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When deworming is not enough

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From 2020 Weekly Worm Webinar Series. Presentation by Dr. Niki Whitley from Fort Valley State University.

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When deworming is not enough

  1. 1. WHEN DEWORMING IS NOT ENOUGH DR. NIKI WHITLEY FORT VALLEY STATE UNIVERSITY WHITLEYN@FVSU.EDU 478-391-4840
  2. 2. Worms •Internal parasites •Others- depending on weather/season •Haemonchus contortus (“Barberpole worm”) • Resistant to drugs from all three classes (“-dazole”, “-ectin”, other) Image: Sue Howell, wormx.info Image: wormx.info
  3. 3. Management •Integrated methods- • Pasture Management • Animal Management • Dewormer Management • Others www.wormx.info (photo left) Image: Niki Whitley www.wormx.info/webinar-videos
  4. 4. Management •Integrated methods- • Pasture Management • Rotate (1-3 d), rest (60-90 d), height (over 6”); use of annuals, burn dormant pastures, new pastures, use of browse, alternative forages (sericea); multi- species grazing (horses/cattle); stocking rates (start 3-5 adults/acre; best to use weight/animal units); Bioworma ® for reduced pasture worm larvae? Turnips; www.wormx.info - Linda Coffey Browse; www.wormx.info - Heather Glennon
  5. 5. Management •Integrated methods- • Animal Management • Good nutrition (energy and protein); higher protein (30% over); may need to consider supplementation; good loose minerals (Cu, Co); body condition score (2-4); focus-weaning to 1 yr and late pregnant/lactating; genetic selection www.wormx.info - Lisa Williamson; body condition scoring www.wormx.info - Joan Burke
  6. 6. Management •Integrated methods- • Dewormer Management • Combinations (only those that need it); TST (FAM/5 Pt Ck); maintain refugia, give correctly (right dose by weight; orally over tongue back of mouth), higher doses for goats; follow storage directions and monitor exp. dates; COWP as a dewormer? www.wormx.info - Katherine Petersson www.wormx.info - Joan Burke Work with vet for extra-label drug use
  7. 7. Deworming Enough? •If FAMACHA 4 – 5/symptomatic (diarrhea, rough hair coat, off feed, weight loss) • Deworm correctly using effective (chemical/drug) deworming protocol • Not eating – supplement first/liver support? Less ‘harsh’ dewormers first? No oral use of pour ons… Images: Susan Schoenian Consult with a veterinarian
  8. 8. Deworming Enough? •If FAMACHA 4 – 5/symptomatic • Fecal egg counts – monitor for reduction, check for coccidia • Prevent reinfection (move inside? pen?) • Keep stress as low as possible • Another sheep/goat with them • Monitor FAMACHA© score; usually takes 2-3 weeks to see a full score change Images: Susan Schoenian Consult with a veterinarian
  9. 9. Nutritional Support •Provide high quality nutrition/ feed • Higher protein (legumes, feed) • Change slowly • Cut & carry • “Favorites” • Keep it close • Keep in sternal position • Prop against fence/wall/straw bales • Right side? Help move? Image: Susan Schoenian
  10. 10. Nutritional Support • Not eating – Drench • Propylene glycol (60 cc twice a day?); not long term • Nutrient drenches/homemade drenches/dark beer (?), karo syrup/molasses for quick energy; protein source (powered?) • Yogurt (live cultures), probiotics? • Bicarbonate (?) *Images: Susan Schoenian *No endorsement of specific trade names is intended
  11. 11. Hydration • Keep hydrated* • Water (with electrolytes) nearby • Drench or Tube (electrolytes) • Need ½ to 1 gallon/day water min. • 1 qt = 950 cc; 4 qt/gallon • Stop diarrhea • **Kaolin pectin, Pepto-bismol©, similar • Sericea lespedeza? Image: Susan Schoenian *If dehydrated/critical: injectable lactated ringers or isotonic (0.9%) sterile saline i.v. or s.c. Rx (see veterinarian); **No trade name endorsements intended
  12. 12. Supplemental Treatments •Some research: Iron • With injected iron (25 mg/kg or 11.4 mg/lb body weight) on day 0 and 7 of treatment), Rocha et al. (2013) reported increased erythropoiesis (red blood cell formation) at day 7, 14 and 21 after treatment in lambs • Casanova et al. (2018) – injected iron dextran (20 mg/kg or 9 mg/lb bodyweight) during artificial infection with barberpole worm (every 7 days starting at day 10); lambs had improved red blood cell counts, hematocrit (%) and hemoglobin concentration Goat producers have used 100 mg/ml iron dextran at 4cc/100 lb (1 cc= 1 ml) daily for 3 days then weekly until stronger with FAM 5 animals; can overdose them, so consult a veterinarian
  13. 13. Supplemental Treatments •Some research: Vitamin B12 • In NZ, Chicory reduced FEC in deer; resulted in higher Cu and B12 (Barry et al. 2002) • Injectable B12 is Rx only; can use fortified Vitamin B complex (much lower levels; 10x less B12) has other B vitamins like B2, niacin, B6 and thiamine (B1, 5x less than Rx thiamine) • B9 (folate) and B12 important for blood cell formation • Can get oral supplements (B12 water soluble) for B vitamins and iron *Image: Susan Schoenian, modified *No endorsement of specific trade names is intended
  14. 14. Minerals? •Cobalt (mineral needed for B12/building blood)/deficiency •Selenium (in a deficient area) •Copper (COWP as treatment provides) and zinc deficiencies can cause anemia Can overdose animals when ‘treating’ with minerals – take care, work with knowledgeable vet
  15. 15. Supplemental Treatments? •Oral multi-vitamin/mineral supplements such as *Red Cell©, have been used by some producers (different doses): • Using less “symptomatically” parasitized animals, with one dose (30cc) at deworming, no differences noted in control study at FVSU *No endorsement of specific trade names is intended; check labels and work with vet *Image: Susan Schoenian
  16. 16. Supplemental Treatments? •Vitamin K (for blood clotting), Rx (work with vet) •Other countries, especially India, vets recommend “liver tonics” before or with deworming (choline, milk thistle extract, others, including vitamins/minerals)
  17. 17. Veterinary Treatments •Along with Rx supplemental treatments (and i.v. for dehydration) mentioned •Blood transfusion (normal PCV: 27-45% sheep; 22-38% goat); can have reactions but rare; usually only do once Image: www.researchgate.net/figure/Blood- transfusion-in-a-goat-Fig-10-Blood-transfusion- in-a-ram_fig4_322247304
  18. 18. Deworming is not enough… • Animal management, deworming management and nutritional management are important tools for managing parasites in small ruminants • Provide adequate nutrition and mineral supplementation (i.e. loose minerals made for your animal; vitamin/mineral packs mixed into feedstuffs) based on your farm/area needs to help fight worms/avoid other nutritional issues Image: Susan Schoenian

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