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Research Aptitude
1. What is research
- An attitude of inquiry.
- An attempt to elicit facts
- A systematic and scholarly ...
Applied Fundamental
Find solution for immediate problem Generalizations and formulation of a theory
Research is aimed at a...
- They know how to plan, organize and maximize educational output
v. Finance
- Problems taken for study require financial ...
5. Determining Sample Design
- the items selected constitute what is called a sample
- Sample design is a plan determined ...
(vi) Cluster sampling
 Grouping of population and then selecting the groups or the groups or the clusters rather than
ind...
10. Generalization and Interpretation
 If hypothesis is tested and upheld its easy to build a theory
 Triggers new quest...
 Reconstruction of a person's life events
 Used in Longitudinal studies
E. Test Method
 Measures all kinds of abilities...
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Research Aptitude

Research Aptitude

  1. 1. Research Aptitude 1. What is research - An attitude of inquiry. - An attempt to elicit facts - A systematic and scholarly application of the scientific method - A state of mind 2. Characteristics of Research - It’s a scientific investigation - It helps in developing and evaluating concepts and theories - Expands the limits of knowledge - Findings through research cannot be implemented immediately - Its an essential tool for good decision making 3. Aims and Objectives of Research Main aim : To find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet - Gain familiarity with a phenomenon and to achieve new insights - Portray accurately the characteristics (description) - Determine the frequency with which something occurs (diagnosic) - Test hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables 4. Types of Research i. Classification - I a. Fundamental research - Used when developing theories, generalizations and principles - Methods: Sampling, Hypothesizing and laboratories b. Applied Research - Utilizes principles made by fundamental research to know the problems with best possible manner - Undertaken to solve an immediate problem c. Action Research - Immediate application but not any development of theory ii. Classification - II Descriptive Analytical Description of the state of affairs as it exists Has to use facts that are readily available Also known as Ex post facto research Facts analyzed to make a critical evaluation Researcher has no control over the variables Used to discover causes when variables cannot be controlled Fact finding enquires and field surveys Method of research: Survey
  2. 2. Applied Fundamental Find solution for immediate problem Generalizations and formulation of a theory Research is aimed at a solution Concerns natural phenomenon or math Solution to some pressing practical problem Finding information that has a broad base of application Adds to the existing body of scientific knowledge Quantitative Qualititative Phenomena that can be quantified Used in behavioural sciences Used when studying human behaviour Projective techniques used Phenomena involves quality or kind Conceptual Empirical Based on some ideas on theory Relies on experience or observation Used by philosophers and thinkers Data based research Experimental research One time research: Confined to a single time period Longititudinal research: Research carried over several time periods Field Setting Research or Laboratory research: Depending on the environment Clinical or Diagnostic Research: Goes deep into the causes of events or things Exploratory or Formalized: Development of hypothesis/ Testing hypothesis Historical : Uses historical resources to study events or ideas of the past Problem oriented research: To look for solutions to the problem Decision oriented: Done for the need of the decision maker. Operational: Example of decision making research. Provides a quantitative basis for taking up a decision 5. Research requirements i. Planning - Definition and Classification or purpose and scope of operations - Analysis to determine the meaning of facts - Planning helps in bringing a good result in the conclusion ii. Guidance - Helps researcher concentrate on problems - Concerned with the selection of problems iii. Experts - Knowledge in the area being studied - Must be able to guide properly and formulate a well planned project for research iv. Training
  3. 3. - They know how to plan, organize and maximize educational output v. Finance - Problems taken for study require financial help from the state vi. References - Well planned project - Preliminary work done helps while investigating the problem vii. Library - Provides materials through books which enhances the quality and quantity of the research viii. Research Journals - Provides studies and research done nationally and internationally 6. Steps of Research 1. Formulating the research problem - Maybe related to states of nature or relationships between variables - A researcher must single out problem to be study and must decide the aura of interest - Feasibility of a particular solution has to be considered before working on the problem - Two steps in formulating a research problem: Understanding the problem thoroughly and Rephrasing the same into meaningful terms - Discuss the problem with experts - Examine available literature both conceptual and empirical - Reevaluate the problem and focus on its specifics - Make sure the problem can be defined unambiguously - State the objective - Pertinent terms in relation to the problem must be defined 2. Extensive Literature Survey - Brief summary of the problem after the problem is formulated - Write a synopsis of the topic and submit it to the committee or research board - Literature survey by abstracting journals and reading up bibliography 3. Development of working Hypothesis - It’s made so as to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences - Discuss with work colleagues and experts about the problem - Examine past data and records - Review similar studies in that area - Personally investigate the problem with interested parties 4. Preparing the research design - Means of obtaining the information - Ability and skill of the researcher and staff - Explaining the way in which selected means of obtaining information will be organized and the reasoning leading to selection - Time available for research - Cost factor relating to research
