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On overview of disease conditions in small ruminants

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For Mid-Atlantic States Vet Clinic, May 19, 2016

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On overview of disease conditions in small ruminants

  1. 1. AN OVERVIEW OF HEALTH AND DISEASES IN SMALL RUMINANTS SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shay-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center University of Maryland Extension sschoen@umd.edu - www.sheepandgoat.com http://www.slideshare.net/schoenian
  2. 2. COMMON DISEASES AND HEALTH PROBLEMS  Digestive  Hoof  Parasitic  Respiratory  Reproductive  Skin  Other
  3. 3. DIGESTIVE DISORDERS  Acidosis  Bloat  Copper toxicity  Enterotoxemia  Floppy kid syndrome  Milk fever  Polioencephalomalica  Pregnancy toxemia  Scours  Urinary calculi  White muscle disease
  4. 4. ACIDOSIS ruminal lactic acidosis, grain overload, grain poisoning, engorgement  Develops as a result of animals consuming too much carbohydrates; primarily grain, sometimes by- product feed (often accidental consumption).  Results in lowered rumen pH  Can be life threatening clinical vs. subclinical (which goes unnoticed).  More common in sheep than goats and cattle.  Symptoms: simple indigestion, discomfort, anorexia, diarrhea, teeth grinding, muscle twitching, laminitis, and ruminal stasis (and death).  Treatment: depends upon severity of symptoms, sodium bicarbonate, antacids, antibiotics, IV fluids, surgery  Prevention: introduce grains slowly to diet, add dietary buffers, feed ionophores, feed whole grains, have roughage in diet, free choice sodium bicarbonate.
  5. 5. BLOAT rumen tympany  Form of indigestion caused by excessive accumulation of gas in rumen.  Symptoms Can be life threatening Distended rumen (left side) Pain and discomfort Anxiety Labored breathing Staggering and recumbancy Death  Treatment (depends upon severity) Emergency rumenotomy Insertion of rumen trocar Passage of stomach tube Administration of anti-foaming agent (vegetable oil, mineral oil, polaxalene) Antacid drench Force animal to burp
  6. 6. TYPES OF BLOAT Frothy Pasture  Common in animals consuming legume-dominant pastures (especially alfalfa and clover) and green chop, cereal grains, and wet spring grass. Frothy Feedlot  Occurs in animals consuming high grain diets, especially finely ground rations. Free gas or dry bloat  Animal is unable to eructate.  Often caused by an obstruction.  Can also be the result of posture, e.g. cast. Abomasal  Occurs in mostly in artificially reared lambs and kids.  Cause not known: believed to be caused by a build-up of bacteria in the stomach.
  7. 7. PREVENTION OF BLOAT Pasture bloat  Gradual introduction to pasture  Restrict intake by feeding hay before grazing  Mixed swards of grass and legumes  Anti-foaming agents  Ionophores Abomasal  Small meals  Self-feeding  Cold milk  Add yogurt or probiotics to milk  Vaccination for enterotoxemia Feed lot bloat  Gradual introduction of concentrates to diet  Don’t feed finely ground feeds  Whole grain feeding  Roughage in diet  Anti-foaming agents  Ionophores
  8. 8. COPPER TOXICITY  Sheep are most susceptible livestock species. Goats are more susceptible than cattle and pigs. Breed differences exist.  Can be acute or chronic.  Toxicity occurs when copper accumulates in liver to exceed 1000 mg Cu/kg DM  Many factors affect copper metabolism. Copper has many antagonists: Mo, Su  Copper absorption more important than concentration in feed; influenced by type of diet and level of Mo, S, Fe, and to a lesser extent Ca and Zn.  70-75% absorption rate in newborn ruminants  < 10 percent in adults
  9. 9. ENTEROTOXEMIA overeating disease, pulpy kidney disease  Caused by bacteria clostridium perfringins type D found normally in digestive tract of ruminants.  Toxins are produced by bacteria.  Triggered by change in diet, usually an increase in the amount of grain, supplement, milk, milk replacer, and/or grass (feeds that are rich in starch, sugar and/or protein)  Symptoms: sudden death, off feed, lethargic, stomach pain, diarrhea, and neurological symptoms  Treatment (rarely successful) : antitoxin, probiotics, electrolytes, supportive care  Prevention: vaccination of pregnant females and lambs and kids (with 3, 7, or 8-way clostridial vaccine) and smart feeding strategies
  10. 10. FLOPPY KID SYNDROME (FKS) fading kid syndrome  First reported in 1987. Cause unknown  Affects kids 3-10 days of age (normal at birth) They exhibit metabolic acidosis (low blood pH) and have elevated d-lactate.  Symptoms: depression, weakness, flaccid paralysis, and distension of abdomen.  Differential diagnosis: enterotoxemia, white muscle disease, abomasal bloat, and septicemia  Treatment: early detection, remove milk from diet, IV or oral administration of sodium bicarbonate, supportive care  No prevention Research showed that milk ingestion plays a central role. Hand-rearing and feeding bovine colostrum/milk or milk replacer can prevent disease (Germany, Italy).
