Exploring digital fake news phenomenon in indonesia cpr south_short_pdf
(Research In Progress)
Exploring Digital Fake News Phenomenon in Indonesia
Prepared By :
CPRSouth 2018, Maputo, Mozambique
Department Business & Technology Management
KAIST, South Korea
Image Source : Depositphotos.com
Riri Kusumarani, HangJung Zo
Background . Research Motivation, Research Question, Research Objective
Findings & Analysis
Overview The Trend : Digital Fake News
Intentional disinformation (invention or falsification of facts) for political and or com
mercial purposes, presented as real news (McNair,2017)
False news stories that are intentionally packaged and published as if they were ge
nuine (Allcott & Gentzkow,2017; DiFranzo & Gloria-Garcia,2017)
130 millions Facebook subscribers ; annual
growth of 23% *.
* Source: wearesocial.com ; report on Digital …
** Source : Mastel.or.id.
Survey done by MASTEL(2017)**
61.5% said they encountered a minimum
of 1 fake news / day.
> 50% can spot hoax based on clarificati
< 14.40% understands what actually hap
Overview Digital Fake News in Indonesia
Types & Channels of Digital Fake News are Commonly Found in Indonesia?
Digital Fake News Spread in Indonesia
Overview Research Questions & Objectives
Explore Existing Situation lead to the Spread
518 Fake news that are acquired from MAFINDO*
July 2015 ~ April 2018
Classification of Fake News
MASTEL (Telecommunication Society)
Indonesian Internet Service Providers Association
* MAFINDO : Independent organization aims to fight hoax and fake news
Findings & Analysis Findings
FAKE NEWS BY TOPIC
Pol : Politics ; SARA : Ethnic,Religion, Race; Sosbud :SocioCultural ; Tek:Technology;Kes:Health ; Krim:Crime;Ling:Environment;Ekon:Economy
Most Encountered Topic(s)
* Classification is based on Wardle(2017)
FAKE NEWS BY TYPE*
Findings & Analysis Findings
Type & Channel of Fake
Source : Mastel.or.id
Printed Media TV
Findings & Analysis PSTeL Analysis
What is Actually Happening There?
Since 2004 , Indonesian people are more engaged in politics, one of them is due to dire
ct voting mechanism (Tolbert, McNeal et al. 2003)
2012 marked as A turning point in Indonesians Political sphere(Lake, 2014)
Fig: Ballot Paper for 2004 Presidential Election
Rise of The Buzzer Team
“When everyone is talking about the same thing you mi
ght think that maybe it’s true, maybe there is some mer
it to it. That is where the impact lies.” ,Said Rasidi , Transpar
ency International in Indonesia’s researcher.
Source : UNESCO, WorldBank, APJII , Internet User 2017
Fig: Internet Penetration Based on Age Group
Online Censorship : An internet based c
rawling system supported by AI to fight
negative contents in Indonesia starts to
operate in 2018 (derived from EIT Law).
Not automatically censored.
Country’s Criminal Code
slander and insults, to filing a false written or oral report to authorities that could harm the
reputation of others*
The Electronic Information and Transactions (ITE)
target critics of the government*, Defamation
Anti-corruption activists, whistleblower, journalists(Safenet)
Establishment of Cyber Agency (2017)
241 40% 7
Cases Court Years Served
#1 Political related fake news are the most common topic in Indonesia’s Fake
The number is expected to rise toward next presidential election (TheJakartaPost)
#2 The role of Buzzer Team is clear in the spread of fake news
The law enforcement might have arrested people related with this issue, but
many are questioning the effectiveness of the act(Vice.com).
#3 Fabricated & False Contents are The most common Categories
These categories might be difficult to distinguish between the truth.
#2 Focus on Fake News
Existing socio-technical movements are available. These social movements
looks like independent from one another.
Source : Vice.com
#1 Integration of Independent Hoax Self-Reporting & Mitigation System
Digital Literacy Integration in School Curriculum#3
“Solutions are found through improving Indonesia’s mainstream media
credibility, internet access and digital literacy,” Tapsell* says. “The ri
se of ‘hoax news’ is thus a reflection of longer-term failures in these
areas, rather than something that can be fixed immediately or easily.”
*Ross Tapsell, an expert in Indonesian media at the Australian National University
“The government’s [current] approach is short-term as it does not en-
gage directly with the anti-hoax movement.”, Sasmito, Co-founder of
65% of 130 millions of Indonesia’s Internet users trust the news with
out doing fact-checking (MCIT).
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Oct. 30, 2019
A presentation at CPR South 2018, Maputo, Mozambique