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  1. 1. 2/19/2016 1 The Big 5 Five really important topics SUSAN SCHOENIAN SHEEP & GOAT SPECIALIST UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND EXTENSION SSCHOEN@UMD.EDU – SHEEPANDGOAT.COM – WORMX.INFO TODAY’S SCHEDULE TIME TOPIC 1 10 AM Maintaining hoof health 2 10:30 AM Increasing the birthing rate 3 11 AM Minimizing feed costs 4 11:30 AM Maximizing the potential of orphans 12 PM LUNCH 5 1 PM Managing internal parasitism
  2. 2. 2/19/2016 2 All PowerPoint presentation(s) can be downloaded from SlideShare. …or go to Choose SlideShare from the Social Media drop-down menu. Almost everything I say today is equally applicable to sheep and goats. Sheep are goats are sheep
  3. 3. 2/19/2016 3 Maintaining hoof health • Is it foot scald or foot rot? • How do I eradicate foot rot? • Do you have some animals that are perpetually infected? University of Maine Sheep Foot Health Research & Education Hoof care is an important aspect of small ruminant management. • Hoof health can affect an animal’s performance, disease resistance, and welfare. • Hooves should be checked regularly for disease and excess or abnormal growth. • Animals with diseased hooves or excessive or abnormal hoof growth should be culled. • Lack of proper hoof care is an ANIMAL WELFARE ISSUE.
  4. 4. 2/19/2016 4 The need for hoof trimming varies. • From every few months to seldom to never; average is probably once per year. • Hoof growth is affected by many different factors, including species, breed, animal, nutrition, environment, and management. • The more you trim hooves the more you trim hooves • Over-zealous hoof trimming is discouraged. You should avoid drawing blood when trimming hooves. What do you need trim hooves? Proper equipment • Hoof shears (trimmers) • Hoof knife (for thorough trimming) • Spray bottle (to spray zinc sulfate solution on trimmed hooves) • Brush • Tight fitting gloves • Disinfectant (to disinfect between animals) Proper restraint • Tip on rump (sheep) • While standing - lift feet (goats) • While tied to gate • On milking or trimming stand • On elevated platform • Chair (sheep)
  5. 5. 2/19/2016 5 There are three primary hoof diseases. Foot scald Foot rotFoot abscess Hoof diseases are bacterial infections. • Occurs when Actinomyces bacteria invade tissue already weakened by interdigital infection. • Usually only affects one hoof or digit. • Overweight and mature animals most vulnerable. • Not contagious • Caused by interaction of two anaerobic bacteria (F. necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus). • D. nodosus is introduced to farm, usually in hoof of carrier animal. • Involves separation of horny tissues of hoof. • Using affects both claws and multiple hooves. • Highly contagious • Difficulty to eradicate • Can be a significant welfare issue. Foot scald Foot rotFoot abscess • Caused by bacteria (Fusobacterium necrophorum) that is present wherever there are sheep, goats, and/or cattle. • Starts with irritation (due to trauma or moisture) of interdigital tissue. • Results in redness or inflammation of tissue between claws. • Outbreaks occur during periods of wet weather. • Not contagious, but can be a pre- cursor to foot abscesses and foot rot
  6. 6. 2/19/2016 6 Facts about footrot • Footrot is an introduced disease. • There are different strains of foot rot. • The bacteria that causes foot rot can survive in the hooves of chronically-infected animals for ~3 years, but only for 14 days in the soil, manure, or pasture. • Warm, moist conditions favor hoof disease. • Livestock do not develop immunity to footrot; however, some animals are more resistant to it; genetic markers are being identified. Treating and eradicating foot rot (and controlling foot scald) US approach • Hoof trimming and scoring • Topical treatment (zinc sulfate) • Foot bathing (zinc sulfate) and drying • Isolation of infected animals Move to clean area (no sheep/goats for >14 days) • Repeat • CULL animals that fail to respond to treatment after 4 weeks [ University of Maine Foot Health Project] European approach • Antibiotic therapy • Sprays • Injections Penicillin - OTC, ELDU LA-200® - ELDU, Rx Nuflur® - ELDU, Rx *Zactran® - ELDU, Rx • CULL animals that fail to respond to treatment.