  11. 11. LISTERIOSIS circling disease  Central nervous system and digestive system infection caused by bacteria Listeria monocytogenes.  Commonly associated with feeding of spoiled silage; otherwise occurs sporadically.  Small ruminants more susceptible.  Causes neurological symptoms: encephalitis, depression, anorexia, disorientation, head tilt, circling, and facial paralysis; can cause abortion in females.  Differential diagnoses: polio, rabies, pregnancy toxemia, brain abscess, ear infection, meningeal worm.  Treatment: early intervention with high doses of antibiotics (Penicillin G) and supportive care. http://www.shesafarmer.com/blog/sick-goat-saga-listerios
  12. 12. MILK FEVER parturient paresis, hypocalcaemia  Deficiency of calcium (Ca) in bloodstream  Can occur before or after parturition.  Caused by inadequate (or excess intake) of calcium during late pregnancy  Symptoms: stiff uncoordinated gait, muscling trembling, weakness, bloat, depressed rumen motility, recumbancy, hind legs bent behind, and death.  Differential diagnosis: pregnancy toxemia  Treatment: depends upon progression (severity), usually IV injection of calcium borogluconate, with oral or SQ administration of calcium to prevent relapse. Also treat for pregnancy toxemia.  Prevention: proper amount of calcium in diet (green leafy legume hay, limestone are good sources of calcium) minimal handling of pregnant females
  13. 13. POLIOENCEPHALOMALACIA PEM, polio, cerebrocortical necrosis, thiamine deficiency Metabolic disorder with neurological symptoms.  Associated with thiamine status and/or high sulfur intake.  Thiamine deficiency caused by inadequate production by rumen or factors that interfere with action of thiamine.  Sulfur-related PEM due to high sulfur intake  Can occur on pasture, but animals on concentrate diets (↓ rumen pH) are most susceptible.  Can also result from prolonged treatment with Corid® (thiamine inhibitor).  Acute: blindness, star gazing, followed by recumbency,. Subacute: separation, stop eating, twitching of ears and face, head held upright.  Differential diagnosis: pregnancy toxemia, enterotoxaemia, and listeriosis, rabies, tetanus, CAE, and plant poisoning.
  14. 14. PREGNANCY TOXEMIA lambing paralysis, twin lamb disease, pregnancy ketosis  Affects females during late pregnancy (1-3 weeks)  Caused by a deficiency of energy (TDN) during late pregnancy (often indicative of a flock/herd nutrition problem).  Females carrying multiple fetuses are most prone; fat females also susceptible.  During early stages of disease, can treat with oral propylene glycol; it may also be prudent to induce parturition (Rx).  Treatment of advanced cases is usually less rewarding and may require an emergency caesarian section.  Differential diagnosis: milk fever  Prevent with good feeding management BCS’s of >2.5 during late gestation Grain feeding during late gestation to meet increased energy requirements, especially for multi-bearing females.