  4. 4. 5. Determining Sample Design - the items selected constitute what is called a sample - Sample design is a plan determined before any data are actually collected for obtaining a sample from a given population - Samples can either be: Probability Sample - Each have an element of being included in the sample and are based on Random, Systematic,Stratified, Cluster/Area Sampling. Non Probabilty Sample - Based on Consciences Sampling, Judgement Sampling and Quota Sampling - Some of the important sample designs are: (i) Deliberate Sampling  Purposive or deliberate selection of particular units of the universe for constituting a sample that represents the universe.  When population elements are selected based on access it's known as convenience sampling  Judgement sampling is when a researchers judgement is used to select items he considers to be representative of the population (ii) Simple Random Sampling  Each and every item in the population has equal chance of inclusion in the sample and each one has the probability of being selected. (iii) Systematic Sampling  An element of randomness is usually introduced into this kind of sampling by using random numbers to pick up the unit with which to start.  Useful when sample frame is in form of a list  Selection process starts by picking some random point on the list and then every nth element is selected until the desired number is secured (iv) Stratified Sampling  If the population from which a sample is to be drawn doesn't constitute a homogeneous group, then stratified sampling technique is applied so as to obtain a representative sample  The population is stratified into a number of non-overlapping subpopulations or strata and sample items are selected from each stratum.  If the items selected from each stratum is based on simple random sampling, the entire procedure, first stratification and then simple random sampling is known as stratified random sampling. (v) Quota Sampling  When interviewers are simply given quota to be filled from different strata, tge actual selection of the items for sample being left to the individual's judgement  Size of quota is proportionate to size of stratum in the population  Form of non probability sampling.
  5. 5. (vi) Cluster sampling  Grouping of population and then selecting the groups or the groups or the clusters rather than individual elements for inclusion in the sample  Sample size must often be larger than the simple random sample to ensure same level of accuracy as in cluster sampling there is a chance of various biases and error  However this procedure is relatively easier than others and can be used in the case of personal interviews (vii) Area Sampling  Area is divided into smaller non overlapping areas = geograpical clusters and a number of these smaller areas are randomly selected  Field interviewing is made more efficient through this technique and when there's no list of the population (viii) Multi stage Sampling  Meant for large geographical areas like an entire country (ix) Sequential Sampling  Ultimate size of the sample is determined as the survey progresses 6. Collecting the data  Various ways - experiment or survey  Survey methods include - observation, personal interviews, telephone interviews, mailing of questionnaires, schedules 7. Execution of the project  Its necessary to collect adequate and dependable data in a systematic manner and in time  Careful watch on uncontrollable factors  Survey must be under statistical control  Must deal with non respondents 8. Analysis of Data  Categorize raw data  Coding to transform categorized data to symbols - editing can also be done at this stage  Tabulation is done to put classified data in form of tables  Statistical inferences are drawn through the assistance of computers 9. Hypothesis testing  Chi-square, t-test, f-test  Either accepts the hypothesis or rejects it
  6. 6. 10. Generalization and Interpretation  If hypothesis is tested and upheld its easy to build a theory  Triggers new questions in the hypothesis 11. Preparation of the report/ thesis  Introduction  Summary  Main Report  Conclusion  Bibliography 7. Methods of Research  Provide new and useful information in an orderly and precise manner. A. Experimental Method  Matter of logic not location  Special laboratories to control conditions  Labs are generally located in universities or a research institute 1. Laboratory  Control conditions and take measurements of variables in an orderly manner 2. Variables  Independent Variable - Independent of what subject does  Dependent Variables - Variable affected by changes (measure of subject behaviour) 3. Degree of Control  Use of precision instruments to control unseen variables 4. Value of an experiment B. Observational Method  Observation in natural environment C. Survey Method - Field Studies  Either through the use of questionnaires or interviews D. Case Studies  Scientific Biographies
  7. 7.  Reconstruction of a person's life events  Used in Longitudinal studies E. Test Method  Measures all kinds of abilities, interests, attitudes and accomplishments  Subjects are presented with a uniform situation to a group of people who vary in aspects relevant to the situation 8. Research Ethics  Researcher must ensure that data is accurate  Researcher must not try to intentionally prove a point  Researcher must ensure that data is sufficiently investigated and findings are totally accurate  Researcher must not misrepresent the statistical accuracy of data nor must they over represent the results by altering the findings  Researcher must ensure privacy, anonymity and set out a code of ethics 9. Thesis Writing & 10. Typing of Report  Final stage of research  Provides overall view and solution to the problem  Provides all the elements of the project taken for study  Bears the total summary of the work  Satisfies all researchers by providing partial or detailed knowledge over their problems A) Format of Thesis Writing 1. Preliminary Section * Title Page * Acknowledgement * Table of Contents * List of Tables * List of Figures 2. Main Body * Introduction to the topic * Analysis of Literature * Design of the study * Presentation and Analysis of Data * Summary and Conclusions 3. Reference Section * Bibliography * Appendix * Footnotes
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Research Aptitude

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