  7. 7. 2/19/2016 7 Preventing foot rot • It’s all about biosecurity! • Maintain closed or mostly closed flock/herd • Don’t buy animals with foot rot • Don’t buy animals from farms or sales with foot rot. • Don’t buy animals from sale barns. • Don’t introduce foot rot via bedding, vehicles, equipment, or footwear. • Assume new animals are infected. • Quarantine new animals for 30 days • Cull animals with excessive or abnormal hooves or hoof growth. Increasing the birthing rate • Do you know what your last birthing percentage was? • What percentage of your lambs/die before weaning? • What is your primary reason for culling ewes/does? Tips for improving lambing/kidding percentages
  8. 8. 2/19/2016 8 In 2015, the national average lambing late was 111 lambs per 100 ewes (USDA, 2016). THAT SUCKS! In Virginia, the average lambing rate was 116% in 2015 and 104% in 2014 (USDA, 2016). THAT STILL SUCKS!
  9. 9. 2/19/2016 9 Are goat producers doing a better job? Don’t know. Maybe, maybe not. Per doe kidding Average Number born n=3057 1.84 Number weaned n=2906 1.56 Source: Kentucky State University GHIP FEB 2015 What is lambing/kidding percentage? • NOT: # lambs born per ewe lambing • NOT: # lambs born per ewe exposed • NOT: # lambs weaned per ewe lambing. • NOT: # lambs weaned per ewe exposed • NOT: # lambs marketed* per ewe lambing *sold or retained for breeding
  10. 10. 2/19/2016 10 Lambing percentage is # lambs marketed (or retained) per ewe exposed. 100 ewes exposed to ram(s) 95 ewes lambed (1-2 heat cycles) 170 lambs born live 160 lambs weaned 150 lambs sold/retained # lambs Per ewe lambing Per ewe exposed # lambs born 1.79 1.70 # lambs weaned 1.68 1.60 # lambs marketed 1.58 1.50 Lambing/kidding percentage is a composite trait. 1-Fertility (conception) + 2-Litter size (ovulation rate + embryo survival) + 3-Survival
  11. 11. 2/19/2016 11 Many factors affect birthing percentage. birthing percentage • Breeding during normal breeding season • Prolific genetics • Crossbred lambs have higher survival • First cross ewes have higher birthing percentage • Postnatal loss < 10 percent • Optimal nutrition • Body condition score of > 3 • Cull open ewes/does • Cull underperforming ewes/does • Disease prevention and treatment • Aggressive, fertile rams and bucks • Accelerated lambing/kidding • Match reproductive rate to labor and management birthing percentage • Breeding outside of normal breeding season • Lack of selection for prolificacy • Straight bred lambs have lower survival • Straight bred ewes have lower lambing percentage. • Postnatal loss > 10% • Sub-optimal nutrition • Body condition score of < 2.5 • Keep open ewes/does • Keep underperforming ewes/does • Lack of disease prevention and treatment • Lazy, gay, and infertile rams and bucks • Annual lambing/kidding • Mismatch of reproductive rate to labor and management. Season of breeding and birth • Estrus in ewes and does is triggered by photoperiod. Sheep and goats are short-day breeders. • While some sheep and goats are less seasonal, reproductive rates are almost always maximized when breeding and birthing times are matched to what is most natural for sheep and goats. • With fall breeding, most females will conceived in their first 17-21 days, resulting in more concentrated lambing/kidding. • Winter and fall lambing rates will be lower than spring lambing rates.