  15. 15. DIARRHEA (SCOURS) Increased frequency, fluidity, or volume of fecal excretion  Many causes: bacterial, viral, parasites, diet, and stress.  Accounted for 46% of lamb losses in study at US Sheep Experiment Station.  In younger lambs/kids, e. coli is most common cause of scours.  In older lambs/kids, GI parasites, especially coccidia, are most common causes of diarrhea.  In adults, most scours are self-limiting.  Often a symptom of other illness, e.g. acidosis, enterotoxemia, Johne’s disease, and plant toxins.  Treatment depends upon cause: anti-diarrheal medications, anti-coccidial medications, antibiotics, anthelmintics, probiotics, and electrolytes (hydration).
  16. 16. URINARY CALCULI urolithiasis, water belly, stones  Common metabolic disease of male sheep and goats, especially wethers.  Calculi stones, usually phosphate salts, lodge in urinary tract and prevent urination  Primary cause of urinary calculi is high grain-low roughage diets, with an imbalance of calcium to phosphorus.  Rations high in phosphorus and magnesium  Stones can also be composed of other minerals, depending upon diet (e.g. calcium rich diets).  Affected animals strain to pass urine and stand with arched back.  Treatment depends upon location of obstruction and progression of symptoms: ammonium chloride drench, smooth muscle relaxants, surgery.
  17. 17. PREVENTION OF URINARY CALCULI  Calcium to phosphorus ratio of at least 2:1; up to 4:1, not less than 1:1  Roughages as a part of all small ruminant diets. - to increase saliva production + alfalfa is a good source of calcium  Adequate water intake - clean, constant source of water  Feed additives Limestone is a good source of calcium Salt to increase water intake and urine production Ammonium chloride to acidify urine  Castration alternatives Production: do you really need to castrate? Pets: later castration (by vet, under anesthesia)
  18. 18. WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE WMD, stiff lamb disease, nutritional muscular hypertrophy  Degenerative muscle disease of large animals.  Caused by a deficiency of selenium and/or Vitamin E  Can affect skeletal or cardiac muscles (sudden death, poor response to Tx); can also cause symptoms of ill thrift and reproductive losses.  Most common in young lambs/kids: newborns and fast- growing, kids more than lambs  Causes Inadequate dietary supply of selenium and/or vitamin E Feeding of poor quality hay; lack of access to pasture  Treatment Supplemental selenium and/or vitamin E  Prevention Adequate selenium and vitamin E in diet, especially pregnant females, as selenium crosses placenta (vitamin E does not) Feed balanced rations, force feed minerals Injections for at-risk animals (poor alternative to proper diet)
  19. 19. HOOF DISEASES Foot scald Footrot Foot abscess Other
  20. 20. FOOT SCALD FOOT ROT FOOT ABSCESS
  21. 21. DISEASES AFFECTING THE HOOVES Foot scald  • Caused by bacteria (Fusobacterium necrophorum) that is present wherever there are sheep, goats, and/or cattle. • Starts with irritation (due to trauma or moisture) of interdigital tissue. • Results in redness or inflammation of tissue between claws. • Outbreaks occur during periods of wet weather. • Not contagious, but can be a pre-cursor to foot abscesses and foot rot Foot abscess  Occurs when Actinomyces bacteria invade tissue already weakened by interdigital infection.  Usually only affects one hoof or digit.  Overweight and mature animals most vulnerable.  Not contagious Foot rot  Caused by interaction of two anaerobic bacteria (F. necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus).  D. nodosus is introduced to farm, usually in hoof of carrier animal.  Involves separation of horny tissues of hoof.  Using affects both claws and multiple hooves.  Highly contagious  Can be difficult to eradicate  Can be a significant welfare
