▶ Collagen is a family of protein present in all tissues
and organs, it provides the framework that gives the
tissues their form and strength.
▶ It is a fibrous protein which is produced by a variety
of cell types.
▶ They consist of amino acid, organic molecule made
from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
▶ Fibroblast are the cells that most commonly produce
▶ Minerals are natural occurring means they are made
▶ They are inorganic and are not made by organism.
▶ They have definite composition which means
occurrences of minerals varies within a specific
▶ They have ordered internal structure which means
that the atoms in a mineral are arranged in a
systematic and repeating pattern.
Minerals In Bone
▶ Bone minerals is an organic compound, it gives bones
▶ Many functions of the bone in the body are regulated by
▶ In addition to the mechanical functions of the bone it is
a reservoir for minerals.
▶ The mineral component is composed of hydroxyapatite,
which is an insoluble salt of calcium and phosphorus.
About 65% of adult bone mass is hydroxyapatite.
▶ The bone stores 99% of the body's calcium and 85% of the
▶ It is very important to keep the blood level of calcium
within a narrow range. If blood calcium gets too high or
too low, the muscles and nerves will not function.
Components Of Bone
▶ Bone is a tissue in which
the extracellular matrix
has been hardened to
supporting function. The
of bone, like all
connective tissues, are
cells and matrix. The cells
build up and break down
bone matrix, which is
composed of organic and
Organic Portion Of Bone
▶ Osteoid (form organic portion ), which is the
unmineralized matrix composed mainly of type I collagen
and other protein molecules( proteoglycans ,
Inorganic Portion Of Bone
▶ Hydroxyapatite (form the inorganic portion ),
calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite
, that gives bone its
strength and rigidity.
• The minerals in your bones serve two primary functions. As components of mixed
crystals, minerals transform spongy bone matrix into a rigid structure
• Your bones also function as a mineral storage depot, releasing dissolved calcium,
phosphorus and magnesium into your bloodstream if needed.
• Although the quantity of magnesium in your bones is significantly less than that of
calcium and phosphorus, magnesium remains an important contributor to bone
• fluoride supports your bone strength by forming crystals in open spaces between
the more numerous calcium phosphate crystals.
Function Of Minerals In Bone
Location Of Different Types Of Cartilage
There are over 11 types of collagen characterized
by having 19 unique chains. They are divided into
three general classes:
∙ A molecule containing a length greater than 30
nm in uninterrupted helical chain.
∙ 301 nm molecules in which the helical chain is
∙ Relatively short molecules in which the helical
region may be continuous and uninterrupted.
Class 1 (300 nm triple helix)
Type I – Skin, bone, ligament
Type II – Cartilage, disc, eye
Type III – Skin, blood vessels, ligament
Type V – With type I
Type XI – With type I
Class 2 (basement membranes)
Type IV – Basal lamina
Class 3 (short-chain<300 nm molecules)
Type IX – Cartilage (with type II)
Type X – Hypertrophic cartilage
Percentage Of Organic And
Inorganic Material In Bone
All things composed of elements:-
Phosphate- phosphorus containing molecule. 99% of body
Mostly collagen and other molecules.
Contains over 99% of body calcium.
Roughly 4% of body potassium.
35% of total body sodium.
50% of body magnesium.
Properties of collagen
▶ They are readily recognized
▶ They are generally white
▶ Possess high tensile
▶ Low extensibility
▶ They tend to swell in
▶ They contract on heating
▶ It is in soluble in the body
1- Most minerals have a distinctive color that can be used
2-Hardness is a measure of the mineral’s resistance to
3-Minerals tend to break along lines or smooth surfaces
when hit sharply. Different minerals break in different
ways showing different types of cleavage.
4-Mineral crystals occur in various shapes and sizes. The
particular shape is determined by the arrangement of the
atoms, molecules or ions that make up the crystal and
how they are joined
5-Diaphaneity is a mineral’s degree of transparency or
ability to allow light to pass through it. The degree of
transparency may also depend on the thickness of the
Properties of Minerals