  12. 12. 2/19/2016 12 Nutritional effects on reproduction • Ewes/does in better body condition will ovulate more eggs. • Thin ewes/does can be flushed to increase ovulation rate. [flushing is when you increase the nutrient intake prior to and during the early part of breeding season, e.g. 0.5 lb. grain per head per day or better quality pasture]. • Obese (BCS >4.5) females have higher embryonic loss. • Obese (BCS >4.5) females have more problems during the periparturient period, e.g. pregnancy toxemia, prolapses, dystocia. • Improper nutrition during late gestation can cause many problems, i.e. pregnancy toxemia, milk fever, dystocia, over or undersized offspring, etc. • Aim for a body condition score of 3/5 at the time of breeding and parturition. Cull underperforming females It cost just as much to feed a ewe with a single as one with twins. • Open/barren • Fails to wean a lamb or kid • Fails to raise twins for two years in a row. • Lambs or kids outside of normal lambing/kidding season • Only milks on one side • Poor milk producer • Raises poor quality offspring • Physical defects that prevent female from raising profitable litters, e.g. age (teeth, BCS). • Don’t make excuses for ewes/does • No lamb(s)/kid(s) – no $$$$$
  13. 13. 2/19/2016 13 Two ways to use genetics to improve reproductive rate Selection • Use/purchase rams/bucks that were born/raised as multiples from most productive families on farm. • Purchase ram with above-average EBVs for number born/weaned. • Select replacements born/raised as multiples from most productive families in flock/herd. Crossbreeding • Choose a more prolific dam breed e.g. St. Croix, Katahdin, Polypay • Introduce a more prolific dam breed e.g. Finn, Romanov • Crossbred to improve fitness and fertility. • Don’t save replacements from terminal sire matings, e.g. Texel, Dorper Two advantages to crossbreeding Breed complementarity • Balance strengths and weaknesses of different breeds, e.g. Texel x Katahdin Hybrid vigor • Higher survival of crossbred offspring • Superior performance of crossbred female
  14. 14. 2/19/2016 14 Accelerated lambing/kidding Decreasing lambing/kidding interval to less then 12 months. Systems • Twice a year • Continuous, opportunistic no defined breeding seasons. • Every 8 months - 2 times/3 years • Overlapping 2 times/3 years • STAR® system - 5 times/3 years Characteristics • Spread out fixed costs • More efficient use of facilities • Year-round marketing • Better cash flow (for bank!) • Increased profitability [?] But . . . management/labor intensive Challenge . . . out-of-season breeding Breeding ewe lambs and doe kids Management • Breed at 7 to 9 months of age to lamb/kid at 12-14 months of age. • Only if well-grown: 2/3rds of their mature weight at time of joining. • Should be fed and managed separately until they wean their first litter or are bred for the second time. • Increased flock productivity. $$$$ no “free loaders” except for males! • Greater lifetime production of females • Reduce generation interval Accelerate genetic improvement CONS: ewe lambs/doe kids have more problems during the periparturient period. Possible delay in growth. Advantages
  15. 15. 2/19/2016 15 Don’t forget the boys! • Rams/bucks need good nutrition, health care, and management year-round. • Don’t wait until last minute to get new ram or buck. • Should perform breeding soundness exam prior to breeding season (physical exam + semen evaluation) • Use marking harness or rattle paint to monitor breeding activity, especially in single-sire flocks. • Males often require supplemental feeding during breeding season. • Fertility is highest during normal breeding season (fall). Males of some breeds could be limiting factor in accelerated lambing/out-of-season breeding. Remember that male contributes 50% of genetics to flock, over 90% after several years of use. Minimizing feed costs? • Do you know how much your hay costs? • Do you know how much it costs to feed one of your ewes or does for a year? • Are you feeding balanced rations or just feeding? Coping with high feed costs:!copinghighfeed/caxv
  16. 16. 2/19/2016 16 Feed is usually the single greatest cost associated with feeding livestock. Pasture is not FREE! Two kinds of feed costs Purchased/harvested feedstuffs • Hay • Grain • By-product feeds • Minerals • Milk replacer Pasture and browse • Seed • Fertilizer • Lime • Weed control • Fencing • Water
  17. 17. 2/19/2016 17 Maximize your pasture resource • Soil test Lime and fertilize • Mixed swards Grasses + clovers (forbs) • Control weeds • Rotational grazing • Extend grazing season • Plant annuals • Sacrifice field/lot • Strategic supplementation Feed balanced rations • Nutrient requirements are based on species, size (weight), breed, sex, age, stage and level of productivity. • Meet, but not exceed nutritional requirements of animals. • Balance rations for energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus (and other nutrients when necessary). • Divide into production classes for feeding. • Maximum production not always goal; profitability is!
  18. 18. 2/19/2016 18 Ration balancing 101 • Weigh animals and feed. • Need to know how much you’re feeding and how much animals are eating (and wasting). • Analyze forages and other feedstuffs that can have variable nutritional composition • You can use some book values or feed tags for many feeds, • Balance by hand, use spreadsheet, ration balancing software, or balance online.!rationsoftware/c14p1 Feed least cost rations • Shop around for feed. • Buy feed by weight (or know cost per lb. or ton). • Compare feed costs on cost ($/lb.) to provide specific nutrient to ration, e .g. protein, energy, calcium. • Compare ingredients of commercial feed products.