  22. 22. PREVENTION, CONTROL, AND ERADICATION PREVENTION  Good biosecurity  Maintain closed flock/herd  Disinfect shared equipment  Don’t mix clean animals with infected animals  Don’t use contaminated vehicles to transport animals  Disinfect footwear of all visitors  Quarantine new animals for ~30 days  Preventative foot soaking and trimming  Disinfect hoof trimmers (and/or knife) between animals CONTROL - ERADICATE  Hoof scoring and trimming  Topical treatments (Koppertox, Hoof-n-heel, zinc sulfate)  Repeated (weekly) foot bathing with zinc sulfate  Separation of infected from clean animals  Soak pads  Dry chemicals  Antibiotic sprays  Antibiotic injections (LA-200®, Zactran®) [Rx]  Vaccination (limited availability of footrot vaccine)  CULLING
  23. 23. REPRODUCTIVE DISEASES AND PROBLEMS  Abortive diseases  Dystocia  Epididymitis  Mastitis  Milk fever  Pregnancy toxemia  Uterine prolapse  Vaginal prolapse
  24. 24. ABORTIVE DISEASES IN SHEEP AND GOATS 1. Campylobacter spp. Vibriosis, vibrio 2. Chlamydia psititici Enzootic abortion of ewes, EAE 3. Toxoplasmosis 4. Other  Bluetongue  Border disease  Brucellosis  Cache Valley Virus  Leptospirosis  Q Fever  Salmonella
  25. 25. ABORTIVE DISEASES IN SHEEP AND GOATS PREVENTION  Vaccination (Vibrio and Chlamydia) during pregnancy  Supplement females with Rumesin® or Deccox® during late pregnancy to prevent abortions caused by toxoplasmosis (Rx)  Feed tetracycline antibiotic (Aureomycin®) during pregnancy (sheep, Rx)*  Good management  Do not feed on ground  Prevent contamination of feed  Maintain first timers as separate group  Biosecurity  Maintain closed flock  Do not manage different flocks/herds together IN THE EVENT OF AN OUTBREAK  Strict hygiene; isolate affected females, properly dispose of infected placenta and fetuses  Submit fetuses and placenta to diagnostic lab  Vaccinate remaining females  Inject long-acting oxytetracycline (Rx)  Begin feeding tetracycline antibiotic (sheep, Rx)* *New Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) will affect antibiotics put in feed or water of livestock. A veterinary prescription will be required. No extra label drug use will be allowed.
  26. 26. DYSTOCIA (DIFFICULT BIRTHING)  Definition: failure to transition from stage I to stage II labor or little to no progress after 30 minutes of stage II labor.  Tends to be higher in sheep than goats, 2-12% vs. 3-5% (Boileau, DVM, 2015).  Goal should be fewer than 5% assisted births  Common cause of death in ewes and lambs.  Is dystocia risk greater with single births and males (risk of being oversized) or with multiple births (risk of malpresentation). Cause Sheep Goats Ringwomb 31.7 32.8 Narrow pelvis 21.7 18.0 Fetal malpresentation 21.1 22.6 Fetal oversize 15.0 3.2 Simultaneous presentation of twins 1.7 13.7 Uterine torsion 4.4 1.8 Monsters 4.4 1.4 Uterine inertia 6.7 J. Ag. & Vet Sci (2011) Causes of dystocia in small ruminants (Saudi Arabia)
  27. 27. MANAGEMENT OF DYSTOCIA IN EWES AND DOES  Nutritional management Excess feed during late gestation increases fetal size Scan ewes and feed according to number of fetuses Aim for a body condition score of 3 Higher risk of dystocia with BCS >4  Genetic selection Select offspring from dams that give birth without assistance and from sires whose daughters give birth unassisted.  Exercise Make sure ewes and does get adequate exercise during late gestation  Learn how to safely intervene and assist with difficult births
  28. 28. MASTITIS  Inflammation of the mammary gland (udder).  Significant disease in small ruminants, though prevalence is not known and considerably less research has been done as compared to cattle.  Can be subclinical (most common, goes unnoticed) vs. clinical (peracute, acute, and chronic)  Causes are bacterial and viral (CAE, OPP)  Symptoms: starving offspring, lameness, abnormal milk, swelling of udder hard bag, off feed, depression  Treatment: isolation, artificial rearing of lambs/kids, antibiotic therapy (Rx), anti-inflammatory drugs (Rx), and supportive care.  Prevention: hygiene, selection and culling, disease management, feed management
  29. 29. PROLAPSES More common in sheep than goats RECTAL VAGINAL UTERINE
