responsibility for its output. • An automated version of cellular manufacturing is the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). With FMS, a computer controls the transfer of parts to the various processes. 21
  22. 22. Cellular Layout Advantages of cellular manufacturing : • Cost. Cellular manufacturing provides for faster processing time, less material handling, less work-in-process inventory, and reduced setup time, all of which reduce costs. • Flexibility. Cellular manufacturing allows for the production of small batches, which provides some degree of increased flexibility. This aspect is greatly enhanced with FMSs. • Motivation. Since workers are well cross-trained to run every machine in the cell, boredom الملل is less of a factor. Also, since workers are responsible for their cells' output, more autonomy and job ownership is present. • Utilization. Because the better scheduling and faster material flow. http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/IntLoc/Layout.html#ixzz2hX4u7Py 22
  23. 23. Cellular Layout The requirements of cellular production include: 1. Identification of families of products 2. A high level of training , flexibility, and empowerment of employees. 3. Being self-contained, with its own equipment and resources. 4. Test “poka-yoke” at each station in the cell. 23
  24. 24. Poka-Yoke (from Wikipedia) • A poka-yoke is a Japanese concept (mistake-proofing) is a mechanism that helps an equipment operator avoid and void mistakes . Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur. The concept was formalized, and the term adopted, by Shigeo Shingo as part of the Toyota Production System. Example : Ethernet cable plug is designed to be plugged in only by one direction. 24
  25. 25. Cellular Layout • About 50% of the U.S plants with fewer than 100 employees use some sort of cellular system, whereas 75% of larger plants have adopted cellular production methods. • Commercial software, such as ProPlanner and Factory Flow, is available to managers in their move to work cells. These programs require info that includes AutoCAD layout drawings; part routing data, cost, speeds of material handling systems. • 25
  26. 26. Product-Oriented Layout It is assembly lines that range from fairly short with just a few operations, to long lines that have a large number of operations. Automobiles are example of long lines where the part travels about miles from start to finish. • Many of the benefits of a product layout relate to the ability to divide required work into a series of elemental tasks that can be performed quickly and routinely by low skilled workers or specialized equipment. 26
  27. 27. Product-Oriented Layout • Assigning tasks into workstations are called Line Balancing by task groupings that need equal time approximately. • lines that are perfectly balanced will have a smooth flow of work as activities along with the line are synchronized to achieve maximum utilization of labor and equipment. Product layout requirements: • Volume is adequate for high equipment utilization. • Product demand is stable enough to justify high investment in specialized equipment. • Product is standardized . 27
  28. 28. Product-Oriented Layout Advantages of product-oriented layouts include: • Output. Product layouts can generate a large volume of products. • Cost. Unit cost is low as a result of the high volume. • Labor specialization results in reduced training time and cost. • Accounting, purchasing, and inventory control are routine. Because routing is fixed, less attention is required. • Utilization. There is a high degree of labor and equipment utilization. Disadvantages of product-oriented layouts include: • Motivation. Repetitive moves will lead to boredom and dull. • Inflexibility. cannot easily respond to required system changes especially changes in product or process design. • System protection. The system is at risk from equipment breakdown, absenteeism, and downtime due to preventive maintenance. William J. Stevenson, “Operation Management”, 8Th ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. New York,2005. P 237 28
  29. 29. Layout Decisions Than you for listening 29

    Soyez le premier à commenter

    Identifiez-vous pour voir les commentaires

  • s0599721030

    Oct. 11, 2014
  • SunmoonRahman

    May. 30, 2017
  • haiderrehman3

    Oct. 1, 2017
  • ErSingh59

    Feb. 17, 2018
  • DHARMVEERRATHOD

    Mar. 4, 2018

main types of layout decisions

Vues

Nombre de vues

4 507

Sur Slideshare

0

À partir des intégrations

0

Nombre d'intégrations

18

Actions

Téléchargements

134

Partages

0

Commentaires

0

Mentions J'aime

5

×