  19. 19. 2/19/2016 19 Make your own simple, on-farm rations • Corn/barley + pelleted protein supplement • Corn/barley + soybean meal + minerals/vitamins • Cracked corn + soybean meal + minerals/vitamins (creep feed) • Legume or mix hay + corn/barley • Rations don’t have to be complicated! Balance feed costs with labor • The most expensive way to provide nutrients is via nutritional tubs. But, they reduce labor. • There can be substantial waste if you feed round bales, especially without well-designed feeders. But, it reduces labor • When given free choice access to feed, livestock will eat more (than they need) and have reduced feed efficiency. But, it reduces labor.
  20. 20. 2/19/2016 20 Feed whole grain(s) • Once lambs/kids have functioning rumens, they are able to utilize whole grains. • There is no benefit to processing grains for small ruminants. • There are less digestive upsets when whole grain is fed. • Feed efficiency is improved with whole grains. • No forage source is necessary when whole grain finishing diets are fed to lambs (goats ?) • You can balance simple, cost-effective rations utilizing whole grains and supplements. • Some grains will pass through digestive system whole, but loss is minimal, compared to cost savings. Consider alternative feeds Soyhulls are the “almost” perfect feed • Depending economics, soyhulls can substitute for either hay or grain in the diet. • The nutrient composition of soyhulls is similar to ear corn or oats. • 1 lb. of soyhulls = approximately 1.4 lbs. of hay In forage diets, 1 lb. soyhulls = 1 lb. corn. • Soyhull pellets are preferable to “loose” soyhulls • Bulk delivered soyhulls are considerably cheaper than bagged hulls.!soyhulls/cbwi
  21. 21. 2/19/2016 21 Invest in feed storage • You can reduce feed costs substantially by purchasing bulk quantities of feed. • It doesn’t take a large flock to justify the cost of a feed bin. • Uncovered hay deteriorates rapidly in quality. • Storage gives you flexibility in feed purchases. Fine tune your mineral supplementation program • Read labels • Compare costs Phosphorus most expensive ingredient – do you need it? • Don’t supplement what you don’t need • Trace mineral salt vs. complete mineral mix • Measure intake • Keep fresh - put out week’s supply • Force feed when you can • Loose better than blocks • Different products for sheep vs. goats
  22. 22. 2/19/2016 22 Well-designed feeders • Use feeders • Don’t feed on ground. • Consider design of feeders • Remove feeders after feeding, when appropriate. • Use feeders that minimize waste. • Limit feed, if option • Provide adequate feeder space Maximizing the potential of orphan lambs/kids. • Do you have too many orphans? • Do you have ewes/does that can’t raise their lambs/kids? • Do you consider orphan lambs/kids to be a burden or bonus? Raising lambs and kids artificially!artrearing/c514 Abomasal bloat!abomasal-bloat/c7dx
  23. 23. 2/19/2016 23 How do we end up with orphans? • Reality: in order to raise a 200% lamb/kid crop (a good goal), you’re going to have some triplets, maybe a set of quads occasionally. • Genetics: not all ewes/does can raise triplets. • Nutrition: it is difficult for a ewe or doe to raise triplets on pasture (alone) or with inadequate nutrition. • Disease: mastitis orphans a lot of lambs/kids (clinical + sub-clinical) • Death: sometimes the ewe/doe dies as a result of parturition. • Mismothering: sometimes, you can’t get a ewe/doe to accept all of her offspring. • Other: some lambs/kids are too weak, small, or “stupid” to nurse. • Dairy enterprise: offspring are removed so dam can be milked • Disease elimination OPP, CAE • How can we minimize orphans? • Select for milk production. • Proper nutrition during late gestation and lactation; match nutrition to litter size. • Graft/foster extra lambs/kids, • Get ewe/doe to accept her offspring, e.g. put her in a stanchion • Cull ewes/does with mastitis or scar tissue. ✗ Sell orphans or give them away
  24. 24. 2/19/2016 24 LIVE – SURVIVE – THRIVE – GROW Hypothermia and starvation are primary causes of death in lambs and kids. • Evaluate lamb/kid • Age +/- 5 hours old • Temperature • Normal, >102°F • Mild hypothermia, 98-102°F • Hypothermia, <98°F • Condition • Hold head up • Swallow • Stand • Be able to recognize a stressed lamb or kid • Hunched posture • Hollowed out sides • Excessive bleating • Cold mouth • Dehydration • Unable to stand • Unresponsive
  25. 25. 2/19/2016 25 99-102°F < 99°F Any age Can swallow Tube feed milk or colostrum + 5 hours old No brown fat left - 5 hours old Can swallow Warm Tube feed milk or colostrum Can swallow Can’t swallow Tube feed milk or colostrum Warm Glucose by IP injection Warm Tube feed milk or colostrum Lamb or kid is sluggish, cold, not nursing Warming hypothermic lambs/kids • Normal temperature is 102-104°F. Mild hypothermia is 98-102°F Severe hypothermia is < 98°F • Warm lambs/kids slowly to restore body temperature; avoid overheating. • Many ways to warm a lamb/kid: warming “hot” box, hot water bottles, blow dryer, heat lamps, towels, rubbing, and warm water immersion. • Once a lamb/kid is actively nursing and healthy it does not need to have a heat lamp.
