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Strategies for Improving Parasite Management on Tennessee Sheep farms

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Date of presentation 12.08.2020
Tennessee Sheep Producers Association Annual meeting

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Strategies for Improving Parasite Management on Tennessee Sheep farms

  1. 1. Strategies for improving parasite management on Tennessee sheep farms
  2. 2. Presentation outline
  3. 3. An overview of dewormers (anthelmintics) There are three different dewormer classes for sheep in the US. 1 Benzimidazoles “white dewormers” 2 Macrocyclic lactones 3 Membrane polarizing class Avermectins Milbimycins Fenbendazole SafeGuard® Albendazole Valbazen®* Oxyfendazole Synanthic® Ivermectin Ivomec®* Doramectin Dectomax® Eprinomectin Eprinex® Moxidectin Cydectin®* Quest® Levamisole Prohibit®* Leva-Med®* *FDA approved for sheep. All drench formulations.
  4. 4. Dewormer resistance Resistance in animals is different from the resistance the worms develop to the drugs.
  5. 5. Current situation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Benzimidazoles Ivermectin Cydectin Levamisole Percent farms with dewormer resistance Southeast Mid-Atlantic MD-VA-GA Most recent study was completed in 2016.
  6. 6. How to determine dewormer resistance Low-cost fecal egg counting ($5/sample) https://www.wormx.info/lowcostfec
  7. 7. Practices which accelerate(d) dewormer resistance
  8. 8. RUFUGIA An important concept
  9. 9. Practices which help to slow dewormer resistance
  10. 10. Practices which help to slow dewormer resistance 9. Don’t introduce resistant worms to your farm: isolate and deworm all new arrivals with drugs from three different chemical classes: albendazole + moxidectin + levamisole.
  11. 11. Targeted selective treatment (TST) or non- treatment reduce the number of treatments which increases refugia and prolongs the effectiveness of dewormers.
  12. 12. Targeted selective treatment Deciding who to deworm Decision-making tools
  13. 13. FAMACHA© Eye Anemia System Five treatment categories Appropriate intervals of checking Faffa Malan Chart = FAMACHA©
  14. 14. Five Point Check©FAMACHA© The Five Point Check© involves checking five places on the animal’s body to make deworming decisions. 1) Nose (discharge) 2) Eye (anemia, FAMACHA©) 3) Jaw (bottle jaw) 4) Back (body condition) 5) Tail (dag score, fecal soiling)
  15. 15. Performance as an indicator
  16. 16. Performance as a stressor
  17. 17. Fecal egg counts (FEC) as a deworming criteria (?)
  18. 18. Combination treatments
  19. 19. Combination treatments [All drugs in combination are FDA approved for sheep.]
  20. 20. Combination treatments
  21. 21. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP)
  22. 22. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP)
  23. 23. Administering COWP  https://youtu.be/4IuPxmVL6Kk
  24. 24. More about COWP
  25. 25. Using COWP safely Some breeds are more susceptible to copper toxicity.
  26. 26. BioWorma® FIRST NATURAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL duddingtonia.com | bioworma.com
  27. 27. Two products are commercially available.
  28. 28. BioWorma® General recommendations for use (according to BioWorma® label) Premier 1 image
  29. 29. Cost of feeding BioWorma® (excluding shipping costs) to a 100-lb. sheep One 15-lb. pail of Livamol® will feed 20 sheep for 7.5 days. One 10-lb. pail of BioWorma® will feed 20 sheep for 80 days. Premier 1 Supplies Prices 12.08.2020 Product Cost Amount per oz oz/day $/day $/month $/90 days Livamol® $ 89.50 15-lb. pail $ 0.37 1.6 $ 0.60 $ 17.90 $ 53.70 Livamol® $ 78.75 15-lb bulk $ 0.33 1.6 $ 0.52 $ 15.65 $ 46.95 Livamol® $ 149.50 30-lb. pail $ 0.31 1.6 $ 0.50 $ 14.95 $ 44.85 Livamol® $ 126.00 30-lb. bulk $ 0.26 1.6 $ 0.42 $ 12.60 $ 37.80 BioWorma® $ 345.00 10-lb. pail $ 2.16 0.1 $ 0.22 $ 6.47 $ 19.41 BioWorma® $ 325.00 10-lb. bulk $ 2.03 0.1 $ 0.20 $ 6.09 $ 18.28
  30. 30. How to reduce the cost of feeding BioWorma® 1No research to support but suggested by manufacturer and scientists who have done research with nematode-trapping fungi. 2Not currently available (?)
  31. 31. Genetic control of internal parasites
  32. 32. What do we mean by resistance and how do we select for it? Criteria Range Selection Deworming history Yes-No Resilience Bottle jaw Yes-No Resilience Body condition 1-5 Resilience FAMACHA© 1-5 Resilience Fecal egg count 0-25,000+ Resistance
  33. 33. Fecal egg counting A resistant animal has a lower fecal egg count (EPG) and sheds fewer eggs onto pasture.
  34. 34. Raise or cross with a more resistant breed Crossbreeding = breed complementarity + hybrid vigor ~50% St. Croix
  35. 35. Cross with a more resistant terminal sire breed Texel x Katahdin
  36. 36. Select more resistant animals for your flock EBV = Estimated breeding value Measurement of genetic value of an animal FEC EBVs expressed in percentages.
  37. 37. Requirements for accurate on-farm selection Genetic selection is a marathon not a sprint.
  38. 38. Worms are a complex problem that require an integrated approach that combines good management with judicious use of drugs.
  39. 39. American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC) wormx.info
  40. 40. Thank you

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