  30. 30. PREDISPOSING FACTORS TO PROLAPSES Rectal  Coughing  Chronic scours  Sex (female)  Age  Condition  Diet  Too short tail dock (feed lot lambs)  Genetic predisposition Vaginal  Increased sized of pregnant uterus (multiparous)  Excessive body condition  Intra-abdominal fat  Too short tail dock (?)  High fiber diets (full rumen)  Sub-clinical hypocalcemia (?)  Limited exercise (?)  Gravity Uterine  Prolonged labor  Straining  Swelling,  Infection  Genetics
  31. 31. TREATMENT OF PROLAPSES  Rectal Immediate slaughter* Injections with oxytetracycline (Pipestone Vet Clinic, Rx) Amputate protruding rectal tissue (rectal ring)  Vaginal Clean and replace Retention with suture, bearing retainer (spoon) or harness*. Usually resolves after lambing (cull?)  Uterine (emergency!) Clean and replace – best done by a veterinarian Antibiotics (Rx) and anti-inflammatories (Rx)
  32. 32. PARASITIC DISEASES  Internal parasites  Helminths #1: barber pole worm  Protozoan #1: Coccidia  External parasites lice, mites, ticks, bot flies
  33. 33. HELMINTH PARASITES PARASITIC WORMS, MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS,  Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) is the parasite of primary concern.  Teladorsagia and Trichostrongyles are usually part of mixed infections with barber pole worm and of secondary importance.  Meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) can be problematic on some farms  Tapeworms (Moniezia expansa) are considered to be non-pathogenic, but can affect gut motility.
  34. 34. HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS BARBER POLE WORM  Some level of parasitic “infection” is normal.  Clinical parasitism occurs with heavy exposure and poor or lack of immunity.  Animals eventually develop immunity to parasites; sheep more so than goats.  Immunity is compromised at time of parturition, called peri-parturient egg rise (PPER). Primary source of infection for lambs/kids grazing summer pastures.  Animals become infected when they ingest third stage larvae (L3) while grazing. 80% of larvae is in first 2 inches of plants.  Primary cause of Haemonchosis is overstocking and insufficient pasture rest.  Control with grazing, management, nutrition, genetics, and targeted selective treatment (with anthelmintics).
  35. 35. PROTOZOAN PARASITES MICROSCOPIC, SINGLE CELL  Coccidia (Eimeria spp.) is primary species and often as problematic as barber pole worm.  Primarily a problem in confinement, but can also be a problem on pasture.  Host specific; not all are pathogenic  Primary (not always) symptom is scours (diarrhea).  Damage can be permanent.  Prevent with hygiene, management, and coccidiostats (Bovatec®, Rumensin® or Deccox®) in mineral, feed, or water *.  Sericea lespedeza pellets for natural control.  Treat with amprolium (Corid®, Rx) and sulfa antibiotics (e.g. DiMethox®, Sulmet®, Rx)* *With new Veterinary Feed Directive, sulfa antibiotics will be transitioning to prescription status.
  36. 36. INTEGRATED PARASITE MANAGEMENT (IPM) Management  Pasture rest and rotation  Minimum grazing heights  Browsing  Alternative forages  Mixed or multi-species grazing  Zero grazing  Nutritional management/supplementation  Host immunity  Genetic selection, within and between breed, species  Timing of lambing/kidding Drugs (deworming)  Targeted selective treatment  FAMACHA© eye anemia system  Five Point Check®  Happy Factor®  Management of peri-parturient females  Testing for anthelmintic resistance  Proper use of anthelmlintics
  37. 37. TARGETED SELECTIVE TREATMENT (TST)  Only treat animals that require it or would benefit from treatment.  Focus efforts on periparturient females and weanlings  Use FAMACHA© system, Five Point Check©, and Happy Factor© to determine need for treatment  Be sure to use an effective drug when deworming animals that require treatment.  Only time to consider whole flock treatment is periparturient period. If done, consider leaving some animals untreated.