  26. 26. 2/19/2016 26 Intraperitoneal (IP) injection Injecting dextrose directly into abdomen to give energy boost • If a lamb/kid is more than 5 hours old and suffering from hypothermia, it is essential to provide it with an energy source (glucose) prior to warming. • 20% warm dextrose solution, 4-5 ml per lb. [20 ml 50% dextrose + 30 ml freshly boiled water] • Procedure • Hold lamb/kid by forelegs • Spray area to be injected with iodine Injection site is 1 in. below and ½ in. to side of navel • Slowly insert needle (20 gauge x 1.5”), pointing towards tail head • Slowly inject solution Importance of colostrum • First milk produced by dam. Produced during last few weeks of pregnancy. Females vary in the quantity and quality of colostrum they produce. • Darker and thicker than milk. • Contains high levels of fat, protein, vitamins, and antibodies. • Antibodies protect newborns against diseases which occur naturally (e. coli) as well as those dam was vaccinated for (clostridial diseases such as enterotoxemia and tetanus). • Antibodies can only be absorbed within first 12 hours to have disease-fighting ability. Link between colostrum consumption and mortality. Moredun, 1977
  27. 27. 2/19/2016 27 Feeding colostrum • Feed as soon as possible after birth, preferably within first 6 hours • 10% of body weight in first 24 hours • 10 lb. lamb/kid – 16 oz • 5 lb. lamb/kid – 8 oz Increase allowance by 15% for lambs/kids raised outside • Small frequent feedings • Can tube feed or feed via bottle Colostrum sources Own dam ↓ Another dam of same species in flock/herd ↓ Frozen colostrum from same flock/herd ↓ Fresh or frozen colostrum from neighbor’s farm same species ↓ Fresh or frozen colostrum from neighbor’s farm different species ↓ Commercial colostrum replacer (e.g. Land O’Lakes) Supplies IgGs ↓ Commercial colostrum supplement (e.g. La Belle) No IgGs
  28. 28. 2/19/2016 28 Tube feeding A skill all shepherds should master. • Means of placing milk directly into lamb/kid’s stomach. • Quickest way to feed lamb/kid that can hold its head up. • If lamb/kid is nursing or can take a bottle, you have to tube feed it. • Some experts recommend tube feeding over bottle feeding if lamb will be dam raised. 1. Need flexible tube and catheter tip 60 cc syringe 2. Measure tube along outside of lamb/kid. 3. Wet tube with warm water. 4. Insert tube into left side of mouth, over tongue and back into mouth and throat. 5. Let lamb swallow tube or move gently down throat 6. Attach syringe. 7. Let warm milk flow via gravity. 8. Pinch end of tube when removing. Milk replacers for lambs Not all milk replacers are the same; read the label. • Multi-species milk replacers are not recommended for lambs. • Best to use a high quality milk replacer specifically formulated for lambs (to mimic ewe’s milk). • Many quality milk replacers on the market. • Best to feed milk replacer that is “medicated” with Deccox® [coccidiostat] • Feeding cow and goat milk to lambs • The fat content of sheep milk is much higher than cow’s or goat’s milk. • Can feed full cream cow milk (or Jersey milk) or fortify milk with fats or oils to increase energy content. • Waste milk from treated cows, does, and ewes is another viable option, with added fat.
