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KKU_Biomech_M1_L1

  Musculoskeletal system




                                                       Lesson (1)

Dr / Sh...
Upon successful completion of this lesson you
  would be able to:

  1- Identify functions of bones.
  2- Distinguish betw...
Introduction

Bone is a calcified osteoid [os = bone
+ oid = form or resemblance] tissue.
Bones function as levers, minera...

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Bones

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Bones

  1. 1. KKU_Biomech_M1_L1 Musculoskeletal system Lesson (1) Dr / Shimaa Essa Lecturer of physical therapy , faculty of community, King Khalid university
  2. 2. Upon successful completion of this lesson you would be able to: 1- Identify functions of bones. 2- Distinguish between different Classifications of bones. 3- Name all bones of the human skeleton.
  3. 3. Introduction Bone is a calcified osteoid [os = bone + oid = form or resemblance] tissue. Bones function as levers, mineral salts store, supporters and protectors of the vital organs of the human body. Bones have several classifications along with its sub- classifications, that you need to know all about it.
  4. 4. Functions of Bones 1) Support of the body 2) Protection of soft organs 3) Movement due to attached skeletal muscles 4) Storage of minerals and fats 5) Blood cell formation
  5. 5. Long Short Shape Irregular Pneumatic Skull Flat Bone Rib cage classifications (Ribs + Sternum) Axial skeleton Vertebral column Location Shoulder girdle + Appendicular Upper limb skeleton Pelvic girdle Dynamic Compact + structure Spongy Lower limb
  6. 6. Classification of bone according to location
  7. 7. Appendicular Axial skeleton skeleton
  8. 8. Forms the longitudinal part of the body Divided into three parts Skull Vertebral Column Rib Cage
  9. 9. Skull
  10. 10. The Vertebral Column Consists of 33 Consists of 5 regions: vertebrae 1. Cervical region Vertebrae separated (7 vertebrae). by intervertebral discs 2. Thoracic region (12 vertebrae). The spine has 4 normal curvatures 3. Lumber region (5 vertebrae). 4. Sacral region (5vertebrae). 5. Coccygeal region (4 vertebrae).
  11. 11.  Ribs  Thoracic Vertebrae  Sternum  Costal cartilages •7 True ribs are directly attached to the sternum (first 7 pairs) •3 false ribs are joined to the 7th rib •2 floating ribs
  12. 12. Divided into 2 parts 1- Upper appendicular skeleton ( shoulder girdle + upper limb) 2- Lower appendicular skeleton (pelvic girdle + lower limb)
  13. 13. Upper oShoulder (pectoral) girdle: Scapula + Clavicle o Upper limb: 1- Proximal segment bone ( ) 2- Intermediate segment bones ( ) 3- Distal segment of bones (8 Carpals, 5 Metacarpals, 14 phalanges).
  14. 14. Upper Distal segment Three sets of bones (8 Carpals, 5 Metacarpals, 14 phalanges).
  15. 15. Lower o Pelvic girdle: 2 Hip bones + Sacrum o Lower limb: 1- Proximal segment bone (Femure) 2- Intermediate segment bones ( , ) 3- Distal segment of bones (7 Tarsals, 5 Metatarsals, 14 phalanges).
  16. 16. Lower Three sets of bones (7 Tarsals, 5 Metatarsals, 14 phalanges).
  17. 17. Classification of bone according to shape
  18. 18. 1. Long- bones are longer than they are wide, and have a shaft and 2 condyles.(Humerus, metacarpals) 2. Short- usually square in shape, cube like (carpals, tarsals) 3. Flat- flat , curved (cranial bones, Sternum) 4. Irregular- odd shapes (vertebrae, pelvis) 5. Pneumatic - has air filled spaces e.g. cranial bones.
  19. 19. Structure of a long bone 1. Shaft a. Hollow cylinder of compact bone. b. Central cavity contains bone marrow -- production of blood cells. 2. Epiphyses. a. Surface of compact bone. b. Central areas are spongy bone -- contain bone marrow.
  20. 20. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  21. 21. Two basic types Compact bone • Homogeneous, hard Spongy bone Small spong-like pieces of bone Many open spaces
  22. 22. In this lesson we discussed functions of bones, Learned how bones are classified, and also knew names of each bone in the human skeleton.

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