  38. 38. TARGETED SELECTIVE TREATMENT (TST) FAMACHA© SYSTEM FIVE POINT CHECK© HAPPY FACTOR©
  39. 39. TARGETED SELECTIVE TREATMENT (TST) FAMACHA©  Uses color eye chart to evaluate level of anemia and determine need for treatment.  Reduces use of dewormers and increases refugia (worms not exposed to dewormers).  Producers must take approved training to purchase card.  Only effective for blood feeding parasites. FIVE POINT CHECK©  Involves five check points on animal’s body: 1) eye (FAMACHA©), 2) jaw, 3) back (BCS), 4) tail (scours), and 5) nose (bots).  Can replace nose with coat condition for goats.  Expands usefulness of FAMACHA© system, by expanding criteria to other parasites.  Also useful for making treatment decisions for FAMACHA© score 3s. HAPPY FACTOR©  Uses performance as a factor for determining the need to deworm.  “A productive animal is a happy animal.”  Weight gain, milk production.  Primarily used in Europe where barber pole worm is not primary parasite.
  40. 40. ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE  Resistance is/was inevitable and is permanent.  Worms have developed resistance to all dewormers and dewormer classes.  Anthelmintic resistance varies by geographic area and farm and is based on past dewormer use.  Resistance tends to be highest among the benzimidazoles (e.g. SafeGuard® and Valbazen®) and avermectins (e.g. Ivomec®).  Moxidectin (Cydectin®) and especially levamisole (Prohibit®) tend to be most effective on most Mid-Atlantic farms.  Parasite control strategies must have two goals: reduce clinical parasitism in animal and prolong effectiveness of drugs by managing/increasing refugia (worms not exposed to drugs).
  41. 41. PROPER USE OF ANTHELMINTICS TO CONTROL CLINICAL PARASITISM AND PROLONG EFFECTIVENESS OF DEWORMERS  Do not deworm whole flock, herd, or group; always leave some animals untreated.  Keep treated animals in dry lot for 48 hours to allow passage of resistant worms (eggs) into barn or drylot.  Reduce frequency of treatments by using FAMACHA©, Five Point Check®, and/or Happy Factor® to determine which animals to deworm and which animals to leave untreated.  Do not put flock of treated animals on clean pasture.  Do not underdose; dose based on accurate weight.  Use only drench formulations to deworm sheep/goats.  Give all dewormers orally using an oral dosing syringe with a long metal nozzle which allows deposition of drug over tongue.  Do not feed, inject, or pour-on dewormers.  Fast animals to increase effectiveness of benzimidazoles and avermectins.  Proper storage of dewormers.  Check for dewormer resistance every 3 years using fecal egg count tests and/or DrenchRite® larval development assay.
  42. 42. RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN SHEEP AND GOATS PNEUMONIA, PASTEURELLOSIS  Important problem of sheep and goats of all ages (#1 lamb disease)  Infection of lung tissue with multiple causes: viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Most frequent causes of respiratory infection and death are Pasteurella multocida or Mannheimia haemolytica.  Disease can be triggered by stress: transportation, weather, etc.  Clinical signs include a temperature over 104ºF; thick, whitish nasal discharge; moist, painful cough; rapid or labor breathing; anorexia; and depression.  Treatment usually involves antibiotics. No treatment for viral pneumonias (e.g. CAE, OPP)  Prevent with good immunity, management, nutrition, sanitation, vaccination, biosecurity, and air quality (ventilation).