  29. 29. 2/19/2016 29 Milk replacers for kids Not all milk replacers are the same; read the label. • Can feed multi-species milk replacer, but better to feed milk replacer that has been specifically formulated for kids (to mimic doe’s milk). • Many quality milk replacers on market. • Best to feed kid milk replacer that is “medicated” with Deccox® [coccidiostat] • No problem feeding whole cow milk to kids; no need to mix with anything else. • Waste milk is another viable option. Methods of feeding milk replacer
  30. 30. 2/19/2016 30 Methods of feeding milk replacer Smaller numbers • Free choice feeding Warm or cool milk Group fed • Hand feeding, bottle with nipple • Reduced labor Higher intake Higher gain Larger numbers • Limit-feeding Set amount 2-4 times daily • Nipple on bottle Nipple pail Open vessel • Labor intensive Reduced cost of milk Primary health problems of artificially-reared lambs and kids • Bloat • Constipation • Scours (diarrhea) • Infectious • Non-infectious
  31. 31. 2/19/2016 31 Treatments, medicine cabinet for orphans • Electrolytes Pedialyte • Castor oil • Mineral oil Vegetable oil • Antacid • Enema • Pepto-bismal, Kaopectate • Antibiotics • Injectables Weaning orphan lambs/kids • Can wean as early as 3-4 weeks. 6-8 weeks more common. • When to wean depends upon whether lambs/kids are eating dry feed and drinking water. • Size more important than age when deciding when to wean (same with dam-raised offspring). • 20 lbs. minimum • 2.5x birth weight • Can wean abruptly or after reducing # feedings. • Best not to feed hay until several weeks after weaning. • Lambs/kids will suffer at temporary set-back after weaning, but will adjust with compensatory gains.
  32. 32. 2/19/2016 32 Management tips for orphans • Adequate colostrum intake • Feed in small pens • Good sanitation of feeding equipment and pen • Milk proteins not plant proteins Skim milk vs. dried whey • Feed cool milk to prevent digestive upsets • Can add formulin or yogurt to milk as prevention for bloat • Start on dry feed (grain) early • Vaccinate for CDT multiple times • Coccidiostat in milk replacer and starter diet Can you make money with orphans? • Depends • They increase lambing percentage • Economics 15-20 lbs. milk replacer per lamb/kid $40-60 for 25-lb. bag of milk replacer $32-$48 extra cost for orphan lamb/kid (excluding labor) • What can you sell orphans for? • Could orphan lambs/kids be a profit center on your farm: buy/sell?
  33. 33. 2/19/2016 33 Managing internal parasitism • Do you have to deworm your animals a lot? • Do you know which dewormers work on your farm? • Do you rely too much on drugs to control internal parasites? American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control or Internal parasites are the primary health problem of small ruminants. • Sheep and goats can be infected by many different parasites, but two the most important and cause the most losses. 1. Haemonchus contortus Barber pole worm 2. Eimeria spp. Coccidia
  34. 34. 2/19/2016 34 Internal parasites cause losses in two ways. Clinical, including death Sub-clinical, production losses Anthelmintic/dewormer resistance is a reality and growing problem. • Drug resistance was/is inevitable. • Worms have developed resistance to all dewormers and dewormer classes. • Resistance varies by geographic region and farm and is based on past use of drugs. • Most farms have resistance to benzimidazoles (SafeGuard®, Valbazen® and avermectins (Ivomec®. Moxidecin (Cydectin®) and levamisole (Prohibit®) are still effective on many farms. • On farms with resistance, dewormers may still be clinically effective; all producers need to manage to minimize development of resistant worms.
  35. 35. 2/19/2016 35 Testing for dewormer resistance Should do every 2-3 years Fecal egg count reduction test • Compare fecal egg counts from animals before they are treated with fecal egg counts from after they were treated with anthelmintic. • Need to do before/after fecal egg counts for each drug you want to test. • Cost varies. • Need a lot of animals to get meaningful data. DrenchRite® • Submit pooled fecal sample to University of Georgia for larval development assay. • Labor-intensive lab test that determines resistance to all drugs. • Costs $450 • Can do with smaller number of animals. What about “natural” dewormers? A dewormer kills parasites in the animal! • There’s only one: copper oxide wire particles (COWP). It is only effective against barber pole worm. • Anything you do to reduce pasture contamination will reduce the number of animals that require treatment. • Anything you do to improve the nutritional and immune status of your animals will reduce the number that require treatment. • Always regularly monitor animals for clinical signs of parasitism and give them a commercial dewormer when they are clinically parasitized. • There are ongoing studies evaluating various compounds for their effect on internal parasites.
