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Bifacial BIPV
Challenges for glass and
encapsulation
Bernd Koll/ Kuraray Europe GmbH
Bifi PV Workshop, Chambery May 26/27,...
Content
5/27/2014 2
BIPV basics
Challenges for BIPV module glass
Challenges for BIPV module encapsulation
Glass and encaps...
Which will be the preferred (bifacial ) PV solar panel in
about 25 years from now?
5/27/2014 3
Version A „Standard size“
O...
5/27/2014 4
BIPV basics
Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV)
5/27/2014 5
Why BIPV – now?
Transition from niche to mass market
 Changing economic drivers
 Establishing new PV supply chain
 New ...
 New design/aesthetics and
architectural solutions
 Higher functionality of glazing
beside safety, security, sound,
shad...
Integration of BIPV in building process
5/27/2014 8
Synergy between Glass and PV industry
=> Team-up of PV company with su...
5/27/2014 9
Challenges for BIPV module glass
PV glass developments for standard PV modules
5/27/2014 10
 Current PV cover/back glass standard is 3.2 mm
low-iron tempe...
Glass for architectural glazings
 Standard architectural glass thickness is from 4 mm
up to 25 mm float/annealed glass
 ...
5/27/2014 12
Challenges for BIPV module encapsulation
PV module encapsulant properties
5/27/2014 13
 Mechanical protection (by adapted
module component adhesion)
 Optical cou...
5/27/2014 14
Encapsulant materials
Thermoplastics
(not cross-linkable)
Elastomers/Thermoset
(cross-linkable)
Polyvinyl but...
(Bifacial) module encapsulants
 Encapsulant film market is dominated by
(thermoset) EVA film, global market share > 90%
...
5/27/2014 16
Glass and encapsulants for laminated PV safety glass
Laminated modules for BIPV roof application
 Have to be laminated safety glass
with high performance
 Reason: no splinte...
Minimum requirement for laminated (BIPV) safety glass
 Ball drop test with 1 kg steel ball according to EN
12543-4 and DI...
Fall preventing glazing
 Have to consist of laminated
safety glass (LSG with PVB
interlayer)
 Reason: no glass splinter ...
Pendulum impact test standard EN 12600
 Twin tyre 50 kg
 Testing (laminated) glass size 896 x 1938 mm
 Test with 3 fall...
Pendulum impact test results EN 12600
LSG with 2x2 mm HSG or 2x3 float/0.9-1.0 mm film
5/27/2014 21
Film type HSG 2 mm flo...
Pendulum impact test comparison PVB/EVA
LSG made of 2 x 3 mm float glass, class 1B1 (1200 mm)
5/27/2014 22
PVB 1.00 mm, 1B...
BIPV Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) with bifacial cells
 Integration of bifacial solar panel in double
or triple IGU unit po...
Buildings account for almost half of global CO2 emission. Yet there is
enough building surface to generate all our electri...
5/27/2014 25
Summary
Challenges for Bifacial BIPV glass/encapsulants
 Bifacial PV modules need double glass laminates
 Thin (< 3mm) float gla...
Thank you for your kind attention!
Your questions,please!
Photo: „The brain“ with courtesy of Ertex Solar, Austria5/27/201...