  43. 43. SKIN DISEASES Soremouth (orf) Club lamb fungus External parasites
  44. 44. SOREMOUTH SCABBY MOUTH, CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA, CONTAGIOUS PUSTULAR DERMATITIS, ORF  Widespread: most common skin disease of sheep/goats.  Caused by a virus in the pox family.  Symptoms include lesions on lips, nostrils, face, eyelids, teats, udders, feet.  Can affect health and performance of lambs/kids.  Can cause mastitis in dams of infected lambs/kids.  More severe in young animals and goats.  Self-limiting disease: usually clears in 3-4 weeks without treatment.  Treatment is usually ineffective; some evidence suggests that spraying lesions with WD40 may help (Pipestone Vet, 2013).  Antibiotics can be used to control secondary infections.  Recovered animals are highly resistant to infection.  Can vaccinate by applying live virus to bare skin. Vaccinated females to not pass immunity onto offspring Vaccine should not be used on farms that do not have orf.  Is transmissible to humans!
  45. 45. CLUB LAMB FUNGUS lumpy wool, sheep ringworm, and sheep dermaphytosis  Caused by a fungus in the Trichophyton genus. First reported in 1989.  Occurs wherever sheep are shown. Most common with youth lamb projects.  Shearing equipment and close shearing are the primary cause; also, frequent washing removes lanolin which makes the skin more susceptible to the disease.  Lesions appear 1 to 4 weeks after exposure to fungus; most common on head, neck, and back; hairless regions especially susceptible.  Heals on its own in 8 to 16 weeks (new hair growth, skin often turns black).  There are no approved anti-fungal medicines in sheep, but topical anti-fungal medicines have been reported to inhibit fungal growth and decrease spread of infection.  Treatment option (Virginia Tech): clip wool 2 inches from edge of infection, remove 2 oz from 8 oz bottle of baby oil; add 2 oz of iodine, apply to sore once daily for five days, then weekly for three weeks. If necessary, treat secondary infections with penicillin or tetracycline.  Spray lambs with 0.5% solution of chlorohexidine to prevent infection.  Is transmissible to humans!
  46. 46. OTHER DISEASES  Caprine arthritic encephalitits (CAE)  Caseous lymphadentitis (CL)  Johne’s disease  Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP)  Pink eye  Scrapie  Tetanus
  47. 47. CAPRINE ARTHRITIC ENCEPHALITIS (CAE)  Caused by a lentivirus; closely related to OPP.  Widespread in dairy goat breeds; less common in meat goats (?).  Primary mode of transmission is through ingestion of virus- infected colostrum or milk by kids; there is also horizontal transmission via direct contact.  Common symptoms include arthritis, mastitis, and respiratory disease in does and neurological problems in kids.  Most animals are sub-clinical; symptoms appear in ~20 percent of infected animals.  No effective treatment; control requires artificial rearing and isolation of kids, blood testing and isolation or culling of sero-positive does. http://hoovesandheartbeats.tumblr.com/post/77093951334/caprine- arthritis-encephalitis-cae
  48. 48. CASEOUS LYMPHADENTITIS (CL, CLA)  Chronic, contagious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.  Prevalence varies.  Characterized by internal (within internal organs and lymph nodes) and external abscesses (near lymph nodes).  External form is more common in goats; internal form is more common in sheep.  Bacteria enter through cuts and abrasians.  No treatment. No cure. Internal abscesses cause chronic weight loss.  Diagnosis Presence of external abscess - suggestive Bacterial culture from intact abscess - definitive Blood test - presence of antibodies (exposed)  Prevention and eradication: vaccination, biosecurity (don’t buy it), hygiene, disinfection of equipment, isolation of infected animals, blood testing, culling of infected or sero-positive animals.
