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Preventing and treating coccidiosis

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Presentation from 2020 Weekly Worm Webinar Series. By Dr. Kwame Matthews from Delaware State University.

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Preventing and treating coccidiosis

  1. 1. PREVENTING AND TREATING COCCIDIOSIS Kwame Matthews Small Ruminant Specialist Delaware State University kmatthews@desu.edu 302-857-6540
  2. 2. PROTOZOAN PARASITE OF THE INTESTINE • Single-cell organism that damage the lining of the small intestine • Genus Eimeria found in sheep, goats and camelids • Survives in environment for multiple years if it is warm/hot and moist • Infection rate is high but clinical disease is low in herd/flock • More severe in younger animals
  3. 3. TRANSMISSION COCCIDIA • Adults serve as the source for infection • Immunity to cocci occurs with age/exposure • Not all species causes disease • Species-specific (2 major in sheep, 4 major in goats and camelids) • Once oocyst can destroy up to 50 million intestinal cells
  4. 4. LIFE CYCLE • Must mature (sporulate) outside the host in order to be infective. • Non-infective oocysts are released into the environment in feces. • Eggs will mature into infective oocyst in ideal environmental conditions (75 – 90 °F and moist). • Animals ingest infective oocysts from contaminated area. • Oocysts undergo further maturation and penetrate the lining of the intestine.
  5. 5. SYMPTOMS OF COCCIDIOSIS • Subclinical • Not observed immediately and long-term infection • Lower feed consumption • Poor growth and weight loss • Poor utilization of nutrients from feed • Soft feces
  6. 6. SYMPTOMS OF COCCIDIOSIS • Clinical • Diarrhea (watery with or without blood) • Anemia • Failure to thrive • Rough hair coat • Depressed • Dehydrated • Death
  7. 7. DIAGNOSIS • Observation of clinical symptoms • Fecal oocyte count • Quantitative way of diagnosis • High number of oocyte eggs can be found in feces • Animals may shed oocysts without showing signs of infection • Counts may vary drastically between animals (low FOC does not meant not infected) • Detection of lesions in small intestine http://www.wormboss.com.au/sheep-goats/worms/other- occasional-parasites-of-sheep-and-goats/coccidia-and- cryptosporidium.php https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/wp- content/uploads/2018/02/Coccidia.jpg
  8. 8. PREVENTION – GOOD SANITATION • Young animals should be kept in a clean and dry environment • Clean and replace bedding in shelters where animals gather regularly • Keep lambing/kidding pens clean • Prevent overcrowding • Follow established guidelines for housing • Requirements is based on age, area, species and horned/no horn
  9. 9. PREVENTION – GOOD SANITATION • Clean feeders and waterers (try to prevent fecal contamination) • Avoid feeding on the ground • Elevate feeders and waterers • Try moving them around to prevent congregation • Clean and disinfect barn/pens well between groups of animals
  10. 10. PREVENTION – GOOD NUTRITION • Poor nutrition increases animal stress • Good nutrition improve animals ability to fight disease and infection • Good nutrition leads to quality colostrum production • Give kids and lamb a fighting chance again infections in early life
  11. 11. PREVENTION – STRESS REDUCTION • Stress in young animals can affect their immunity and overall health • Reduce aggressive handling of animals • Try to separate larger animals from smaller/less dominant animals • Quarantine new animals prior to introduction to flock/herd • Isolate animals in areas where they can still look out and see other animals
  12. 12. PREVENTION – STRESS REDUCTION • Weaning is very stressful on young animals • Remove the mothers from the familiar area and not kids/lambs • Provide fence line contact with mother for a short time after • Keep weanlings together and not mix with older animals • Adjust feeding schedules for young animals before weaning
  13. 13. PREVENTION – COCCIDIOSTAT USE • Added to feed, mineral, water and/or milk replacer as per label directions • Effectiveness depends on timing and dosage • Several coccidiostats are FDA-approved for use in sheep and/or goats in the United States: • Monensin (Rumensin®, Monovet® 90) – Goats in confinement; 20 g/ton of feed (mix according to label at all times) • Fed at 15 g/ton in sheep feed in countries where approved • Toxic to equine A valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship is required for all extra-label drug use!
  14. 14. PREVENTION – COCCIDIOSTAT USE • Several coccidiostats are FDA-approved for use in sheep and/or goats in the United States: • Lasalocid (Bovatec®) – Sheep in confinement; 30 g/ton feed • Fed at 5 mg/kg body weight in goat feed in countries where approved • Decoquinate (Deccox®) – Young, non-lactating lambs and goats; 13.6 g/ton feed; 0.5 mg/kg BW daily • Feed dams 21 days prior to giving birth • Feed to kids/lambs in creep feed and rations for growing • Do not feed year-round A valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship is required for all extra-label drug use!
  15. 15. TREATMENTS • Treat all animals sharing space with infected animals • No Drugs are FDA-Approved to Treat Coccidiosis in Sheep and Goats in the U.S. • Drugs used for treatment include: • Amprolium (Corid®) – both treatment and preventative • Sulfonamides (Sulfamethazine, Sulfadimethoxine and Sulfaquinoxaline) • Toltrazuril (Baycox®)– approved outside the U.S. • Diclazuril (Vecoxan®) – approved outside the U.S. • Ponazuril – approved for use in horses but no other animal in the U.S. A valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship is required for all extra-label drug use!
  16. 16. TREATMENTS – AMPROLIUM • Corid® - can be bought over the counter but recquire veterinary approval for treating sheep and goats • 9.6% oral solution (5 mg amprolium/kg BW) for 21 days (cattle) • Treatment: 10 mg/kg for 5 days (1 day meat w/d) of 9.6% or 20% drench (cattle) • May cause polioencephalomalaicia (thiamine deficiency) with overdose and prolonged use. A valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship is required for all extra-label drug use!
  17. 17. TREATMENTS – SULFONAMIDES • Sulfa drugs – must be obtained from a veterinarian and utilized according to the extra label drug law. • Sulfamethazine (Sulmet®, Sustain III®) • Sulfadimethoxine ( Albon®, Di-methox®) A valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship is required for all extra-label drug use!
  18. 18. OTHER OPTIONS BASED ON RESEARCH • Ponazuril (Marquis®) – effective in reducing fecal oocyst count when administered a single drench (10 mg/kg) in goats prior to weaning. (Gibbons et al., 2016) • Sericea lespedeza (forage) has been effective in reducing fecal oocyst counts (goats and sheep) • Fed at least one week prior to weaning and continue 3 to 4 weeks after weaning • Oregano essential oils have been shown to reduce oocyst counts in sheep and goats – need more conclusive data
  19. 19. THANK YOU. QUESTIONS??

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