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  1. 1. Bifacial BIPV Challenges for glass and encapsulation Bernd Koll/ Kuraray Europe GmbH Bifi PV Workshop, Chambery May 26/27, 2014
  2. 2. Content 5/27/2014 2 BIPV basics Challenges for BIPV module glass Challenges for BIPV module encapsulation Glass and encapsulants for laminated PV safety glass Summary
  3. 3. Which will be the preferred (bifacial ) PV solar panel in about 25 years from now? 5/27/2014 3 Version A „Standard size“ OR Version B „Custom Size/BIPV“
  4. 4. 5/27/2014 4 BIPV basics
  5. 5. Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) 5/27/2014 5
  6. 6. Why BIPV – now? Transition from niche to mass market  Changing economic drivers  Establishing new PV supply chain  New also bifacial cell concepts  New PV products/solutions  Significant cost reductions  Multiple product benefits  Growing awareness  Proven test/case studies 5/27/2014 6
  7. 7.  New design/aesthetics and architectural solutions  Higher functionality of glazing beside safety, security, sound, shading...  Large building area with PV = excellent energy balance (cost saving)  PV module has function of „electrical power producing glass pane“ Building Integrated Photovoltaic benefits
  8. 8. Integration of BIPV in building process 5/27/2014 8 Synergy between Glass and PV industry => Team-up of PV company with supplier of glazing building products Glass production Glass processing Static engineering Building standards and codes Cell production Standard module production Long term module reliability IEC certification
  9. 9. 5/27/2014 9 Challenges for BIPV module glass
  10. 10. PV glass developments for standard PV modules 5/27/2014 10  Current PV cover/back glass standard is 3.2 mm low-iron tempered or heat strengthened  Target : panel with 2x 2mm glass based has similar mechanical strength than panel with 2x 3 mm glass  AR coated front glass improves module efficiency  Better performance of G/G modules in extreme (desert or tropical) climate  Tempering or heat strengthening of 2 mm glass improves mechanical performance and minimises deflection by static/dynamic load  G/G panels have much better fire resistance  Thin and stable G/G panels can be also frameless  But: 2 mm ultra clear glass is not cheaper than 3 or 4 mm glass and not easy in glass processing
  11. 11. Glass for architectural glazings  Standard architectural glass thickness is from 4 mm up to 25 mm float/annealed glass  In some cases also 3 mm float glass is used (double or triple Insulating Glass Units)  Standard clear glass is preferred, but also low iron glass is used (~ 1/3 of glass consumption)  Tempered (TG) or heat strengthened (HSG) glass improves glazing stability  Laminated glass consists of minimum 2 x 3 mm float glass and 0.38 mm interlayer  Laminated glass has to fulfil several (EU) safety glazing norms, regulations and building codes  G/G solar panels are generally not regulated according to EU glazing standards and need therefore (national) building products approval 5/27/2014 11
  12. 12. 5/27/2014 12 Challenges for BIPV module encapsulation
  13. 13. PV module encapsulant properties 5/27/2014 13  Mechanical protection (by adapted module component adhesion)  Optical coupling of glass/front sheet to solar cell  Physical protection (weathering- induced, environmental damage)  Electrical insulation  No corrosion/PID of module components (Long-term reliability)  Low thermal conductivity  Control, reduce or eliminate moisture ingress
  14. 14. 5/27/2014 14 Encapsulant materials Thermoplastics (not cross-linkable) Elastomers/Thermoset (cross-linkable) Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) Ionomer Modified Poly-Olefines (TPO, EPDM...) Ethylen Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Polyurethane cast resins (TPU) Polyacrylate cast resins Silicones (2K)
  15. 15. (Bifacial) module encapsulants  Encapsulant film market is dominated by (thermoset) EVA film, global market share > 90%  EVA is partly replaced by Thermoplastic Polyolefin TPO (reasons: price, PID and corrosion resistance )  Both EVA and TPO are used for solar panel mass production (standard 60 or 72 cells module)  Other encapsulants are Polysilicone, Ionomer and PVB which are used mainly for niche application (also for BIPV)  Encapsulant type use beside material costs is influenced by module production size, throughput, standard module size and lamination tools 5/27/2014 15
  16. 16. 5/27/2014 16 Glass and encapsulants for laminated PV safety glass
  17. 17. Laminated modules for BIPV roof application  Have to be laminated safety glass with high performance  Reason: no splinter loss in case of destruction  Also high post-breakage behaviour (public traffic areas)  Regulated in international building codes and safety regulations  Static load stable (e.g. snow load)  Safety requirements regulated by ball drop test acc. to standards EN 12543-4 and DIN 52338 5/27/2014 17