  49. 49. JOHNE’S DISEASE paratuberculosis  Fatal gastrointestinal disease caused by the bacterium Mycobaterium paratuberculosis.  Slow growing organism that persists in environment.  Mostly commonly passed from manure of infected adult animals; can be transmitted from one ruminant species to another.  Prevalence in sheep and goats is not known.  Sub-clinical (carriers) vs. clinical  Symptoms are vague and similar to other health problems: rapid weight loss, loss of body condition, diarrhea not usually in sheep, and death.  Cost is reduced production and culling.  No cure; no approved vaccine in US.  Can test for presence of organism in manure and/or presence of antibodies in blood.  Is a flock/herd problem; not individual animal problem. http://johnes.org/goats/diagnosis.html
  50. 50. OVINE PROGRESSIVE PNEUMONIA (OPP) Similar to maedi-visna in other countries  Slowly progressing viral disease; similar to CAE  36.4 % of sheep operations had at least one animal that tested positive for OPP in 2011 NAHMS study (24.2 % of animals).  Breeds differ in their susceptibility to OPP virus, but all breeds (and goats) are susceptible.  Primary mode of transmission is respiratory, among adults after age one. Secondary is from dam to offspring via colostrum.  Symptoms include weight loss (thin ewe syndrome), hard bag, respiratory, and arthritis.  Infection is life-long. there is no vaccine, treatment, or cure.  Control requires artificial rearing and isolation of lambs, blood testing (cELISA) and isolation or culling of sero-positive animals.  Alternative: can use rams with reduced genetic susceptibility to reduce incidence of disease in flock. http://www.county-vets.co.uk/
  51. 51. SCRAPIE  Always fatal disease of the CNS of sheep/goats.  No cure, treatment, or vaccine.  In same family of diseases as BSE, CWD, and CJD.  Has been reported primary in Suffolk breed, but all breeds and goats are susceptible.  Incubation period of 2 to 5 years.  Transmission of disease occurs primarily from dam to offspring via placental fluids.  Low prevalence in US; reduced by 80% since 2003.  In sheep, susceptibility is determined by genetics (codons 136, 154, 171). R=resistant; Q=susceptible  Mandatory identification of sheep and goats over 18 months of age.
  52. 52. ERADICATE SCRAPIE BY 2017
  53. 53. PINK EYE Contagious keratoconjunctivitis  Infectious, contagious, bacterial disease affecting the eyes (one or both eyes).  Microorgansims most commonly associated with pink eye in sheep and goats are Chlamydia psittaci ovis and Mycoplasma conjunctivae (not the same that cause pink eye in cattle).  Symptoms: squinting; watery, red, swollen eyes; formation of new blood vessels; cloudiness in white part of eyes; and wound-like ulcers.  Can swab eyes to determine causal agent.  Differential diagnosis: entropion (inverted eyelid), neurological disease, and non-infectious pink eye.  Treatment: isolation (darkened area), flush eyes with sterile saline, antibiotics (usually oinments).  Prevention: biosecurity (closed flock/herd), don’t buy from public auctions, avoid exhibition, dust and fly control. NO vaccine.
  54. 54. TETANUS  Caused by bacteria Clostridium tetani, which is found widely in soil and manure; flourishes in areas where oxygen is not present.  More prevalent on farms where horses are kept and where elastrator bands are used for docking and/or castrating.  Infects animal through open wound or skin abrasion.  Symptoms include muscle stiffness, extension of head and neck, unsteady gait, lock jaw, and death.  Differential diagnosis: white muscle disease, polyarthritis, erysipelas, and navel ill.  Treatment (rarely successful): antitoxin and antibiotics, clean wound  Prevention: vaccination (pregnant females with toxoid; lambs/kids antitoxin at time of docking, castrating, and/or disbudding) and good hygiene.
  55. 55. RECOMMENDED RESOURCES  Goat Medicine (2nd edition, 2011) Mary Smith and David Sherman  Sheep & Goat Medicine (2nd edition, 2011) David Pugh and Nickie Baird  Sheep Diseases Directory http://beefandlamb.ahdb.org.uk/wp/wp- content/uploads/2013/09/brp_l_ol_SheepDiseas eDirectory260913.pdf  Maryland Small Ruminant Page www.sheepandgoat.com  American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC) www.wormx.info or www.acsrpc.org

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