  36. 36. 2/19/2016 36 Enemy #1: barber pole worm Haemonchus contortus • Blood-feeding roundworm that attaches itself to the abomasum (true stomach) and causes anemia (blood loss) and submandibular edema (bottle jaw). • Other symptoms include weight loss, loss of body condition, weakness, anorexia, and lethargy. Can also cause sudden death. • Is difficult to control because of its short, direct life cycle, prolific egg laying ability, and ability to go into hypobiotic (arrested) state. How do sheep and goats get infected with worms?
  37. 37. 2/19/2016 37 Enemy #2: Eimeria spp. Coccidia • Single-cell protozoa that destroys intestinal cells and causes loss of blood and electrolytes and poor absorption of nutrients; recovering animals may be left with scar tissue and continue to show ill thrift. • Most common symptom is scours (diarrhea), but not always. Other symptoms include weight loss, loss of body condition, rough hair coat, anorexia, and lethargy. Losses can be acute. • Coccidia have a more complicated life cycle that stomach worms. Animals pick up infective oocysts from food, water, or bedding or anything they lick that has been contaminated by feces. • Coccidia are species-specific; even sheep and goats are affected by different strains of coccidia. Not all strains are pathogenic. Understanding immunity Ability to resist infection • It is normal for sheep and goats to be “infected” with various parasites. Positive egg counts are normal. • Sheep and goats eventually develop immunity to parasites. • The age at which they develop immunity depends upon the parasite, the species(goats vs. sheep), the breed, and the individual sheep or goat. • Sheep/goats must have continuous exposure to a low level of parasites in order to develop and maintain immunity; deworming prevents development of immunity. • Immunity can be overcome by stressful conditions or heavy parasite exposure. • Immunity is compromised during the periparturient period.
  38. 38. 2/19/2016 38 Two aspects of worm control Management Drug treatment Two aspects of worm control Management • Pasture management • Grazing management • Zero grazing • Nutritional management • Genetic selection • Biosecurity Drug treatment • Targeted selective treatment • FAMACHA© system • Five Point Check© • Happy Factor©. • Proper use of anthelmintics, including testing for resistance. • DrenchRite® test • Fecal egg count reduction test
  39. 39. 2/19/2016 39 Management affects internal parasite risk. • When/where you kid/lamb. • Age of weaning • Cleanliness of facilities • Stocking and penning rates • Nutrition, including colostrum intake • Biosecurity practices Zero grazing • Sheep/goats raised in dry lot have practically no parasite issues. • There is no source of infection or re-infection in dry lot or confinement. • It may be wise to feed some classes of sheep/goats in dry lot • Pasture for ewe flock/doe herd • Zero grazing for weaned lambs/kids • Graze replacements so they can develop immunity • Dry lot feeding can be forage or concentrate-based. • Coccidiosis is still a risk.
  40. 40. 2/19/2016 40 Pasture and grazing management • Pasture rest/rotation • Clean pastures • Annual pastures • Alternative forages e.g. Sericea lespedeza, chicory • Multi-species grazing • Minimum grazing height • Delayed grazing • Night penning • Browsing Proper use of anthelmintics • Drench formulations only • Oral drenching only • Use oral dosing syringe with long metal nozzle, so you can deposit drug over tongue into esophagus • Don’t under-dose; dose based on accurate weights • Give higher dosages (per lb) to goats (usually 2x sheep dose) • Proper extra-label use of dewormers • Fast when giving benzimidazoles (SafeGuard® and Valbazen® and ivermectins. • Hold in dry lot for 48 hours after dosing • Test for dewormer resistance.