  18. 18. Minimum requirement for laminated (BIPV) safety glass  Ball drop test with 1 kg steel ball according to EN 12543-4 and DIN 52338  Minimum LSG glass/encapsulant make-up: 2 x 3 mm float and 0.4 mm film  Falling height is 4.0 m  Test at room temperature (23°C)  Test is passed, if steel ball does not fall through the glass samples (3 test pieces)  Test fulfilled with the encapsulants: PVB, Ionomer, TPU  Test not fulfilled with the encapsulants: EVA, Polyolefines TPO, Silicones, cast resins  Conclusion: main PV module encapsulants like EVA and TPO have low safety performance 5/27/2014 18 Above test passed, below not passed
  19. 19. Fall preventing glazing  Have to consist of laminated safety glass (LSG with PVB interlayer)  Reason: no glass splinter loss in case of destruction  High residual strength  Mandatory near to public traffic way  Germany: Technical Rule for fall preventing glazing (TRAV, valid since 2003)  Safety requirements according to pendulum impact test acc. to standard EN 12600 (class 1B1) BIPV module for facade elements
  20. 20. Pendulum impact test standard EN 12600  Twin tyre 50 kg  Testing (laminated) glass size 896 x 1938 mm  Test with 3 falling heights: - Class 1B1 1200 mm (100 % impact energy) - Class 2B2 450 mm ( 40 % impact energy) - Class 3B3 190 mm ( 15 % impact energy)  Determination of minimum glass thickness at first with laminates made of float glass  Class 1B1 safely reached with PVB and make-up 33.2 and 44.2 (2 = 0.76 mm PVB)  TG and HSG offer more reserve to pass the requested safety class compared to float glass of same thickness  Glass lower than 3 mm is currently not regulated to EU building regulations/codes, same as LSG made of float glass or HSG/TG (HSG= heat strengthened glass, TG = tempered glass) 5/27/2014 20
  21. 21. Pendulum impact test results EN 12600 LSG with 2x2 mm HSG or 2x3 float/0.9-1.0 mm film 5/27/2014 21 Film type HSG 2 mm float HSG 2 mm cast float 3 mm EVA (Architectural) 2B2 2B2 2B2 EVA (Solar) 2B2 2B2 2B2 Polyolefine TPO 1 1B1*narrow 2B2 2B2 Polyolefine TPO 2 1B1*narrow 1B1*narrow 2B2 Ionomer 1B1 1B1 1B1 Silicone 2B2 2B2 2B2 Polyurethane TPU 1B1 1B1 1B1 PVB 1B1 1B1 1B1
  22. 22. Pendulum impact test comparison PVB/EVA LSG made of 2 x 3 mm float glass, class 1B1 (1200 mm) 5/27/2014 22 PVB 1.00 mm, 1B1 passed EVA 0.95 mm, 1B1 not passed
  23. 23. BIPV Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) with bifacial cells  Integration of bifacial solar panel in double or triple IGU unit possible  bifacial panel is inner pane for higher module efficiency  can be combined with different features like:  coated glass for heat absorption  colours/printing for window design  acoustic interlayer (preferred PVB) for sound damping  specific safety or security properties by improved glass/interlayer combinations for both facade and roof glazings 5/27/2014 23
  24. 24. Buildings account for almost half of global CO2 emission. Yet there is enough building surface to generate all our electricity needs  Still in infancy – less than 2% PV market share  Globally installed BIPV modules 2013: ~400 MW  Higher value/margins worth $5 bn in 2016 Constrained by:  Varying module certification and building standards  Different installation skills/processes  Lack of suitable products/supply chain  No mass production/custom size  New cell concepts like bifacial need 2 glass panes  Facade and roof glazing PV elements require valid safety & security standards safely fulfilled by PVB, Ionomer and TPU encapsulant combined with float/heat strengthened/tempered glass 5/27/2014 24 BIPV market as a chance for high performance encapsulants
  25. 25. 5/27/2014 25 Summary
  26. 26. Challenges for Bifacial BIPV glass/encapsulants  Bifacial PV modules need double glass laminates  Thin (< 3mm) float glass is limited to be used in facade/roof glazing due to non regulation and limited laminated glass strength  Extra clear thin glass still is more expensive than thicker glass, capacity still limited  Chances for thin glass laminates in IGU glazing due to high transparency and low weight  Safety performance of PV encapsulants is not unique with thin glass elements in LSG norms  PVB, Ionomer and TPU outperform other encap materials which are used in PV panel mass production  Future BIPV market will focus on glass and encapsulants which have best glazing standard performance 5/27/2014 26
  27. 27. Thank you for your kind attention! Your questions,please! Photo: „The brain“ with courtesy of Ertex Solar, Austria5/27/2014 27
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bifacial BIPV: challenges for glass and encapsulation

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