  41. 41. 2/19/2016 41 Periparturient egg rise What is it? • Females suffer a temporary loss of immunity to parasites from late gestation through early lactation. • If eggs are deposited on pasture, they can become primary source of infection to grazing lambs/kids. • Often coincides with hypobiotic larvae resuming their life cycle, the “spring rise.” Manage it • Deworm females during late pregnancy leave a few “fat” ones untreated). • Increase protein level of ration during late gestation. • Maintain pregnant and lactating females in dry lot during periparturient period. • Never let kids/lambs graze. • Lamb/kid in fall or winter. Using genetics to control internal parasitism • Between species Goats are more susceptible than sheep • Between breeds Some breeds are more resistant • Within breeds • Parasite resistance (fecal egg counts) is a moderately heritable trait. • Fecal egg counts are not evenly dispersed in a flock/herd; 20-30% of animals are responsible for 70-80% of fecal egg production. • There is a correlation between FAMACHA© scores and fecal egg counts. St. Croix
  42. 42. 2/19/2016 42 There are reasons why goats are more susceptible to internal parasites. More resistant breeds Sheep 1. Hair sheep St. Croix Barbados Blackbelly 2. Hair composite Katahdin 3. Wool Natives (Gulf Coast, Florida, LA) Texel (?) Goats (less data) • Spanish • Kiko • Myotonic • Savanna (?)
  43. 43. 2/19/2016 43 Selecting for parasite resistance • Principles of selection: select best males for breeding [top] and cull the worst females • Don’t keep or buy males (especially) or replacement females that require deworming (or frequent deworming). • Do fecal egg counts and keep animals with lowest egg counts; make sure there is enough of a parasite challenge (compare apples to apples!) • Consign and/or purchase rams to/from SW Virginia Performance Test. Rams are kept on pasture and challenged with worm larvae. • Purchase Katahdin ram(s) with above-average EBVs for parasite resistance • Consign and/or purchase (Kiko) bucks to/from Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test. Bucks are raised on pasture and evaluated for parasite resistance. What is Targeted Selective Treatment (TST)? No whole-flock treatments. Only treating animals that require deworming (based on clinical signs) Only treating animals that would benefit from deworming. • Means of increasing “refugia.” • Refugia are worms that have not been exposed to drug(s) in animal or on pasture. • Refugia are essential to prolonging effectiveness of anthelmintics and slowing the rate of drug resistance.
  44. 44. 2/19/2016 44 What are the tools of TST? 1. FAMACHA© system 2. Five Point Check® 3. Happy Factor™ FAMACHA© system • Utilizes a color eye chart to estimate the level of anemia in the animal. Anemia is primary symptom of barber pole worm infection. • FAMACHA© score is an estimate of packed cell volume (PCV) or blood hematocrit (% red blood cells in whole blood). A measure of anemia. • FAMACHA© card gives treatment recommendations. • Card only works for blood-feeding parasites, such as barber pole worm. • Must take training to get card; online training in the works (new card being developed).
  45. 45. 2/19/2016 45 Five Point Check© • Extension of the FAMACHA© system. • Adds criteria for evaluating the need to deworm for all parasites commonly affecting sheep/goats. • 5 check points on animal’s body 1. Eye (FAMACHA© score) 2. Jaw (bottle jaw) 3. Back (body condition score, 1-5) 4. Tail (dag score/scours, 0-5) 5. Nose (nasal bots) Coat condition for goats (1-3) Happy Factor™ • Animals performing as expected are deemed “happy” and are therefore not likely to benefit from treatment. • When animals fail to perform as well as they could, they would benefit from treatment. • Weight gain is used as the primary criteria for making deworming decisions. • Milk production could also be a criteria • Happy Factor™ is especially useful where/when worms other than barber pole are problematic. • Could be useful for dealing with sub-clinical parasitism, i.e. animals with FAMACHA© scores of 3
  46. 46. 2/19/2016 46 Control of coccidia • Prevent with good sanitation, nutrition, and management. • Prevent with coccidiostats in feed, mineral, water, and/or milk replacer. • Bovatec® - sheep • Rumensin ® - goats (toxic to equines) • Deccox® - sheep, goats • Corid® - OTC, Rx • Treat with amprolium (Corid) or sulfa drugs [Rx] • Sericea lespedeza may provide natural control of coccidiosis • New Veterinary Feed Directive may affect how we control/treat coccidiosis in sheep/lambs (sulfa drugs are affected by new regulations) All PowerPoint presentation(s) can be downloaded from SlideShare Go to Choose SlideShare from the Social Media drop-down menu
  47. 47. 2/19/2016 47 Thank you for your attention. Do you have any questions or comments? SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension